View Full Version : Makrani-Siddi mtDNA study

04-20-2017, 07:33 PM
Genetic characterization of the Makrani people of Pakistan from mitochondrial DNA control-region data (https://www.academia.edu/9105102/Genetic_characterization_of_the_Makrani_people_of_ Pakistan_from_mitochondrial_DNA_control-region_data?auto=download)



Results: In this study, we report the population data of 100 samples from Makrani population for the entire mtDNA control region (spanning positions 16,024–16,569 and 1–576). Seventy different haplotypes (of which 54 unique haplotypes) were observed in this sample size with 149 variable sites in the control region. The detected mtDNA haplotypes, their respective frequencies and haplogroups are presented in Table2. The Makrani population showed mtDNA genetic diversity (0.9688) random match probability (0.0408) and power of discrimination (0.9592) as given in Table 3. We compared the population genetics parameters of the Makrani population with the other studied ethnic groups of Pakistan and observed that the Makrani population presented a moderate number of unique haplotypes (54) consistent with two other Pakistani ethnic groups including Saraiki (58) and Pakistani-Karachi (63). However, the highest number of unique haplotypes (128) has been reported previously in Pathans [3] as shown in (Table 4), but this was based on a larger sample size (n = 230). Furthermore, the high number of unique haplotypes in the Pathan population is also reflected in high genetic diversity (0.993) among different ethnic groups of Pakistan, closely followed by Hazara (0.992), Sindhi (0.992) and Pakistani-Karachi (0.992) (Table4)in comparison to Makrani population (0.968) investigated during present study. Two haplotypes observed in the Makrani, both carrying a characteristic combination of two mutations in HVS-II (154C and 194T) could not be confidently assigned to a known (sub) haplogroup, although the presence of both 16223T and 489C indicate membership within macrohaplogroup M; this lineage was therefore tentatively assigned to haplogroup ‘‘M-154-194’’. Future studies, performing complete mitogenome sequencing, will be needed to elucidate the precise phylogenetic position of this lineage.

Other remarks: By comparing with the revised Cambridge Reference Sequence (rCRS) [22], transitions (90.77%), transversions (7.02%), insertions (0.97%) and deletions (0.2%) were observed in this population. Out of the 70 haplotypes, 54 unique haplotypes were observed while 16 haplotypes were shared by more than one individual (Table 2). The most frequent haplogroup observed in this population is L2a1b1a (a southeastern African haplogroup found mostly in Mozambique) carried by 11% of the sample (Fig. 2), in agreement with a previously published study [23] showing a high degree of genetic association with southeast Africans. In our population data, we observed African haplogroups (28%) including L2a1b1a (11%), L2a1 (5%), L3d1a1a (3%), L2ba1 (1%), L3f1b4a (1%), L4b2a2 (1%), M1a1 (1%), L0a1b (1%), L1c2a1a (1%), L4b2b1 (1%), L2a1a2 (1%), L0a2a2 (1%); West Eurasian haplogroups (26%) including U7a (6%), T1a8a (5%), U5b (2%), J1d (2%), HV2a (2%), T1a7 (1%), U4c1 (1%), U4‘9(1%), J1b1b (1%), W6 (1%), T2 (1%), T1a103 (1%), J2a2 (1%), J1b1a1 (1%); South Asian haplogroups (24%) including R2 (6.0%), R30a1b (5%), M3 (3%), M4 (3%), U2b1 (3%), M3a1 (1%) M6a1b (1%), M18a (1%), U2a (1%); and one East Asian haplogroup (2%), F3b1. The remaining 20% mtDNA of the sampled individuals could not be confidently assigned a continental origin.

Accession numbers: The mtDNA control-region sequences herein reported are available in GenBank under accession numbers KM358171–KM358269.

04-20-2017, 08:05 PM
I always wondered about Zarsanga's mtdna, someone should test her and the makranis from KPK area.
They should have my Mtdna there for sure.

04-20-2017, 08:42 PM
I always wondered about Zarsanga's mtdna, someone should test her and the makranis from KPK area.
They should have my Mtdna there for sure.

Didn't know she's Makrani

04-20-2017, 09:36 PM
Didn't know she's Makrani

As far as I know, she belongs to a Siddhi-makrani group, regardless she is culturally Pashtun and has kickarse voice.

04-20-2017, 11:28 PM
Autosomally how much African(Bantu) DNA do Siddis have? Are they predominately Bantu with a minor S.Asian component or are they 50/50?

04-21-2017, 12:12 AM
Didn't know she's Makrani

As far as I know, she belongs to a Siddhi-makrani group, regardless she is culturally Pashtun and has kickarse voice.

Evidently, in this interview she says her father was "Bhittani":

Wikipedia says her tribe is Kutanree; but there isn't information on that. However, 2 major newspapers state:

Born in 1946 at Zafar Mamakhel, a small village in Lakki Marwat district, she belongs to a nomadic tribe that used to move to Afghanistan in summers and stay in Lakki Marwat during the winter. She settled in Pirpai town in Nowshera.

Born in Zafar Mamakhel area of Laki Marwat, Zarsanga belonged to a nomadic tribe called Kutanree which travels between Dera Ismail Khan and Peshawar. She married a fellow nomad, Malla Jan, and has four children.

Lakki Marwat and Bannu have lots of information regarding the tribes/people:

On Bhittani of the region:

The Bettani proper in Pakistan reside in Frontier Region Tank, a territory that is a buffer zone separating Tank District from the Mahsud tribe of South Waziristan Region in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. The Bettani tribe live in the Frontier Region of District Tank and in FR Lakki Marwat of Khyber Pakhtunkwa, Pakistan. Jandola is considered the capital of the Bettani tribes in FR Tank. The circumstances of its separation from the main body of the tribe are completely unknown. Perhaps this was the former location of the tribe. In the early 1930s three villages in the Ghazni area were reported to be inhabited by Betani, and in addition 100 nomadic Betani families migrated between eastern Afghanistan and the Derajat (Robinson, p. 158)

On people of Lakki Marwat:

Some important Khels are:

[*=1]Musa Khel; with sections like the Takhti Khel, Januzai and Passani.

[*=1]Achu Khel; with sections like Begukhel, Isak Khel, Ahmed Khel etc.

[*=1]Khuda Khel; with sections like Sikander Khel, Mamakhel etc.

[*=1]Bahram/Baram; with sections like Umer Khan Khel, Totazai, and with sub section like Tatezai/Tajazai, Dalkhozai, Landiva, Ghazni Khel and Tappi.

Besides these, Abad Khel Syeds, Machin Khel, Sarhang Niazis and Mula Khels (tracing their descent form Hazrat Bilal RA) are scattered among the Marwat tribes, and for all practical purposes, are considered as Marwats.

The following clans are also commonly known as Marwats and live in the Marwat tract; and though not Marwat by origin, have by association and inter-marriage become so assimilated as to be practically identical with them.

Mula Khels descended from Hazrat Bilal, a Habshi saint. They have houses in every village in Marwat, and also two villages of their own.

Michan Khels who are Sarhang Niazis descended from a saint called Michan. His descendants are considered holy and to possess charms against snake bites. Haji Murid, a descendant of Michan, is a saint of great repute, and his tomb is on the bank of the Kurram near Lakki. Michan himself is buried at Wana in the Waziri hills..

Mirza Khels of Wali who are really Khataks and Utman Khels.

Of the Jats in Bannu proper, whether strictly or only popularly so called, the greater part are said to have migrated from the east of the Indus, chiefly from Mianwali and from Pindigheb in Rawalpindi, early in the present century, having been driven from their homes in those parts by famine. They are most numerous in the neighbourhood of Ghoriwal and Shamshi Khel. The majority of them are tenants cultivating for Bannuchi landholders. There are a few in every village. They have now identified themselves in all respects with the Bannuchis, and are keen partisans of the chief (malik) under whose protection they may be living. The same remarks hold good with regard to the Marwat tahsil. It is only, however, in the more fertile parts of this tahsil that Jats are found. In Isakhel it is stated that several clans of Jats settled in the country together with the Niazais, who gave them the lands they now occupy. In Mianwali, Jats are found scattered throughout the country, but especially in the kachi.

Mula Khels:


Kochi woman in Panjshir:




Conclusions Based on Extensive Internet Detective Work:

My running theory is that Kutanree nomadic tribe is a subset of Mula Khels (who incidently claim descent from an Abbasynian), which in turn is probably Kochi/Pawindah (Ghilji) tribe that attached itself to the Bhittani (the 100 "nomadic Bettani families" mentioned). Given where she was born and the migration pattern, I think it makes sense. It is also quite possible that the Kutanree and/or Mula Khels are Jatts that were Pashtunified very early on. Either way, I am going to assume the Hazrat Bilal claim is because the Mula Khels are darker-skinned; Zarsanga doesn't look very much different from the Kochi/Kuchi woman in the picture; ergo Kutanree/Mula Khelis are Kochi that are absorbed into Bhittani-dominated area.

tl;dr: It is unlikely she is Makrani. It is much too far north, and I don't know of anyone claiming African, Sheedi, Makrani, or frankly even Baloch descent in Lakki Marwart.

04-21-2017, 12:23 AM
Autosomally how much African(Bantu) DNA do Siddis have? Are they predominately Bantu with a minor S.Asian component or are they 50/50?

That is a good question. I'll see if I can find any samples. It's very hard to find admixture/autosomal studies for certain populaces in Pakistan. You'll find mtDNA studies for many specific groups/regions, but very few ethnicity-specific admixture studies.
The issue is futher conflated by the fact "Makrani" can mean Makrani-Baloch or Makrani-Sheedi. I've been trying to find autosomal studies for Saraiki/South Punjab, so far all I've found is an mtDNA study behind a paywall. I've requested the authors to hook me up with a copy. If they do, I'll ask if they know anyone with autosomal studies for various groups, including the Makrani-Sheedi.

Just based on the geopgraphical distribution of the population and the fact that Sheedis had a dynasty (see below), I am going to assume there is a wide range in the admixture profile.

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/40/Nawab_Sidi_Ibrahim_Mohammad_Yakut_Khan_II_of_Sachi n_1833_-1873.jpg


04-21-2017, 01:49 AM
In the interview she says that she never saw her mom or dad. They are from Lakki Marwat, with her father Bhittani, and mom from Gul Imaam. Very sad how Pashtun singers unlike Western singers live in such poverty....

04-21-2017, 09:28 PM
Autosomally how much African(Bantu) DNA do Siddis have? Are they predominately Bantu with a minor S.Asian component or are they 50/50?

That depends on what type of Siddis you mean. The ones in the Makran coast of Balochistan are mixed of course, but the Siddi of Southern India along Gujarat, the Konkan and the Carnatic are ofcourse very pure, and are probably 100% Bantu (judging by phenotype because I don't think there's any study on them).



Also, Siddis (or Africans for that matter in the Indian subcontinent) had states like Janjira as well as one mentioned by Khanabadoshi of their own.


Siddis also served as great military leaders and ministers in the Delhi Sultanate, the Deccan sultanes of Southern India, and even as naval forces for the Mughal and Maratha empire as well as other local rulers. Habshis (probably not actually Abyssinian slaves but rather Bantu) also gained power in Bengal Sultanate where they ruled for couple years.