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authun
08-12-2013, 10:42 AM
Moving metals II: provenancing Scandinavian Bronze Age artefacts by lead isotope and elemental analyses

Johan Ling et al.

The first part of this research published previously proved without doubt that the metals dated to the Nordic Bronze Age found in Sweden were not smelted from the local copper ores. In this second part we present a detailed interpretation of these analytical data with the aim to identify the ore sources from which these metals originated. The interpretation of lead isotope and chemical data of 71 Swedish Bronze Age metals is based on the direct comparisons between the lead isotope data and geochemistry of ore deposits that are known to have produced copper in the Bronze Age. The presented interpretations of chemical and lead isotope analyses of Swedish metals dated to the Nordic Bronze Age are surprising and bring some information not known from previous work. Apart from a steady supply of copper from the Alpine ores in the North Tyrol, the main sources of copper seem to be ores from the Iberian Peninsula and Sardinia. Thus from the results presented here a new complex picture emerges of possible connectivities and flows in the Bronze Age between Scandinavia and Europe .

Link (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0305440313002689)

Jean M
08-12-2013, 11:05 AM
I had mentioned this paper in the thread on the origin of R1b-DF27, but it merits its own thread. I recall you pointing out to me the project from which these results spring.

The results confirm the idea that copper was traded into Scandinavia in return perhaps for amber. These long-distance Bronze Age trade routes open up the possibility of movement of at least a few people.

authun
08-12-2013, 11:48 AM
The results confirm the idea that copper was traded into Scandinavia in return perhaps for amber. These long-distance Bronze Age trade routes open up the possibility of movement of at least a few people.

Almost certainly for amber (and furs) I'd say. See Amber Sources and Trade in the Prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula (http://www.academia.edu/1877438/Amber_Sources_and_Trade_in_the_Prehistory_of_the_I berian_Peninsula)

I remember during excavations for the lost city of Rungholt, a three legged Minoan pot was found in a bronze age context. The trade links extended over long distances.

Jean M
08-12-2013, 01:32 PM
Thanks for the link. Very helpful.

GoldenHind
08-12-2013, 05:33 PM
Almost certainly for amber (and furs) I'd say. See Amber Sources and Trade in the Prehistory of the Iberian Peninsula (http://www.academia.edu/1877438/Amber_Sources_and_Trade_in_the_Prehistory_of_the_I berian_Peninsula)

I remember during excavations for the lost city of Rungholt, a three legged Minoan pot was found in a bronze age context. The trade links extended over long distances.

What about walrus ivory? I read a book recently which claimed that the ivory from walruses was in such demand for trading that walruses were virtually wiped out in the north of Britain at a very early date.

authun
08-12-2013, 10:19 PM
What about walrus ivory?

Ivory was traded certainly. African elephant ivory was found in Hallstatt, as was amber, as seen with the choker necklace. The South Cave sword cache in East Yorks also included indian elephant ivory and white coral. i just don't know any walrus ivory finds from these early dates. It was certainly a commodity by the time of Iceland and Greenland.


610

You might find this article on ivory working (http://projekter.au.dk/en/entrepot/ivory-working-and-flows-of-raw-materials-artefactual-and-isotopic-studies/) of interest.

Hallstatt is a good example of early trade. Salt has been mined in the area for 7000 years and judging by the 6000 graves discovered so far, only 1500 of which have been excavated, there were wealthy individuals, but no princes or kings. Salt was mined and hams were cured and exported. The salt mine sgafts, the gravefield, the settlement and the meat processing industries all took place in a high and fairly inaccessible valley high above Hallstatt. Yet amber and ivory found its way there.

Hallstatt (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/7/7c/%C3%9Cbersicht_zu_den_Fundstellen_in_Hallstatt_und _im_Hallst%C3%A4tter_Salzbergtal.jpg)