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kakiasumi
11-18-2017, 03:25 AM
History of Khowar language

Many historians have named Khowar or the language of Chitral as an Indo-Aryan or Dard language while some make its link with Greek, Chinese etc. All of that is just imaginary. The important thing is reality and we ignore that giving not attention to the writings of our own senior historians like Mirza Ghufran and the proofs that we have. The visitors and tourists who have visited the area though have made their effort but as they do not know the base and can not even pronounce the words not seem to be correct in their guess. I put before you the history of Khowar and hope that you will enjoy and give priority to it.

The Turks emerged from the area now called Mongolia and from the Altai Mountain range in the sixth and seventh centuries. They started migrating towards west and then divided into branches. These Turks and The Tartars who are also basically Turks started also getting into Chitral valley and then occupied the valley from a man eating tribe called Pisacha. These families merged with each others and with other settlers and the first community was formed in the Torkhow valley then they gradually got distributed to other valleys of the region. Islam came to the region in 10th century and the attacking Arab army named these people as Turkomans. Also the Indian army in the reign of Akbar in 16th century while chasing the Yousafzais came up to the valley and returned saying beyond this is the area of the Amir of Kashghar. Chitrali people are by nature strongly democratic in social system which is though affected with the passage of time. They respect their elders and act on one voice. Their living and music also resemble to the anciant Turkic communities.

Khowar is a language having words from the Sanskrit language of Aryans, Persian, Hindi and Turkish but the root of Khowar is from Turkish and Tartar language which have one base. The importance of Turkish language is that its base never changes and is in its original form . Many such Turkish words are also in use in Khowar language which only exist in the historic books of the Turks and they themselves not use today. Some of the verbs which are in use in Turkish/Tartar and Khowar language with a slight difference are shown as under.

Turkish = Khowar =Meaning
almak = alik = to take
gelmek = gik = to come
soymak = soyik =to rob, to wipe
korumak = korik =to care, to do
yemek = jhibik =to eat
getirmek = angik =to bring
dolmak =dol korik =to fill
donmek = dondik =to return
durmak = dorik =to stop, to stand
gormek = goreik = to look
kapamak =qap korik = to put cover on
chakmak = ctak'heik =to fix , to nail
dovmek = dik =to beat
dushunmek =dunik =to think
sechmek =sachik =to match/ choose
uyumak =oreik =to sleep
sapitmak =sap'heik =to go crazy
koshmak =kosik = to run/ walk
patmak =phat bik =to burst
pishirmek =pacheik =to cook
bitmek = bik =to end/ to
become
chekmek = ztingeik to pull
gezmek =gizteik to walk/ wander

Many words are there common between these languages, those all can not be
discussed and described here. So of the words that are common some are as
under;

Turkish =Khowar =Meaning
Dada, Tata =Dada, Tat =elder, father (
this tata is the word that was then used as the name of the Turkish tribe
Tartar)
anna, nana =nan =mother
abchi =bechi =aunt
jhilaw = jhilaw = rein
yaragh =yaragh =weapon
chojuk =tsitseq = children
kay = kay = lady sister
kim =khi =who
tovuk =toroq(kahak) =hen
kuluchkay = klok(kahak) = hen on eggs
pilich = kuluchi =chicken
huzur =huzur =rest/comfort
zevkli =zovalu =delicious
toghan =taighun =falcon
bol =bol = a lot
tumsek =thumchaq =amound/swelling
boru =belu = pipe
dovul =dol = drum
tav = tav =bread pan
turp =thrup =raddish
zil =zil = high esteem
timur =chumur = iron
buz =yoz =ice
budala =budalak =fool/naughty
de =di =also
khuy =khuy =temper
budur =muduri =dwarf
qabus =khapusi =nightmare

As far as Persian language is concerned it was the official language of almost all the Islamic countries from India to Turkey but then naitonalism aroused and all adopted their own languages. The State of Chitral also had Persian as its official language and also Persian has influence on Khowar being near to the Persian speaking population. But the root can never be changed.

There is an old Khowar saying about languages
that; Farsi shirin, Turki hunar, Khowar beh na bathar( Persian is sweet, Turkish
is an art, Khowar is neither better nor bad ).

Mohammad Ilyas(5830543)
House No 414,
st.27 Sector D-4,
Phase-1, Hayatabad,
Peshawar.

poi
11-19-2017, 05:23 AM
History of Khowar language

Many historians have named Khowar or the language of Chitral as an Indo-Aryan or Dard language while some make its link with Greek, Chinese etc. All of that is just imaginary. The important thing is reality and we ignore that giving not attention to the writings of our own senior historians like Mirza Ghufran and the proofs that we have. The visitors and tourists who have visited the area though have made their effort but as they do not know the base and can not even pronounce the words not seem to be correct in their guess. I put before you the history of Khowar and hope that you will enjoy and give priority to it.

The Turks emerged from the area now called Mongolia and from the Altai Mountain range in the sixth and seventh centuries. They started migrating towards west and then divided into branches. These Turks and The Tartars who are also basically Turks started also getting into Chitral valley and then occupied the valley from a man eating tribe called Pisacha. These families merged with each others and with other settlers and the first community was formed in the Torkhow valley then they gradually got distributed to other valleys of the region. Islam came to the region in 10th century and the attacking Arab army named these people as Turkomans. Also the Indian army in the reign of Akbar in 16th century while chasing the Yousafzais came up to the valley and returned saying beyond this is the area of the Amir of Kashghar. Chitrali people are by nature strongly democratic in social system which is though affected with the passage of time. They respect their elders and act on one voice. Their living and music also resemble to the anciant Turkic communities.

Khowar is a language having words from the Sanskrit language of Aryans, Persian, Hindi and Turkish but the root of Khowar is from Turkish and Tartar language which have one base. The importance of Turkish language is that its base never changes and is in its original form . Many such Turkish words are also in use in Khowar language which only exist in the historic books of the Turks and they themselves not use today. Some of the verbs which are in use in Turkish/Tartar and Khowar language with a slight difference are shown as under.

Turkish = Khowar =Meaning
almak = alik = to take
gelmek = gik = to come
soymak = soyik =to rob, to wipe
korumak = korik =to care, to do
yemek = jhibik =to eat
getirmek = angik =to bring
dolmak =dol korik =to fill
donmek = dondik =to return
durmak = dorik =to stop, to stand
gormek = goreik = to look
kapamak =qap korik = to put cover on
chakmak = ctak'heik =to fix , to nail
dovmek = dik =to beat
dushunmek =dunik =to think
sechmek =sachik =to match/ choose
uyumak =oreik =to sleep
sapitmak =sap'heik =to go crazy
koshmak =kosik = to run/ walk
patmak =phat bik =to burst
pishirmek =pacheik =to cook
bitmek = bik =to end/ to
become
chekmek = ztingeik to pull
gezmek =gizteik to walk/ wander

Many words are there common between these languages, those all can not be
discussed and described here. So of the words that are common some are as
under;

Turkish =Khowar =Meaning
Dada, Tata =Dada, Tat =elder, father (
this tata is the word that was then used as the name of the Turkish tribe
Tartar)
anna, nana =nan =mother
abchi =bechi =aunt
jhilaw = jhilaw = rein
yaragh =yaragh =weapon
chojuk =tsitseq = children
kay = kay = lady sister
kim =khi =who
tovuk =toroq(kahak) =hen
kuluchkay = klok(kahak) = hen on eggs
pilich = kuluchi =chicken
huzur =huzur =rest/comfort
zevkli =zovalu =delicious
toghan =taighun =falcon
bol =bol = a lot
tumsek =thumchaq =amound/swelling
boru =belu = pipe
dovul =dol = drum
tav = tav =bread pan
turp =thrup =raddish
zil =zil = high esteem
timur =chumur = iron
buz =yoz =ice
budala =budalak =fool/naughty
de =di =also
khuy =khuy =temper
budur =muduri =dwarf
qabus =khapusi =nightmare

As far as Persian language is concerned it was the official language of almost all the Islamic countries from India to Turkey but then naitonalism aroused and all adopted their own languages. The State of Chitral also had Persian as its official language and also Persian has influence on Khowar being near to the Persian speaking population. But the root can never be changed.

There is an old Khowar saying about languages
that; Farsi shirin, Turki hunar, Khowar beh na bathar( Persian is sweet, Turkish
is an art, Khowar is neither better nor bad ).

Mohammad Ilyas(5830543)
House No 414,
st.27 Sector D-4,
Phase-1, Hayatabad,
Peshawar.

Very interesting. Thanks for sharing. Are there linguists and historians trying to get this mainstream?

pegasus
11-19-2017, 06:53 AM
History of Khowar language

Many historians have named Khowar or the language of Chitral as an Indo-Aryan or Dard language while some make its link with Greek, Chinese etc. All of that is just imaginary. The important thing is reality and we ignore that giving not attention to the writings of our own senior historians like Mirza Ghufran and the proofs that we have. The visitors and tourists who have visited the area though have made their effort but as they do not know the base and can not even pronounce the words not seem to be correct in their guess. I put before you the history of Khowar and hope that you will enjoy and give priority to it.

The Turks emerged from the area now called Mongolia and from the Altai Mountain range in the sixth and seventh centuries. They started migrating towards west and then divided into branches. These Turks and The Tartars who are also basically Turks started also getting into Chitral valley and then occupied the valley from a man eating tribe called Pisacha. These families merged with each others and with other settlers and the first community was formed in the Torkhow valley then they gradually got distributed to other valleys of the region. Islam came to the region in 10th century and the attacking Arab army named these people as Turkomans. Also the Indian army in the reign of Akbar in 16th century while chasing the Yousafzais came up to the valley and returned saying beyond this is the area of the Amir of Kashghar. Chitrali people are by nature strongly democratic in social system which is though affected with the passage of time. They respect their elders and act on one voice. Their living and music also resemble to the anciant Turkic communities.

Khowar is a language having words from the Sanskrit language of Aryans, Persian, Hindi and Turkish but the root of Khowar is from Turkish and Tartar language which have one base. The importance of Turkish language is that its base never changes and is in its original form . Many such Turkish words are also in use in Khowar language which only exist in the historic books of the Turks and they themselves not use today. Some of the verbs which are in use in Turkish/Tartar and Khowar language with a slight difference are shown as under.

Turkish = Khowar =Meaning
almak = alik = to take
gelmek = gik = to come
soymak = soyik =to rob, to wipe
korumak = korik =to care, to do
yemek = jhibik =to eat
getirmek = angik =to bring
dolmak =dol korik =to fill
donmek = dondik =to return
durmak = dorik =to stop, to stand
gormek = goreik = to look
kapamak =qap korik = to put cover on
chakmak = ctak'heik =to fix , to nail
dovmek = dik =to beat
dushunmek =dunik =to think
sechmek =sachik =to match/ choose
uyumak =oreik =to sleep
sapitmak =sap'heik =to go crazy
koshmak =kosik = to run/ walk
patmak =phat bik =to burst
pishirmek =pacheik =to cook
bitmek = bik =to end/ to
become
chekmek = ztingeik to pull
gezmek =gizteik to walk/ wander

Many words are there common between these languages, those all can not be
discussed and described here. So of the words that are common some are as
under;

Turkish =Khowar =Meaning
Dada, Tata =Dada, Tat =elder, father (
this tata is the word that was then used as the name of the Turkish tribe
Tartar)
anna, nana =nan =mother
abchi =bechi =aunt
jhilaw = jhilaw = rein
yaragh =yaragh =weapon
chojuk =tsitseq = children
kay = kay = lady sister
kim =khi =who
tovuk =toroq(kahak) =hen
kuluchkay = klok(kahak) = hen on eggs
pilich = kuluchi =chicken
huzur =huzur =rest/comfort
zevkli =zovalu =delicious
toghan =taighun =falcon
bol =bol = a lot
tumsek =thumchaq =amound/swelling
boru =belu = pipe
dovul =dol = drum
tav = tav =bread pan
turp =thrup =raddish
zil =zil = high esteem
timur =chumur = iron
buz =yoz =ice
budala =budalak =fool/naughty
de =di =also
khuy =khuy =temper
budur =muduri =dwarf
qabus =khapusi =nightmare

As far as Persian language is concerned it was the official language of almost all the Islamic countries from India to Turkey but then naitonalism aroused and all adopted their own languages. The State of Chitral also had Persian as its official language and also Persian has influence on Khowar being near to the Persian speaking population. But the root can never be changed.

There is an old Khowar saying about languages
that; Farsi shirin, Turki hunar, Khowar beh na bathar( Persian is sweet, Turkish
is an art, Khowar is neither better nor bad ).

Mohammad Ilyas(5830543)
House No 414,
st.27 Sector D-4,
Phase-1, Hayatabad,
Peshawar.

Khowar is Dardic , its closest to Kalash in they are both conservative sounding within Dardic branch of Indo Aryan languages. I am sure there was an inflow of Turkic peoples from Central Asia, at some point but that article is quite incorrect. Kho is most definitely NOT an Altaic language. It has many Persian nouns, as does Urdu and other regional languages but verbal structure is definitely Indo Aryan/Sanskrit derived. That article is flat out wrong.

khanabadoshi
11-20-2017, 06:11 AM
I am under the impression that Khowar is the closest living language to Sanskrit?
The gentleman who uploads the Chitrali samples for me, is also author of the Khowar-English dictionary, and that seems to be his opinion on the matter.

surbakhunWeesste
11-20-2017, 12:18 PM
I am under the impression that Khowar is the closest living language to Sanskrit?
The gentleman who uploads the Chitrali samples for me, is also author of the Khowar-English dictionary, and that seems to be his opinion on the matter.

Really? I always thought that would be Bengali for Gujarati!

khanabadoshi
11-20-2017, 12:34 PM
Really? I always thought that would be Bengali for Gujarati!

I could be totally wrong, it's just something I thought I remember hearing.


Morgenstierne noted that "Khowar, in many respects the most archaic of all modern Indian languages, retaining a great part of Sanskrit case inflexion, and retaining many words in a nearly Sanskritic form.”[8] (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khowar_language#cite_note-8):3


Morgenstierne, Georg (1974). "Languages of Nuristan and surrounding regions". In Jettmar, Karl; Edelberg, Lennart. [I]Cultures of the Hindukush: selected papers from the Hindu-Kush Cultural Conference held at Moesgård 1970. Beiträge zur Südasienforschung, Südasien-Institut Universität Heidelberg. Bd. 1. Wiesbaden: Franz Steiner. pp. 1–10.




Some Sanskrit words are as follows:
Head: Sheesh
Hair: Kesh ( Cashe)
Eye: Chakshu (a is silent)
Ear: Karan (both a 's are silent)
Nose: Nasika
Mouth : Mukh
Tooth: Dant (a is silent)
tounge: Jivha
Breast : Stn ( Chuchak is used for nipple)
Finger: Anguli
Fingernail: Nakhun
Bone: Asthee
Heart: Hridya
Blood: Lahu ?
Urine: Mutra (a is silent)
feces: Guun (in Punjabi , not Sanskrit)
Village: Gram
House: Griha (a is silent)
Door: Dwar or Duar
Sun: Surya (a is silent)
Sky: Akasha (a is silent)
Star: Sitara (a is silent)
Cloud: Megha (a is silent)
Rainbow: Inder danush
Wind: Pawan or Vayu
Stone: Pashan
Path: Path (a is silent)
Fine: Agni
Smoke: Dhuan ( in Hindi and Punjabi. N is nasal sound)
Ash: Swah (in Sanskrit? and Punjabi)
Gold: Swaran (a is silent)
Thorn: Kanta
Flower: Pushpam
Mango: Amra
Oil: Tel (or Tale)
Meat: Mans (n is nasal sound)
Fish: Matsya (a after y is silent)
Egg: Und or And
Cow: Gow
Milk: Dugdh
Dog: Kukur or Shwan
Monkey: Maka
Name: Naam
Man: Manush or Purush
Woman: Istri or Stri
Father: Pitri
Mother: Matri
Brother: Bhratri
Sister: Bgagini
Son: Putr
Daughter: Putri or Dheotr (?)
Husband: Pati
Wife: Patni or Stri
Day: Din
Night: Ratri
Week: Saptah
Year: Varsh
New: Nav
Whole: Puran
Old: Puratan
Dry: Shushk
Long: Dirgh
Hot: Tap or Tup (by touch), Greesham (for season)
Right: Dakshin
White: Shwet
Black: Krishana
Kill: Mritya or Nashta (?)
I: Aham
We :Vayam








English
Kalasha
Khowar
Nuristani
Hindi-Urdu
Pashtu


body
Che
qalip
jith
jism
badan


head
shish
kapal
she
sar
sar


hair
chawar
phur
zhu
bal
wextu


face
ru
mox
naskor
chehra
max


eye
ech
ghech
ache
akh
starga


ear
ka
kar
kor
ekkan
ghwag


nose
nast
neskar
naso
nak
poza


mouth
ashi
apak
ashi
muh
zolu


tooth
dandorik
don
duth
ekdat
ghax


tounge
jiph
ligini
dits
zaban
jiba


breast
chuchu
pap
chuk
chati
sina


belly
kuch
shkama
kutal
pet
xeta


arm/hand
baza
bazu
gotar
bazu
las


elbow
harkin
kurkun
apti
kohni
sangal


palm
pe
phan
dushpar
hatheli
tale


finger
agu
chamut
ayu
ungli
gota


fingernail
nanguzhek
dughur
nachi
naxun
nukh


leg
khur
dek
zapo
tan
xpaq


skin
post
phost
chum
jidl
sarman


bone
athi
kol
ati
hadi
aduke


heart
hia
hardi
ziri
dil
zaru


blood
lui
lei
lui
xun
wina


urine
mutra
miru
tsuio
peshab
mutiaze


feces
rich
rich
gii
puxana
dake-mutiaze


village
grom
deh
grom
gau
kale


house
dur
dur
amu
ghar
kor


roof
drami
istan
krum
chat
chath


door
dur
dowaht
du
darwaza
war


firewood
shula
dar
da
lakri
largi


broom
shashkoni
mazhini
ska
jharu
jaru


mortar
dipa
andor
aru
langri
langarei


pestle
muso
musul
wo
hathi
chetu


hammer
balka
chota
budil
hathera
satak


knife
chaku
chaku
chaku
chaqu
chaku


axe
badok
bardox
wuza
kulhara
tabar


rope
rajuk
shimeni
mina
rasi
pare


thread
sutr
sutur
pchiche
dhaga
tar


needle
suzhik
shunj
chimchich
sui
stan


cloth
chelegar
zap
pizisna
kapra
kapra


ring
angushtyer
pulungushtu
angishti
anguthi
gota


sun
suri
yor
su
suraj
nwar


moon
mastruk
mas
mos
chand
spogmai


sky
di
asman
asma
asman
asman


star
tari
istari
rushto
sitara
store


rain
piliwe
boshik
agol
baris
baran


water
ukh
ugh
o
pani
ubu


river
patisholi
sin
nao
darya
sind


cloud
minji
kot
naru
badal
waryaz


lighting
indochik
bilpak
dashpulsela
bijili
prakigi


rainbow
indru
dronhanu
indro
quzah
tal


wind
sira
gan
dimi
hawa
hawa


stone
bath
boht
wat
pathar
kane


path
pon
pon
puth
rasta
lar


sand
shigo
shughur
tsuyu
ret
shaga


fire
angar
angar
ango
ag
our


smoke
thum
kushun
dyum
dhua
luge


ash
shutik
pheru
asi
rakh
ira


mud
tuk
toq
shur
kichar
xata


dust
khatur
gihth
paras
miti
gard


gold
sue
sorum
sun
sona
zar


tree
muth
kan
kanu
daraxt
wana


leaf
pu
chan
pur
pata
pana


root
iznos
iwak
lu
jhar
jarare


thorn
chuk
zux
tai
kata
azghe


flower
gamburi
gamburi
pish
phul
gwal


fruit
mewa
mewa
miwa
phal
mewa


mango
am
am
am
am
am


banana
kela
kela
kila
kela
kela


wheat
ghum
gom
gum
gehu
ghanam


millet
ain
gras
ro
bajra
warbashi


rice
grinzh
grinj
mo
chawal
wrije


potato
alu
alu
aluk
alu
alu


eggplant
khalia
patigan
banjon
baenan
tor-batingar


groundnut
bum-pali
mum-phali
mom-phali
mun-phali
mumpali


chili
mach
mahch
murch
mirch
marchake


turmeric
zechawa
zehchawa
zarchawa
haldi
kurkaman


garlic
weshnu
wrezhnu
wezhnu
lehsan
uga


onion
kachenduk
trashtu
cheknuk
piaz
piaz


cauliflower
gobi
gobi
gulpi
gobi
gobi


tomato
patingel
patingel
patingal
tamatar
sur-batingar


oil
tel
tel
til
tel
tel


salt
lu
trup
zhukh
namak
malga


meat
mos
phushur
bete
gosht
ghwaxa


fat
me
ghap
ske
cherbi
wazda


fish
matsi
matsi
omatsa
machli
kab


chicken
kakawak
kahak
kok
murghi
charga


egg
ayukun
ayukun
puduk
anda
hu


cow
gakh
leshu
go
gae
ghwa


buffalo
gamesh
gamesh
mashigo
bhes
mexa


milk
chhir
chhir
zu
dudh
pe


horns
shin
surung
shin
sing
xkar


tail
dameri
rum
demee
dum
lake


goat
pai
pai
washi
bakri
biza


dog
shua
reni
kui
kuta
spe


snake
gokh
ai
bibimsta
saap
mar


monkey
meka
mukul
maka
bandar
bizo


mosquito
trakmangash
kagunu
tarak
machar
mashe


ant
pililak
pilili
ramikh
chiuti
mege


spider
upalak
shubinak
parkemuk
makri
jola


name
nom
nam
nom
nam
num


man
much
mosh
manshi
admi
sare


woman
istizha
kimeri
jukur
urat
xaza


child
suda
tsiq
pirmi
bacha
mashum


father
dada
tat
to
bap
plar


mother
aya
nan
nu
ma
mor


brother
baya
brar
bro
bhai
ror


sister
baba
ispisar
sus
bahen
xor


son
putr
zhao
pitr
beta
zwe


daughter
chu
zhur
jukh
beti
lur


husband
beru
mosh
mach
shohar
xawand


wife
ja
bok
shtiri
bivi
xaza


boy
purushguek
daq
midi
larka
halak


girl
shtrizhaguek
kumoru
jukh
larki
jine


day
bas
anus
gijur
din
wraz


night
rat
chhui
radur
rat
shpa


morning
adua
chhuchhi
puchkul
subah
sahar


noon
hulukuna
granish
grish
dopaher
gharma


afternoon
chakdiwio
sham
shom
sham
maxam


yesterday
dosh
dosh
dus
kal
parun


today
oja
hanun
shirakgijur
aj
nan


tomorrow
chopo
pengachui
dalke
ainda-kal
saba


week
sat-bas
hafta
agar
hafta
hafta


month
mastruk
mas
mos
mihana
miasht


year
kao
sal
si
sal
kal


old
shumberan
paranu
syuma
purana
zor


new
noa
nogh
nui
nea
nawe


good
prusht
jam
lasta
acha
xu


bad
shum
shum
digar
xarab
xarab


wet
grila
zah
zheli
bhiga
lund


dry
shushta
ChuChhu
drisht
xushk
wach


long
driga
drung
darga
lamba
ugud


short
betsak
iskurdi
moti
chota
lund


hot
tapala
pech
pech
garam
tod


cold
osh
ushak
yuz
thanda
yax


right
drach
hoski
dachin
dae
xe


left
kawri
kholi
ka
bae
gas


near
shoiuna
shoi
tevire
qarib
nizde


far
desha
duderi
badyur
dur
lare


big
gada
Lot
alr
bara
ghat


small
chutyak
tsiq
parmi
chota
warkote


heavy
anguraka
qai
gamwo
bhari
drund


light
lots
lots
luka
halka
spak


above
tara
sora
ula
upar
uchat


below
nuna
mula
viri
niche
lande


white
goirak
shpiru
kashir
sufed
spin


black
krizhna
sha
zhi
kala
tor


red
lachia
krui
za
lal
sur


one
ek
i
ew
ek
yao


two
du
ju
dui
do
dwa


three
tre
troi
tere
tin
dre


four
chao
Chor
shtewo
char
salor


five
poin
poch
puch
pach
pinza


six
sho
Chhoi
shu
che
shpag


seven
sat
sot
suth
sat
uwe


eight
asht
usht
ushth
ath
atu


nine
no
niu
nu
nao
naha


ten
dash
jush
duts
das
las


eleven
dashyega
sushi
yanits
gyara
yaolas


twelve
dashyedua
johju
dits
bara
dolas


twenty
bishi
bishir
vatsi
bis
shal


one-hundred
shor
shor
putsi
ekso
sal


who
kura
ka
katsi
kun
sok


what
kia
kiagh
kai
kya
su


where
kawa
kura
kor
kidhar
charta


when
kayo
kiawaht
koi
kab
kala


how-many
kimon
kanduri
chuk
kitne
somra


which
kure
kiwali
gajista
kensa
kam


this
ia
haya
eni
ye
da


that
se
hes
iki
wo
agha


these
emi
hamit
amni
ye
da


those
eli
het
amki
wo
agha


same
barubar
barabar
erngest
ekhi
yaoshan


whole
taza
pura
pura
mukamal
rogh


broken
chhina
Chhirdu
patingusti
tuta
mat


few
chutyak
kam
echok
thora
lag


many
bo
bo
baluk
ziada
der


all
sao
saf
tsak
sab
tol


eat
zhuk
zhibik
yu
tumkhao
xoral


bite
ashato
oyoi
atushio
katna
chichal


hungry
anora
Chuyi
io
bhukh
lagna


drink
pi
pik
pi
pina
skal


thirsty
dan
trush
opi
lagna
kedal


sleep
dudi
oreik
prush
sona
udakedal


lay
drekda
porik
chi
letna
samlastal


sit
nas
nishik
nis
baethna
kenastal


give
pra
dik
pre
dena
warkawal


burn
upweik
paleik
lush
jalana
talargi


die
anashi
brik
misi
marna
mrakedal


kill
nash
mareik
jai
marna
wajal


fly
upul
ulik
undr
urna
alwatal


walk!
kasi
kosik
esti
chalna
paidalarsha


run
adyae
deik
achu
durna
mandawahal


go
par
bik
etu
jana
talal


come
a
gik
hatsi
ana
ratlal


speak
ama
ludik
wila
bolna
wayal


heard
sanga
kara
singa
suna
awredal


see
pashi
poshik
waa
dekhna
katal


I
a
awa
uts
mae
zu


you
tu
tu
twi
tum
tu


you-(formal)
tu
tu
twi
ap
taso


he/she
asa
hes
iki
vo
hagha


we
abi
spa
imu
ham
munga


you-(plural)
abi
pisa
sho
tum
taso


they
eli
het
amki
vo
haghwi

khanabadoshi
11-20-2017, 12:41 PM
Random tidbits:




Masica claims in The Indo-Aryan Languages (p. 196) (https://books.google.com/books?id=J3RSHWePhXwC&lpg=PA196&vq=%22the%20northwest%20that%20is%20most%20conserv ative%22&pg=PA196#v=snippet&q=%22the%20northwest%20that%20is%20most%20conserva tive%22&f=false) that is generally the languages of the far northwest (such as Khowar (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khowar_language)) that are the most conservative in phonological developments. Examples:


Khowar and related languages retain the three sibilants of Sanskrit, merged in most Indo-Aryan languages.
Khowar and related languages retain clusters -st and -ṣṭ- lost in other Indo-Aryan languages (e.g. Sanskrit aṣṭā "eight" > Khowar oṣṭ but Hindi, Gujarati etc. āṭh; Sanskrit hasta "hand" -> Khowar host but Hindi, Gujarati etc. hāth
Intervocalic -t- survives in Khowar as r: Sanksrit bhrātṛ "brother" -> Khowar brār, but Hindi, Gujurati etc. bhāī.
Intervocalic -m- survives in Khowar: Sanskrit grāma "village" -> Khowar gram but Hindi gā~v, Gujurati gām.

More examples with a better-known North-Western language: Punjabi:


Punjabi conserves doubled consonants following short vowels. Sanskrit sapta "seven" > Pali/Prakrit satta > Punjabi satt but Hindi, Gujarati, etc. sāt.
Punjabi and Sindhi sometimes conserve long vowels before doubled consonants, shortened in most other Indo-Aryan languages. Sanskrit āṇḍa "egg" > Punjabi āṇḍā, but Hindi aṇḍā, Gujarati iṇḍā, etc.






More recently, through the work of a Greek NGO and local Kalasha elders seeking to preserve their oral traditions, a new Kalasha alphabet has been created. Working in close collaboration with various international researchers and linguists, Kalasha linguist Taj Khan Kalash (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Taj Khan Kalash/en-en/) organized first "Kalasha Orthography Conference"[6] (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Kalash_language/en-en/#cite_note-5) in Islamabad Pakistan. Having moved to Thessaloniki (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Thessaloniki/en-en/), Greece (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Greece/en-en/), to study linguistics in the Aristotle University (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Aristotle University/en-en/), he and the Greek NGO Mesogaia took on the task of compiling the script and creating The Alphabet Book, a primer used to teach the alphabet to the Kalasha children. In 2004 he was able to raise funds to publish first alphabet book of Kalasha language based on Roman script designed by an Australian linguist, Gregory R. Cooper. Of all the languages in the subcontinent, Kalasha is likely the most conservative, along with the nearby western Dardic language Khowar (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Khowar language/en-en/).[7] (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Kalash_language/en-en/#cite_note-6) In a few cases, Kalasha is even more conservative than Khowar, e.g. in retaining voiced aspirate consonants, which have disappeared from most other Dardic languages.






Examples of conservative features in Kalasha and Khowar are (note, NIA = New Indo-Aryan (http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=New_Indo-Aryan&action=edit&redlink=1), MIA = Middle Indo-Aryan (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Middle Indo-Aryan/en-en/), OIA = Old Indo-Aryan (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Old Indo-Aryan/en-en/)):


Preservation of intervocalic /m/ (reduced to a nasalized /w/ or /v/ in late MIA elsewhere), e.g. Kal. grom, Kho. gram "village" < OIA grāma
Non-deletion of intervocalic /t/, preserved as /l/ or /w/ in Kalasha, /r/ in Khowar (deleted in middle MIA elsewhere), e.g. Kho. brār "brother" < OIA bhrātṛ; Kal. ʃau < *ʃal, Kho. ʃor "hundred" < OIA śata
Preservation of the distinction between all three OIA sibilants (dental /s/, palatal /ś/, retroflex /ṣ/); in most of the subcontinent, these three had already merged before 200 BC (early MIA)
Preservation of sibilant + consonant, stop + /r/ clusters (lost by early MIA in most other places):

Kal. aṣṭ, Kho. oṣṭ "eight" < OIA aṣṭā; Kal. hast, Kho. host "hand" < OIA hasta; Kal. istam "bunch" < OIA stamba; Kho. istōr "pack horse" < OIA sthōra; Kho. isnār "bathed" < OIA snāta; Kal. Kho. iskow "peg" < OIA *skabha; Kho. iśper "white" < OIA śvēta; Kal. isprɛs, Kho. iśpreṣi "mother-in-law" < OIA śvaśru; Kal. piṣṭ "back" < OIA pṛṣṭha; Kho. aśrū "tear" < OIA aśru.
Kho. kren- "buy" < OIA krīṇ-; Kal. grom, Kho. grom "village" < OIA grāma; Kal. gŕä "neck" < OIA grīva; Kho. griṣp "summer" < OIA grīṣma


Preservation of /ts/ in Kalasha (reinterpreted as a single phoneme)
Direct preservation of many OIA case endings as so-called "layer 1" case endings (as opposed to newer "layer 2" case endings, typically tacked onto a layer-1 oblique case):

Nominative
Oblique (agentive?): Pl. Kal. -en, -an, Kho. -an, -an
Genitive: Kal. -as (sg.), -an (pl.); Kho. -o (sg.), -an, -ān (pl.)
Dative: Kho. -a < OIA dative -āya, elsewhere lost already in late OIA
Instrumental: Kal. -an, Kho. -en < OIA -ēna
Ablative: Kal. -ou, -ani, Kho. -ār


Preservation of more than one verbal conjugation (e.g. Kho. mār-īm "I kill" vs. bri-um "I die")
Preservation of OIA distinction between "primary" (non-past) and "secondary" (past) endings and of a past-tense "augment" in a-, both lost entirely elsewhere: Kal. pim "I drink", apis "I drank"; kārim "I do", akārim "I did"
Preservation of a verbal preterite tense (see examples above), with normal nominative/accusative marking and normal verbal agreement, as opposed to the ergative (http://dictionnaire.sensagent.leparisien.fr/Ergative/en-en/)-type past tenses with nominal-type agreement elsewhere in NIA (originally based on a participial passive construction)

surbakhunWeesste
11-20-2017, 01:19 PM
I could be totally wrong, it's just something I thought I remember hearing.

many pashto words I can't even

since you had question marks and words I remember
Blood: Rakta in sanskrit
Ash: Bhasma
Kill: Hanti
Nasta(R):destroy
Mritya: dead

kakiasumi
11-20-2017, 02:27 PM
If khowar is the closest to Sansakrat then it is really cool. May be I should learn Sansakrat as I will be easier for me. Where is Sansakrat spoken by the way?? Did Sansakrat emerged from Chitral and spread to other places later on??

khanabadoshi
11-20-2017, 02:32 PM
many pashto words I can't lulz

since you had question marks and words I remember
Blood: Rakta in sanskrit
Ash: Bhasma
Kill: Hanti
Nasta(R):destroy
Mritya: dead

It's not my list LOL. It's from a discussion between Khowar linguist and some other guy coming up with a list on the fly it seems. Maybe you can correct the Pashtu words on the list and kakiasumi can correct the Khowar? Parasar will come and school us on the Sanskrit.

khanabadoshi
11-20-2017, 02:43 PM
If khowar is the closest to Sansakrat then it is really cool. May be I should learn Sansakrat as I will be easier for me. Where is Sansakrat spoken by the way?? Did Sansakrat emerged from Chitral and spread to other places later on??

I think Kalasha and Khowar are closest in the sense that they kept more of the same "rules" as Sanskrit, not that it has the most words shared with Sanskirt. That is my understanding. I don't think Sanskirt is a first language for anyone, it is language of instruction, religious teaching. In the same way Latin is no longer spoken as a first language by anyone, but it is still taught and used.

But others will know better. This is surbakhunWeesste and Parasar's topic of knowledge.

parasar
11-20-2017, 09:56 PM
I think Kalasha and Khowar are closest in the sense that they kept more of the same "rules" as Sanskrit, not that it has the most words shared with Sanskirt. That is my understanding. I don't think Sanskirt is a first language for anyone, it is language of instruction, religious teaching. In the same way Latin is no longer spoken as a first language by anyone, but it is still taught and used.

But others will know better. This is surbakhunWeesste and Parasar's topic of knowledge.

I have yet to see good evidence that Sanskrit was ever a lingua franca or even a territorial speech.

Also Sanskrit is attested in writing very late (Ghosundi). https://www.jatland.com/home/Ghosondi

Sanskrit Text
पंक्ति १ न गाजामनेन पाराशरीपुत्रेण [paraSari-putreNa] स...ण सर्वतातेन अश्वमेघ
पंक्ति २ [जि]ना (याजिना) भगवभ्यां (भगवद्भ्यां) संकर्षण वासुदेवाभ्यां
सर्वेश्वरा [भ्यां]
पंक्ति ३ भ्यां पूजाशिलाप्राकारो नारायणवाटेका (कारित:)
Interestingly my lineage is mentioned so perhaps a distant relative!

Sanskrit may have been the court language in Ujjain once the Guptas moved there from Pataliputra, per this kavya reference:
"In the time of Sahasanka, who did not speak Sanskrit?" https://books.google.com/books?id=0K8IAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA160

surbakhunWeesste
11-21-2017, 08:10 PM
I think Kalasha and Khowar are closest in the sense that they kept more of the same "rules" as Sanskrit, not that it has the most words shared with Sanskirt. That is my understanding. I don't think Sanskirt is a first language for anyone, it is language of instruction, religious teaching. In the same way Latin is no longer spoken as a first language by anyone, but it is still taught and used.

But others will know better. This is surbakhunWeesste and Parasar's topic of knowledge.

I am just a learner, smh. One must cross reference info from scholarly sources and or from people with much practice within that subject matter-if possible and still be critical about it ;)

pegasus
11-21-2017, 08:51 PM
I think Kalasha and Khowar are closest in the sense that they kept more of the same "rules" as Sanskrit, not that it has the most words shared with Sanskirt. That is my understanding. I don't think Sanskirt is a first language for anyone, it is language of instruction, religious teaching. In the same way Latin is no longer spoken as a first language by anyone, but it is still taught and used.

But others will know better. This is surbakhunWeesste and Parasar's topic of knowledge.

Its close in both respects but more so sounds. I don't think Vedic Sanskrit was a monolith, they were probably dialects of Sanskrit, I would say the variant spoken by Dardic populations in particular Kalash and Kho is closer in it retains "Z" and have much more frictive and aspirated sounds,
other NW Indo Aryan speakers I notice often have difficulty saying Z words and turn into "J"
Zindagi , Jindagi
Zeera is Jeera
Zanan, Zanani, is Janani

pegasus
11-21-2017, 09:08 PM
I have yet to see good evidence that Sanskrit was ever a lingua franca or even a territorial speech.

Also Sanskrit is attested in writing very late (Ghosundi). https://www.jatland.com/home/Ghosondi

Sanskrit Text
पंक्ति १ न गाजामनेन पाराशरीपुत्रेण [paraSari-putreNa] स...ण सर्वतातेन अश्वमेघ
पंक्ति २ [जि]ना (याजिना) भगवभ्यां (भगवद्भ्यां) संकर्षण वासुदेवाभ्यां
सर्वेश्वरा [भ्यां]
पंक्ति ३ भ्यां पूजाशिलाप्राकारो नारायणवाटेका (कारित:)
Interestingly my lineage is mentioned so perhaps a distant relative!

Sanskrit may have been the court language in Ujjain once the Guptas moved there from Pataliputra, per this kavya reference:
"In the time of Sahasanka, who did not speak Sanskrit?" https://books.google.com/books?id=0K8IAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA160

Well for most of South Asia , I would say it would have been a administrative language, but it was definitely the lingua franca of the Gandhara region by the Iron Age. I think people view it with a modern day mindset and associate immediately with Hinduism and Buddhism , so they pin it to the Ganges region, but reality is the language itself and the cultural tool kit which diffused across the Indus -Gangetic plains stems from Gandhara. Which makes sense as all the main ancient linguists and grammaticians come from that area, in particular Panini, whose work actually influenced later European linguists.

kakiasumi
11-22-2017, 06:03 AM
KHOWAR ENGLISH DICTIONARY
by Mohammad Ismail Sloan, 152 pp., $14.95
Khowar is spoken by approximately 250,000 native speakers in Chitral, which is in the far North West corner of Pakistan. It is also spoken in parts of Gilgit, including Gupis, Ghizar and Yasin. Khowar is classed as an Indo-European language of the Dardic Group. However, "Dardic" is simply a geographical collection of Indo-European languages spoken in the Hindu Kush and Himalaya Mountains. Among them, only Kalashamun, the language of the Kalash tribe, is closely related to Khowar. Kalashamun has only 3,000 speakers.
Apart from being an Indo-European language, Khowar is vastly different from any other major language in the area. Pashto and Urdu speakers will hardly be able to understand even one word of Khowar. Khowar does have a few loan words from Farsi, such as "mez" for "table", as well as Islamic based words, such a "khagaz" meaning "paper" and "kitab" meaning "book". Khowar is believed to be an old language, and is certainly much older than Farsi or Urdu. It is believed that the modern day Chitralis are the descendants of some of the earliest Indo-European invaders of the Indian Sub-Continent. Nearly 4,000 years ago, the present day Chitralis took a wrong left turn at Jalalabad, went up the Kunar River and got stuck in the high isolated mountain valley of Chitral.
It can be easily demonstrated that Khowar is an Indo-European Language. For example, "awa asum" means "I am", "tu asus" means "you are" and "hes asur" means "he is." "Asusi" means "we are", "asumi" means "you (plu.) are" and "asuni" means "they are".
Khowar has 42 phonemes. Several of these are not found in any other language of the region. The letters /t/, /th/, /d/, /l/, /sh/, /ch/, /chh/, and /j/ all have two different forms, one retroflexed and the other dential-veolar non-retroflexed. Every Chitrali who learned the language on his mother's knee can readily distinguish these forms, whereas others can never learn them, regardless of how long they have lived in Chitral.
Among these the most interesting are the /chh/ aspirated and /ch/ non-aspirated sounds, of which the word Chitral itself is an example. This word is never pronounced correctly by outsiders. The word "chuchi" meaning "tomorrow morning" has two completely different 'ch' sounds. The first is aspirated palato-alveolar and the second is unaspirated palato-alveolar. "Chuy" meaning "night" is palato-alveolar whereas "chuy" meaning "hungry" is retroflex. "Char" meaning "a cliff" is unaspirated palato-alveolar whereas "char" meaning "a dry leaf" is unaspirated retroflex.
Perhaps due to the close proximity of China, there are six examples of tonality in Khowar. For example, "mik" (short) means "uncle" but "mik" (long) means urine. "Miko biman" means "I am going to urinate." "Mik asur" means "Uncle is here."
Khowar does not have a written form in common use. Before 1947, written communications in Chitral were in Farsi, which explains the large number of Farsi loan words. Nowadays, written communications are in Urdu. Several attempts have been made to introduce a Urdu or Roman based writing script into Khowar, but these have never gained widespread acceptance. As a result, the author developed his own Roman based writing system for the purpose of publishing this first ever dictionary of nearly 5,000 Khowar words.

poi
11-22-2017, 06:09 AM
KHOWAR ENGLISH DICTIONARY
by Mohammad Ismail Sloan, 152 pp., $14.95
Khowar is spoken by approximately 250,000 native speakers in Chitral, which is in the far North West corner of Pakistan. It is also spoken in parts of Gilgit, including Gupis, Ghizar and Yasin. Khowar is classed as an Indo-European language of the Dardic Group. However, "Dardic" is simply a geographical collection of Indo-European languages spoken in the Hindu Kush and Himalaya Mountains. Among them, only Kalashamun, the language of the Kalash tribe, is closely related to Khowar. Kalashamun has only 3,000 speakers.
Apart from being an Indo-European language, Khowar is vastly different from any other major language in the area. Pashto and Urdu speakers will hardly be able to understand even one word of Khowar. Khowar does have a few loan words from Farsi, such as "mez" for "table", as well as Islamic based words, such a "khagaz" meaning "paper" and "kitab" meaning "book". Khowar is believed to be an old language, and is certainly much older than Farsi or Urdu. It is believed that the modern day Chitralis are the descendants of some of the earliest Indo-European invaders of the Indian Sub-Continent. Nearly 4,000 years ago, the present day Chitralis took a wrong left turn at Jalalabad, went up the Kunar River and got stuck in the high isolated mountain valley of Chitral.
It can be easily demonstrated that Khowar is an Indo-European Language. For example, "awa asum" means "I am", "tu asus" means "you are" and "hes asur" means "he is." "Asusi" means "we are", "asumi" means "you (plu.) are" and "asuni" means "they are".
Khowar has 42 phonemes. Several of these are not found in any other language of the region. The letters /t/, /th/, /d/, /l/, /sh/, /ch/, /chh/, and /j/ all have two different forms, one retroflexed and the other dential-veolar non-retroflexed. Every Chitrali who learned the language on his mother's knee can readily distinguish these forms, whereas others can never learn them, regardless of how long they have lived in Chitral.
Among these the most interesting are the /chh/ aspirated and /ch/ non-aspirated sounds, of which the word Chitral itself is an example. This word is never pronounced correctly by outsiders. The word "chuchi" meaning "tomorrow morning" has two completely different 'ch' sounds. The first is aspirated palato-alveolar and the second is unaspirated palato-alveolar. "Chuy" meaning "night" is palato-alveolar whereas "chuy" meaning "hungry" is retroflex. "Char" meaning "a cliff" is unaspirated palato-alveolar whereas "char" meaning "a dry leaf" is unaspirated retroflex.
Perhaps due to the close proximity of China, there are six examples of tonality in Khowar. For example, "mik" (short) means "uncle" but "mik" (long) means urine. "Miko biman" means "I am going to urinate." "Mik asur" means "Uncle is here."
Khowar does not have a written form in common use. Before 1947, written communications in Chitral were in Farsi, which explains the large number of Farsi loan words. Nowadays, written communications are in Urdu. Several attempts have been made to introduce a Urdu or Roman based writing script into Khowar, but these have never gained widespread acceptance. As a result, the author developed his own Roman based writing system for the purpose of publishing this first ever dictionary of nearly 5,000 Khowar words.

Very informative. That bold text made me chuckle.

pegasus
11-22-2017, 11:30 PM
I am under the impression that Khowar is the closest living language to Sanskrit?
The gentleman who uploads the Chitrali samples for me, is also author of the Khowar-English dictionary, and that seems to be his opinion on the matter.

You mean Sam Sloan? Yes , he is a very intelligent guy

kakiasumi
08-01-2018, 02:04 PM
Sansakrit Elements in Khowar.

http://www.mahraka.com/pdf/sanskriticWordsInKhowar.pdf

kakiasumi
08-01-2018, 02:07 PM
Iranian Elements in Khowar

http://www.mahraka.com/pdf/iranianElementsInKhowar.pdf