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View Full Version : R-L2 in Bell Beaker East Group - Volker Heyd's Paper



R.Rocca
03-06-2018, 02:56 PM
I have received a lot of private messages asking about the societal nature of the R-L2 samples that were recently released by Olalde. Fortunately we have a very good summary of the Bell Beaker East Group by none other than Volker Heyd.

Families, Prestige Goods, Warriors & Complex Societies: Beaker Groups of the 3rd Millennium cal BC Along the Upper & Middle Danube
https://www.academia.edu/1249549/_2007_V._Heyd_Families_Prestige_Goods_Warriors_and _Complex_Societies_Beaker_Groups_of_the_3rd_Millen nium_cal_BC_along_the_Upper_and_Middle_Danube._Pro ceedings_of_the_Prehistoric_Society_73_2007_p._321-370?auto=download

Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 73, 2007, pp. 327-379

By Volker Heyd

From the Middle Copper Age in the mid-4th millennium cal BC, and throughout the whole Late Copper Age,
we observe the emergence of supra-regional, expansionistic ‘cultures’. Originating in south-east Europe, they
expanded into central and northern Europe, eventually reaching the west and the margins. Typical of these are
the Černavoda III/Boleráz cultures; then, later, the Baden sequence, along with the Globular Amphora Culture
adjacent to the northern arc of the Carpathian mountains. The Corded Ware/Single Grave Cultures, and finally
the Bell Beaker Culture, follow in a third stage from the first quarter of the 3rd millennium cal BC. The latter
expand – emerging from the Iberian Peninsula according to current research – towards the east in a fourth
stage, reaching Britain and Ireland, Central Europe, and the central Mediterranean by 2500 cal BC. It is now
common knowledge that this Bell Beaker phenomenon does not represent a homogeneous unit, but splits into
at least four supra-regional groupings. Of these, the Central European, or Bell Beaker East Group, is the focus
of this study.

The many published and well-dated assemblages along the Danube between southern Germany and western
Hungary, and also in the Czech Republic, allow us to pose questions concerning the social organisation of these
Beaker societies. Extended families, without visible hierarchies between them, are mirrored in cemeteries as the
basic social unit. The settlement pattern seems to consist of single farmsteads, often closely spaced and each
inhabited by one of these extended families. As self-sufficient, but flexibly organised and already partly
specialised economic units, they demonstrate an equal exchange of information, goods, genes, and social
values. Existing fundamental hierarchies within these families are demonstrated, however, by unequal burial
customs, in particular the inclusion of prestige objects in some graves, and by some lavishly equipped child
burials of both sexes, as well as in the portrayal of some individuals in death as hunters or warriors, buried
with archery equipment.

Bell Beaker society displays an intermediate position between ranked and stratified societies, with signs that
it was evolving towards simple chiefdoms. However, this stage of social organisation is only fully reached in
Central Europe during the second half of the Early Bronze Age, from 2000 cal BC onwards.

rms2
03-06-2018, 03:23 PM
. . . and finally the Bell Beaker Culture, follow in a third stage from the first quarter of the 3rd millennium cal BC. The latter
expand – emerging from the Iberian Peninsula according to current research – towards the east in a fourth stage, reaching Britain and Ireland, Central Europe, and the central Mediterranean by 2500 cal BC. It is now common knowledge that this Bell Beaker phenomenon does not represent a homogeneous unit, but splits into
at least four supra-regional groupings. Of these, the Central European, or Bell Beaker East Group, is the focus of this study . . .

Notice the old, outdated, pre-Olalde et al out-of-Iberia paradigm there. Now we know that Kurgan Bell Beaker did not emerge from the Iberian peninsula in any meaningful way.

Basically, there were two distinct types of Bell Beaker: 1) the early Iberian, non-Kurgan, Neolithic farmer Bell Beaker of the collective graves, and 2) the slightly later Kurgan Bell Beaker of the round single grave burial mounds.

It seems to me those four supra-regional groupings were predicated on a west-to-east expansion out of Iberia, so I wonder if they don't need to be reconsidered and possibly even renamed. One thinks of that old map from a few years ago featured in Brandt et al that showed a Bell Beaker arrow coming out of Iberia and into central Europe, where it ran straight into a Corded Ware arrow coming in the opposite direction from eastern Europe westward into central Europe.

We know now that all of Kurgan Bell Beaker is "eastern Bell Beaker", unless one wants to restrict that moniker to skeletons actually recovered in east central Europe.

I guess it's going to take awhile for the new data to find their way into the scholarship on Bell Beaker and fully root out the old paradigm.

R.Rocca
03-06-2018, 03:39 PM
Notice the old, outdated, pre-Olalde et al out-of-Iberia paradigm there. Now we know that Kurgan Bell Beaker did not emerge from the Iberian peninsula in any meaningful way.

Basically, there were two distinct types of Bell Beaker: 1) the early Iberian, non-Kurgan, Neolithic farmer Bell Beaker of the collective graves, and 2) the slightly later Kurgan Bell Beaker of the round single grave burial mounds.

It seems to me those four supra-regional groupings were predicated on a west-to-east expansion out of Iberia, so I wonder if they don't need to be reconsidered and possibly even renamed. One thinks of that old map from a few years ago featured in Brandt et al that showed a Bell Beaker arrow coming out of Iberia and into central Europe, where it ran straight into a Corded Ware arrow coming in the opposite direction from eastern Europe westward into central Europe.

We know now that all of Kurgan Bell Beaker is "eastern Bell Beaker", unless one wants to restrict that moniker to skeletons actually recovered in east central Europe.

I guess it's going to take awhile for the new data to find their way into the scholarship on Bell Beaker and fully root out the old paradigm.

I don't think Olalde has done anything to change the narrative. Bell Beaker pots are likely to have been in existence in Iberia for at least a century or two before the Steppe Bell Beaker expansion. Yes, they could have been influenced by Corded Ware and/or Vucedol (via Remedello?), but they existed nonetheless. Either way, I posted the paper because it has a lot of summary level detail about a lot of cool stuff (hamlets, weaponry, chiefs, interactions with Corded Ware and Makó-Kosihy-Caka, etc.).

rms2
03-06-2018, 09:07 PM
We disagree there. I think Olalde et al have changed the Bell Beaker paradigm. There was some doubt even about the pottery chronology, as Christian Jeunesse showed. Now there is no doubt that the Kurgan Bell Beaker people did not emerge from Iberia, move east and then back west and northwest. Now there is no need to try to force Kurgan Bell Beaker into an ill-fitting western model.

rms2
03-06-2018, 09:28 PM
We can say for sure the Kurgan Bell Beaker people did not come from Iberia. I don't think one can even say that Bell Beaker culture came from Iberia. With the possible exception of the Maritime pots, most of what makes Bell Beaker what it is did not originate in Iberia.

MitchellSince1893
03-06-2018, 11:39 PM
Families, Prestige Goods, Warriors & Complex Societies: Beaker Groups of the 3rd Millennium cal BC Along the Upper & Middle Danube
https://www.academia.edu/1249549/_20...?auto=download

I found this very interesting


The gold objects of the Bell Beaker period are the first known artefacts of this material to be found north of the Alps and in large parts of Central Europe..During the Early Copper Age of the Carpathian basin, the [practice of burying [gold] in individual graves can be seen to emerge in a relatively small geographical area in its northern/north-eastern part, and it features the use of small single artefacts, in graves belonging to one horizon of the Tiszapolgár and Bodrogkeresztúr cultures. The grave finds from Tibava and Vel’ke Raskovce in eastern Slovakia are well-known examples. Culture-historically, the occurrence of such personalised gold items clearly connects this area to the west Pontic area (Lichardus 1991), where the richest expression of this phenomenon is to be seen in the famous Varna graves. But this remains rather a discrete episode, with virtually no further golden objects being buried until the 3rd millennium cal BC when, in the Carpathian Basin and in regions to its east, small gold hair-rings and similar objects in gold and silver were deposited in individual burials. s (Fig. 10; Motzoi-Chicideanu & Olteanu 2001; Dergačev 2002). Here, the dead were invariably buried in deep pits under tumuli, lying supine with their legs contracted, and with ochre sprinkled over the body. This practice recalls aspects of the Yamnaya Culture, which clearly has its origins in the northern and northeastern Pontic steppes (in the modern Ukraine, southern Russia, and Kazachkstan). Over the last decade it has become clear that these presumably pastoral groups Rassamakin 1999, 125ff.; Kaiser 2003) migrated to the similar flatland environments of the western Pontic steppes and the central Carpathian Basin (Kalicz 1998), and recent research dates this east–west migration to the first centuries of the 3rd millennium cal BC...We do not know much about the relation of these Bell Beaker gold objects to the earlier gold objects from the Carpathian and eastern Corded Ware cultures, nor do we know where the Bell Beaker gold originated. However, these objects are already present the earliest Bell Beaker graves of the East Group

This part of Slovakia is near the Ukraine border


The name “Tiszapolgár culture” for the early Copper Age finds in the eastern Alföld (all terms according to the Hungarian chronological classification) was introduced by I. Bognár-Kutzian which wrote the two main monographs (Bognár-Kutzián 1963 and 1972). She leaned on Ferenc von Tompa who introduced the terms Tiszapolgár I and II in research, however, they are not identical to the Tiszapolgár culture today (von Tompa 1937, 44). The culture was named after locations in and around Polgár, Hajdú-Bihar Megye, with its most famous representative, the cemetery of Polgár – “Basatanya”.

Distribution
Bognár-Kutzián subdivided the Tiszapolgár culture into four regional groups in her monograph in 1972. They are distributed in east Slovakia and the Carpatho-Ukraine (Lúčky group), in north-east Hungary and the Körös river regions, here especially the Berettyó valley (Basatanya group), and the whole course of the river Tisza which is occupied by the Tiszaug-(Kisrétpart) group (at the mouth of the river Maros) and the Deszk group (further to the south. Bognár-Kutzián 1972, addendum 1). It corresponds therefore to the distribution of the preceding Tisza- (Herpály-, Csőszhalom-) culture, plus a slight expansion to the south to the disadvantage of the Vinča culture (Makkay 1991, 326). The border in the south, therefore, is located in the Banat, with locations in Serbia as well as in Romania (Oprinescu 1981). In the east, the culture can be found as far as the westernmost parts of Transylvania (Luca 1999, 32; Iercoşan 2002). The regions between the rivers Danube and Tisza are unsettled. All hilly regions to the west of the Tisza are attributed rather to the Lengyel culture today (Pávuk/Bátora 1995, 132).

The locations concentrate along lakes and rivers, of course especially at the Tizsa and its tributary streams. Locations in hilly regions are rarer (Bognár-Kutzián 1972, 160). Generally spoken, we recognize a distinct increase in the number of locations if compared to the Neolithic. This is related to the population increase due to economic progress (Kalicz 1988, 14). In the succeeding Bodrogkeresztúr culture, the number of location decreases significantly again (Pávuk/Bátora 1995, 128 f.).

Most burials are inhumations with very strict rules concerning the interment. Women were laid to rest on their left side, men on their right, in a slightly crouched position, with their head to the east;

http://www.donau-archaeologie.de/doku.php/kulturen/tiszapolgar_english_version

MitchellSince1893
03-07-2018, 12:31 AM
Reading on to the section about copper daggers found in Bell Beaker graves and similar graves


The most westerly tanged dagger of this series comes from the single burial of Bleckendorf, Lkr. AscherslebenStaßfurt (Sachsen-Anhalt) in eastern Germany (Behrens 1952). The other artefacts from this grave consist of a copper awl, a bone hammer-head pin, and a herringbone decorated beaker and fit well with the range of grave goods found in the Pontic Yamnaya graves. The orientation of the body also fits this pattern – a supine position with very tightly flexed legs tilting to the left – as does the practice of burying the deceased in a 1.7 m deep grave pit, orientated north-north-east to south-south-west, with the head facing west-south-west. The absolute dating of the Bleckendorf grave to the second half of the 27th century cal BC (KIA-162, 4080±20 BP: 2680–2560 cal BC...is also consistent with the dating of the Pontic Yamnaya Culture. The only problem in interpreting this grave in terms of a Pontic Yamnaya connection is its considerable distance from the next occurrence of true Yamnaya graves, located in the central Carpathian basin, between the Danube and Tisza rivers, and in Moldova along the Dnestr river


The fundamental changeover in weaponry, from the use of the stone axe to the use of the dagger, does not take place until the Bell Beaker period. The tanged daggers that are typical of Bell Beaker contexts reach central and north-west Europe during the mid-3rd millennium cal BC (Kuna & Matoušek 1978). The group of approximately 120 daggers of this type that are known so far from the Bell Beaker East Group replace the battle axes which had previously dominated the funerary record for a thousand years. So, when we are talking about finds of gold and amber artefacts, of mussel and snail shell ornaments, and of daggers we are dealing with very special finds belonging to our Bell Beaker East Group.

R.Rocca
03-07-2018, 01:15 AM
Reading on to the section copper daggers found in Bell Beaker graves

The burial from Bleckendorf has always been of interest, but it had a Corded Ware beaker.

MitchellSince1893
03-07-2018, 03:56 AM
In this paper the earliest Eastern Group Bell Beaker period is referred to as "A1" Looking at where A1 sites are located they seem to be near the Danube roughly between Vienna and Munich


the initial phase A1, featuring tall and narrow, monotone comb-stamp decorated Bell Beakers (Hájek 1966; Heyd 2001);


The A1 small cemetery with maritime beakers at Trieching, Lkr. Dingolfing-Landau, consists of the anthropologically determined graves of a man, a woman, and a child... This area isn't far from our oldest P312/U152 sample, RISE563 at Osterhofen-Altenmarkt


Lower Austrian Traisen river valley (Fig. 22), which probably remains a ‘Corded Ware area’ through out the whole period during which Bell Beaker pottery was used. Bell Beaker material in this area is mostly limited chronologically to the early A1 phase

It's like Eastern BB just "appeared" here out of thin air. But I'm wondering if they may be related to the Cham culture of this area as both groups may have been involved in horse dometication.

Another quote from the paper

Certainly we have such a social system of equal, independent, single farmsteads in our Bell Beaker areas (Fig. 8). Together with this a major shift in the economic base of the Late Copper Age towards stock-breeding has long been suspected, although the economy would still have been mixed, with plant cultivation increasingly centred on less demanding species (Haas et al. 2003). Further features suggesting the breeding of large animals, and in some cases a specialisation in horse keeping, have been known for some time from the Bell Beaker Csepel Group (Bökönyi 1978). The Bell Beaker people of the East Group and beyond in other Beaker regions are often interpreted as cattle breeders

And a quote from Voker Heyd's Yamnaya Groups and Tumuli west of the Black Sea http://www.persee.fr/docAsPDF/mom_2259-4884_2012_act_58_1_3493.pdf

All of these tumuli and burials demonstrate, though, that there is already a constant but perhaps low-level 4th millennium cal. B.C. steppe interaction, linking the regions of the north of the Black Sea with those of the west, and reaching deep into the Carpathian basin. This has to be acknowledged, even if these populations remain small, bounded to their steppe habitat with an economy adapted to this special environment, and are not always visible in the record. Indirect hints may help in seeing them, such as the frequent occurrence of horse bones, regarded as deriving from domesticated horses, in Hungarian Baden settlements (Bökönyi 1978; Benecke 1998), and in those of the south German Cham Culture (Matuschik 1999, p. 80-82) and the east German Bernburg Culture (Becker 1999; Benecke 1999). These occur, however, always in low numbers, perhaps not enough to maintain and regenerate a herd. Does this point us towards otherwise archaeologically hidden horsebreeders in the Carpathian basin, before the Yamnaya?

The Cham culture interacted with the GAC culture mostly in Bohemia, but there has been GAC material found in Cham sites along the Danube.
https://www.academia.edu/1516639/On_the_studies_of_the_SW_peripheries_of_the_Globul ar_Amphora_culture
And it's been suggested in the Olade et al paper that Eastern Bell Beaker had a GAC component

21970

I may be barking up the wrong tree, but I thought I would share.

R.Rocca
03-07-2018, 12:47 PM
It's like Eastern BB just "appeared" here out of thin air. But I'm wondering if they may be related to the Cham culture of this area as both groups may have been involved in horse dometication.

I think it is a good candidate for a culture the L11+ Bell Beaker males may have mixed with, but the starting date of the Cham Culture (3200/3100 BC) makes it much to old for it to have been L11+. There are other indicators that do not make it a good candidate, for example, their fortified settlements which goes against the highly mobile Bell Beaker model.

Roy Paul
03-08-2018, 03:05 AM
Hello I was hoping to get someones opinion on my Gedmatch Bell Beaker Germany results I'm Haplogroup L2>Z49>S8183>Y4355 earliest known ancestor 1650 Palatinate Rhineland Pflaz Germania Superior Thank's

Kit T289455
MDLP K11 2xOracle and OracleX4
Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Neolithic 35.16
2 WHG 27.53
3 EHG 26.08
4 Basal 8.32
5 Iran-Mesolithic 1.87
6 Amerindian 0.46
7 African 0.38
8 ASI 0.19

MitchellSince1893
03-08-2018, 04:49 AM
Hello I was hoping to get someones opinion on my Gedmatch Bell Beaker Germany results I'm Haplogroup L2>Z49>S8183>Y4355 earliest known ancestor 1650 Palatinate Rhineland Pflaz Germania Superior Thank's

Kit T289455
MDLP K11 2xOracle and OracleX4
Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Neolithic 35.16
2 WHG 27.53
3 EHG 26.08
4 Basal 8.32
5 Iran-Mesolithic 1.87
6 Amerindian 0.46
7 African 0.38
8 ASI 0.19

Not sure if you saw these posts before but Z49 might have been part of one of the Bell Beaker groups on the Rhine River, which would fit with your location.

https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?10566-U152-Specific-Discussions-from-the-New-Papers-released-10-May-2017&p=355185&viewfull=1#post355185
https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?2729-Z49-where-did-it-come-from-How-did-it-expand&p=72066&viewfull=1#post72066
https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?10566-U152-Specific-Discussions-from-the-New-Papers-released-10-May-2017/page8