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R.Rocca
09-30-2018, 03:10 PM
For many years posters, especially those of Basque ancestry, have pushed for a Basque speaking origin of P312. The total replacement of paternal Neolithic markers by Bronze Age P312 men in Indo-European speaking Britain and Ireland should have dashed the hopes of even the most fervent pushers of the Basque narrative, but alas they chose to soldier on.

While not as well publicized, Central Europe shows a similar pattern to that found in Britain and Ireland. Three dozen Bell Beaker samples from Bohemia all belong to P312+ U152+ L2. From the same area, a Hallstatt sample dated to 836-780 BC was also found to be U152+ L2+. The Romans named Bohemia (Boiohemum) after the Celtic-Gaulish speaking Boii. Bell Beaker and Middle Bronze Age Tumulus Culture (1691-1519 BC) samples from Augsburg, Germany also show U152 and L2. Once again the naming used by the Romans shows the Celtic origins of the area as it was called Augusta Vindelicorum (Augusta of the Vindelici). The Vindelici were a Gaulish speaking tribe belonging to the La Tene Culture. Here is a map of the core Hallstatt areas with triangles showing Hallstatt cart burials:

http://r1b.org/imgs/Celtic_L2_Areas.png

From Iberia, we now have the Olalde ISBA-2018 abstract which states the following:


Beginning ~2500 BCE, the arrival of individuals with steppe-related ancestry had a rapid and widespread genetic impact, with Bronze Age populations deriving ~40% of their autosomal ancestry and 100% of their Y-chromosomes from these migrants. During the later Iron Age, the first genome-wide data from ancient non-Indo-European speakers showed that they were similar to contemporaneous Indo-European speakers and derived most of their ancestry from the earlier Bronze Age substratum.

Another words, the same process of steppe introgression that occurred in Central Europe, Britain and Ireland also occurred in Iberia. However, the 60% non-steppe component that persevered in Iberia was enough to preserve the Copper Age Basque language in pockets. And finally, we have ancient genomes from Sardinia, This is from the Marcus et al abstract from ASHG 2018:


We analyzed genome-wide capture data (~1.2 millions SNPs) of 26 ancient Sardinians spanning the Neolithic, Copper Age, and Bronze Age, including individuals from Sardinia's Nuragic culture. We confirm that ancient Sardinian samples show a strong affinity to early Neolithic samples and a near complete absence of the “Steppe” ancestry associated with Bronze Age expansions on the mainland.

So in summary, areas where Celtic languages were spoken (Britain, Ireland, Bohemia and Bavaria) had 100% P312 but also very high levels of steppe ancestry. Iberia had a 100% P312 replacement but a 60% Copper Age automsomal survival which resulted in a mix of Indo-European and non-IE languages. And finally the island of Sardinia, which saw no major steppe introgression during the Bronze Age, retained its Basque-like language up until the Roman Period. It is no surprise that I2a1-M26 has a ~40% frequency in Sardinians and is only found in meaningful frequencies in modern day Basques and areas where ancient Iberian, another Basque-like language was spoken.

As the youngsters like to say: Drop the mic, I'm out B)

rms2
09-30-2018, 03:18 PM
Well said. Three early Iberian, non-Kurgan BB results from the megalithic tomb of El Sotillo in the Basque country in Spain were all I2 and lacked steppe autosomal dna (Lipson et al, 2017):

I1976 2571-2347 calBCE Y-DNA: I2 mtDNA: H3

I2473 2916-2714 calBCE Y-DNA: I2a2a mtDNA: H3

I2467 2481-2212 calBCE Y-DNA: I2a2a mtDNA: X2b

Those are in addition to what Olalde et al found.

Jean-Pierre
09-30-2018, 03:25 PM
R.Rocca, were you able to find any subclade of the 836 - 780 BC R-L2 sample from Bohemia?

R.Rocca
09-30-2018, 04:20 PM
R.Rocca, were you able to find any subclade of the 836 - 780 BC R-L2 sample from Bohemia?

L2+ FGC4183+

jdean
09-30-2018, 04:40 PM
And finally the island of Sardinia, which saw no major steppe introgression during the Bronze Age, retained its Basque-like language up until the Roman Period. It is no surprise that I2a1-M26 has a ~40% frequency in Sardinians and is only found in meaningful frequencies in modern day Basques and areas where ancient Iberian, another Basque-like language was spoken.

Agree with your main point but I don't think there's anything anywhere even slightly close to a consensus on the relationship of Basque to Iberian and ancient Sardinian ?

The wiki page on the Paleo Sardinian language (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleo-Sardinian_language) mentions a few theories people are working on and the impression I get regarding Iberian is there's not enough known about it to produce reasonable theories.

The Vasconic substratum theory (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasconic_substratum_theory) was brought up on Eurogenes today but appears to be so full of holes that nobody outside the person that proposed it will give it any consideration.

Pribislav
09-30-2018, 05:21 PM
R.Rocca, could you confirm if subclade assignements for these samples are correct (in red)?


I0805 2467-2142 BC Quedlinburg Germany BB_Central_Europe R1b1a1a2a1a2b L51>L151 (>P312>U152>PF6658?)

I2365 2465-2205 BC Budapest-Békásmegyer Hungary BB_Central_Europe R1b1a1a2a1a2b1 L51>L151>P312>U152>L2 (>L20?)

I1388 2455-2134 BC Marlens, Sur les Barmes, Haute-Savoie France BB_Southern_France R1b1a1a2a1a2b1 L51>L151>P312 (>U152>L2>Z367?)

I6774 2287-2044 BC Ditchling Road, Brighton, Sussex, England Great Britain Beaker Britain R1b1a1a2a1a2b1 L51>L151 (>P312>U152>L2>Z367>L20?)

I5750 2300-1900 BC De Tuithoorn, Oostwoud, Noord-Holland Netherlands BB_The_Netherlands R1b1a1a2a1a2b1 L51>L151>P312 (>U152>L2>Z367>L20?)

I2602 1900-1690 BC Thanet, Kent Great Britain Britain_Bronze_Age R1b1a1a2a1a2b1 L51>L151>P312 (>U152>L2?)

I2656_d 1278-979 BC Longniddry, Grainfoot, East Lothian, Scotland Great Britain Scotland_LBA R1b1a1a2a1a2b1 L51>L151>P312>U152>L2 (>DF110?)

R.Rocca
10-01-2018, 02:00 AM
Well said. Three early Iberian, non-Kurgan BB results from the megalithic tomb of El Sotillo in the Basque country in Spain were all I2 and lacked steppe autosomal dna (Lipson et al, 2017):

I1976 2571-2347 calBCE Y-DNA: I2 mtDNA: H3

I2473 2916-2714 calBCE Y-DNA: I2a2a mtDNA: H3

I2467 2481-2212 calBCE Y-DNA: I2a2a mtDNA: X2b

Those are in addition to what Olalde et al found.

Interestingly Sardinia has one of the highest concentrations of Bell Beaker material in Italy. However, the material culture (e.g. collective burials) is heavily related to Iberian Bell Beaker.

R.Rocca
10-01-2018, 02:17 AM
Agree with your main point but I don't think there's anything anywhere even slightly close to a consensus on the relationship of Basque to Iberian and ancient Sardinian ?

The wiki page on the Paleo Sardinian language (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paleo-Sardinian_language) mentions a few theories people are working on and the impression I get regarding Iberian is there's not enough known about it to produce reasonable theories.

The Vasconic substratum theory (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vasconic_substratum_theory) was brought up on Eurogenes today but appears to be so full of holes that nobody outside the person that proposed it will give it any consideration.

The research is recent, but that does not mean it is not directionally correct. Besides, this is not just about linguistics. From Chiang et al 2016:


Using this metric, we find the Basque are the most similar to Sardinia, even more so than neighboring mainland Italian populations such as Tuscany and Bergamo (Figure S6A, S6). This relationship is corroborated by identityby-descent (“IBD”) tract length sharing, where among mainland European populations, French Basque showed the highest median length of shared segments.

...

We find that Sardinia consistently showed increased sharing with the Basque populations compared to mainland Italians.

...

In contrast, sharing with other Spanish samples in our dataset was generally weaker and not significant ( |Z| < 3.5; Figure S6C), suggesting the shared drift with the Basque is not mediated through Spanish ancestry.

Romilius
10-01-2018, 05:14 AM
Everything very interesting and makes a lot of sense. My only regret is that Z36 is still missing. My personal opinion is that it arrived more recently than L2 in Italy.

jdean
10-01-2018, 09:43 AM
The research is recent, but that does not mean it is not directionally correct. Besides, this is not just about linguistics. From Chiang et al 2016:

Interesting, wonder if there's any planned Sardinian aDNA papers ?

R.Rocca
10-01-2018, 01:25 PM
Interesting, wonder if there's any planned Sardinian aDNA papers ?

I made mention of the abstract in my opening post:


We analyzed genome-wide capture data (~1.2 millions SNPs) of 26 ancient Sardinians spanning the Neolithic, Copper Age, and Bronze Age, including individuals from Sardinia's Nuragic culture.

Webb
10-01-2018, 01:35 PM
Something I found that is interesting. From Natalie M. Myres et al (EJHG, Jan. 2011), Table S4. Bouches du Rhone (at mouth): S116* was found at 32.4%. Again, I am assuming because this is Southern France, that it is mostly DF27. This area includes Marseille. An old map of Gaul, shows this area as being part of Gallia Narbonensis, and this particular area being the home of the Salyes or Salluvii.

This is from Wiki: "The hill-top oppida originally inhabited by Ligures at the time of Massilia's foundation about 600 BC, which were strung out between the fords of the Rhône and Durance and the approaches to the Alpine passes, were not bound together by any uniting force; according to Strabo the older Greeks called these people Ligyes, and their territory Ligystike. Celtic cultural encroachments from the mid-3rd century BC are revealed in the archaeological record,[3] and by the time of Strabo some authorities considered them a "mixed race" of Galli and Ligurians (hence Celtoligyes).[2]"

This stretch from Marseille to the Alps, and southern France has some of the highest concentrations of S116*, based on Table S4, outside of Spain.

Var (coastal, E of Rhone): 35.3%
Vaucluse (upstream Rhone): 29.5%
Alpes de Haute Provence: 29%
Southern France: 28.9%

jdean
10-01-2018, 02:12 PM
I made mention of the abstract in my opening post:

Note to self, pay more attention : )

Anyhow, great hopefully this'll be with us in the not too distant future.

Don't think this one got mentioned on twitter ?

Ruderico
10-01-2018, 02:18 PM
Don't think this one got mentioned on twitter ?

It did not, unfortunetly. Its presentation at ISBA was at 9AM, I suppose it was too early for most?

jdean
10-01-2018, 02:19 PM
It did not, unfortunetly. Its presentation at ISBA was at 9AM, I suppose it was too early for most?

: ))))))))

alexfritz
10-01-2018, 02:27 PM
Note to self, pay more attention : )

Anyhow, great hopefully this'll be with us in the not too distant future.

Don't think this one got mentioned on twitter ?

a glimpse of the results was already featured in the abstract
https://eventpilot.us/web/page.php?page=IntHtml&project=ASHG18&id=180122204
We confirm that ancient Sardinian samples show a strong affinity to early Neolithic samples and a near complete absence of the “Steppe” ancestry associated with Bronze Age expansions on the mainland

all the more curious for the Y and mt haplogroups though;

Ruderico
10-01-2018, 02:45 PM
: ))))))))

Hey I suppose people would rather sleep a bit longer than hearing the same BB bronze age invasion scenario for the 100th time ahah

jdean
10-01-2018, 03:18 PM
Hey I suppose people would rather sleep a bit longer than hearing the same BB bronze age invasion scenario for the 100th time ahah

Only in this case it was an invasion that didn't happen : )

R.Rocca
10-01-2018, 05:00 PM
a glimpse of the results was already featured in the abstract
https://eventpilot.us/web/page.php?page=IntHtml&project=ASHG18&id=180122204
We confirm that ancient Sardinian samples show a strong affinity to early Neolithic samples and a near complete absence of the “Steppe” ancestry associated with Bronze Age expansions on the mainland

all the more curious for the Y and mt haplogroups though;

I suspect (guess) something like a 85/15 percent split between I2a1-M26 and G2a.

alexfritz
10-01-2018, 05:07 PM
I suspect something like a 85/15 percent split between I2a1-M26 and G2a.

since sardinia was first settled in the neolithic i would expect those first settlers solely G2a but the bronze age dominant I2a from italy(remedello likes) and iberia; but always expect surprises;

Ral
10-02-2018, 08:32 AM
I just read about the Basque language.
The Basque language has some typological parallels with Eastern Eurasian languages such as the Uralic, Altaics, Yeniseic,Chukchi and the like: combination of agglutinativity and absence of a cluster of consonants at the beginning of a word.

Ral
10-02-2018, 08:32 AM
.....

Ral
10-02-2018, 09:49 AM
In addition, no grammatical gender, no prepositions in the Basque language as in the Uralic and other Eastern languages.
Basque looks very "Uralic" and "Eastern".

Ruderico
10-02-2018, 10:06 AM
In addition, no grammatical gender, no prepositions in the Basque language as in the Uralic and other Eastern languages.
Basque looks very "Uralic" and "Eastern".

That seems even more farfetched than the Basque-Caucasian theory, to be honest

Ral
10-02-2018, 10:12 AM
That seems even more farfetched than the Basque-Caucasian theory, to be honest

Basque has some typological similarities with a part of Caucasian languages, but for example, Basque consonantism is much closer to consonantism of Uralic languages than the Caucasian languages.

Ebizur
10-02-2018, 11:06 AM
I just read about the Basque language.
The Basque language has some typological parallels with Eastern Eurasian languages such as the Uralic, Altaic, Yeniseic,Chukchi and the like: combination of agglutinativity and absence of a cluster of consonants at the beginning of a word."Typological parallels" are not very significant, especially when you are comparing languages that exhibit typological features that are most common worldwide (e.g. agglutination, SOV word order, suffixing morphology, lack of word-initial consonant clusters). In fact, at least the first three of those features (agglutination, SOV word order, and suffixing morphology) are highly intercorrelated, so it is questionable to even consider them as independent features. The probability that the languages being compared share these features by random coincidence is very high.

Actually, even lack of word-initial consonant clusters may be correlated with the other typological features that I have listed. One way in which word-initial consonant clusters may form diachronically is as a result of syncope of an unstressed vowel of what was formerly a prefix, so prefixing languages may be more likely to develop word-initial consonant clusters in the first place.

Another problem with consonant clusters is that they are relatively unstable over time. Despite the fact that Korean is a predominantly agglutinative, suffixing, SOV language, it historically had some word-initial consonant clusters. These clusters have decayed over the past five centuries (probably during the 16th century in most of the Korean-speaking territory), resulting in modern Korean "tense" or "glottalized" consonants. Additional traces of the former consonant clusters (besides tensing/glottalization) can be observed only in a few words in the modern language, e.g. jopssal "foxtail millet, grain obtained from Setaria italica grass" < Middle Korean joh "Setaria italica" + Middle Korean bsɔl "raw grain, [esp.] uncooked grains of rice," hamkke "together" < Middle Korean hɔn "one" + Middle Korean bsgŭi (it is not entirely clear what this element originally meant, nor whether it was monomorphemic or a fusion of a noun followed by a case marker, but some people consider it to be related to Modern Korean kki "a meal"). That is to say, a language may change (as the Korean language appears to have changed) from lacking word-initial consonant clusters to having them to lacking them again, all in the course of a mere millennium.

Ral
10-02-2018, 11:48 AM
Actually, even lack of word-initial consonant clusters may be correlated with the other typological features that I have listed.
i know about this teoretic relations.
However, the typological closeness of languages increases the likelihood that these languages are distant relatives or developed close to each other.

R.Rocca
10-02-2018, 01:22 PM
Never mind linguistics... Basque developing near Uralic defies all sound logic.

Ral
10-02-2018, 08:58 PM
Professional linguists pay attention to this.
Basq. ate,atal ; hungar. ajto, atal ; pra-eniseyan. a(j)t-,atul - door;
Basq. ur, eniseyan ur - water;
And some other lexical paralleles.

Basq. "golde" - plough is related to latin "culto" - the same;
It turns out that the "Neolithic farmers" Basques borrowed from the Pra-latin "cattle breeders" the term for the plough. It's very strange.

Ral
10-02-2018, 08:58 PM
.....

Romilius
10-03-2018, 06:19 AM
Professional linguists pay attention to this.
Basq. ate,atal ; hungar. ajto, atal ; pra-eniseyan. a(j)t-,atul - door;
Basq. ur, eniseyan ur - water;
And some other lexical paralleles.

Basq. "golde" - plough is related to latin "culto" - the same;
It turns out that the "Neolithic farmers" Basques borrowed from the Pra-latin "cattle breeders" the term for the plough. It's very strange.

It sounds interesting. "Water" and "door", meant as a line from which you are in or out, are part of a primitive and daily vocabulary, so it makes sense that similarities between words from a daily vocabulary are important for linguists.

R.Rocca
10-03-2018, 08:09 PM
By the way, the I2a1 + G2a2 mix that would have spoken Basque like languages in Iberia survived well into the Bell Beaker period:

I6604 M G2a2a1 199505 Spain C_Iberia_CA 2127–1905 calBCE (3630±30 BP, Ua 35012) Camino de las Yeseras, Madrid
I6608 M I2a1b 114220 Spain C_Iberia_CA 2020–1768 calBCE (3555±40 BP, Ua 35022) Camino de las Yeseras, Madrid

Very similar to what happened in Northern Italy:

RISE486 M I2a1a1a 199113 Italy Remedello_CA.SG 2134-1773 calBCE (3595±55 BP, ETH-12913) Remedello di Sotto

anglesqueville
10-03-2018, 09:08 PM
Never mind linguistics... Basque developing near Uralic defies all sound logic.

No serious linguist supports any sort of connectedness between Basque and Uralic languages ( nor Yeniseian, nor Amerindian... for Annunaki I'm not sure).

ADW_1981
10-04-2018, 12:01 AM
Something I found that is interesting. From Natalie M. Myres et al (EJHG, Jan. 2011), Table S4. Bouches du Rhone (at mouth): S116* was found at 32.4%. Again, I am assuming because this is Southern France, that it is mostly DF27. This area includes Marseille. An old map of Gaul, shows this area as being part of Gallia Narbonensis, and this particular area being the home of the Salyes or Salluvii.

This is from Wiki: "The hill-top oppida originally inhabited by Ligures at the time of Massilia's foundation about 600 BC, which were strung out between the fords of the Rhône and Durance and the approaches to the Alpine passes, were not bound together by any uniting force; according to Strabo the older Greeks called these people Ligyes, and their territory Ligystike. Celtic cultural encroachments from the mid-3rd century BC are revealed in the archaeological record,[3] and by the time of Strabo some authorities considered them a "mixed race" of Galli and Ligurians (hence Celtoligyes).[2]"

This stretch from Marseille to the Alps, and southern France has some of the highest concentrations of S116*, based on Table S4, outside of Spain.

Var (coastal, E of Rhone): 35.3%
Vaucluse (upstream Rhone): 29.5%
Alpes de Haute Provence: 29%
Southern France: 28.9%

There are also a ton of Z209 (looking) haplotypes in the recent Corsican paper. Maybe not a coincidence.

R.Rocca
10-04-2018, 12:51 AM
There are also a ton of Z209 (looking) haplotypes in the recent Corsican paper. Maybe not a coincidence.

I must've missed it. Can you please provide a link?

Never mind, just remembered: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200641

ADW_1981
10-04-2018, 02:48 AM
I must've missed it. Can you please provide a link?

Never mind, just remembered: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200641

I believe I counted 9 haplotypes who were N-S cluster. Obviously not a guarantee, but a high chance to be Z209.

ADW_1981
10-04-2018, 02:50 AM
I must've missed it. Can you please provide a link?

Never mind, just remembered: https://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0200641

I believe I counted 9 haplotypes who were N-S cluster. Obviously not a guarantee, but a high chance to be Z209. Perhaps this group was among the Ligurians.

R.Rocca
11-26-2018, 03:32 AM
Bernard reported as follows:

https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?97-Genetic-Genealogy-and-Ancient-DNA-in-the-News&p=519892&viewfull=1#post519892

So we can now draw a big bunch of Xs over Britain, Spain and France. I have it on good authority that Switzerland follows the same patern (no pre-Bell Beaker R-51). Looks like the image I marked up last year still holds:

http://r1b.org/imgs/Sion_2600BC.png

Agamemnon
11-26-2018, 03:54 AM
No serious linguist supports any sort of connectedness between Basque and Uralic languages ( nor Yeniseian, nor Amerindian... for Annunaki I'm not sure).

There actually is an ongoing debate between lumpers as to whether Sumerian is "Nostratic" (or even "Eurasiatic") or "Dené-Caucasian", this even took the form of a back & forth argument between Bomhard and Bengtson in the 90s. Sure makes for some interesting literature, that's the moment when you realise linguistics can be crazier than Sci-Fi :P

R.Rocca
11-28-2018, 03:20 PM
Since folks seem to have missed the importance of the recap, I'll outline it here:

Paléogénomique des dynamiques des populations humaines sur le territoire Français entre 7000 et 2000

Posted Jool's notes from Samantha Brunel's presentation (translated by Bernard):


They have a good hundred samples from the North, Alsace and the Mediterranean coast, from the Mesolithic to the Iron Age. There is no major surprise compared to the rest of Europe. On the PCA plot, the Mesolithic are with the WHG, the early neolithics with the first farmers close to the Anatolians. Then there is a small resurgence of hunter-gatherers that moves the middle neolithics a little closer to the WHGs. At the bronze age, they have 5 samples with autosomal DNA, all in Bell Beaker archaeological context, which are very spread on the PCA. A very high sample close to the Yamnaya, a little above the Corded Ware, two samples right in the Central European Bell Beakers, a fairly low just above the Neolithic package, and one last full in the package. The most salient point was that the Y chromosomes of their 12 Bronze Age samples (all bell beaker) are all R1b, whereas there was no R1b in the Neolithic samples. Finally they have samples of the Iron Age that are collected on the PCA plot close to the Bronze Age samples. They could not determine if there is continuity with the Bronze Age, or a partial replacement by a genetically close population.

So what are we to make of this data? Here is my interpretation:

1. Obviously the big news is that they found a French Bell Beaker that plots closely with Yamnaya, more so than the Corded Ware average. One of the arguments we've seen is that somehow L51 Bell Beakers got their steppe autosomal ancestry by mating with Corded Ware females. This French sample renders that argument invalid because the math simply doesn't work.
2. We hear time and again that the Ukrainian steppe is too far to be responsible for the rise of L51 in Western Europe. One overlooked data point is that Wang 2018's still unpublished Hungarian Yamnaya samples all plot with Ukrainian Yamnaya. Therefore, it is not a stretch to think that the French Bell Beaker sample was within just a few generations removed from Hungarian Yamnaya.
3. To further that point, here is what Harrison and Heyd had to say about the western-most Yamnaya-like burial from Bleckendorf, Germany:


In this transformation, under the impact of ideas
originating in the Yamnaya culture, different processes
were taking place together, and their mutual interactions
are more complicated than one might expect. It is
obvious that cultural assimilation by indigenous people
of an ideological ‘Package’ was important; but so too
was the arrival of individual people from the steppes
and Pontic area. Their significance derives from their
social rank, and the archetype is the single burial from
Bleckendorf, Lkr. Aschersleben-Staßfurt (Saxony-Anhalt)
in Germany (Behrens 1952) (Fig. 49). We do not
know if this man journeyed farther to the west than
anyone else, yet his equipment and burial rite was
typical for the Yamnaya culture. An early tanged knife,
a copper awl, bone hammerhead pin, and a decorated
beaker accompanied the skeleton in a deep pit. The
radiocarbon determination places it around the 27th
century BC (14C: 4080±20 bp [KIA-162]; 1-Sigma:
2850–2500 BC: J. Müller 1999). The nearest parallels
are found in Moldavia at the Dnestr River and in the
Ukraine.

4. So we have a Yamnaya-like male dated to 2850–2500 BC in an area (Saxony-Anhalt) that has already produced early R1b Bell Beaker samples. The Alsatian woman, buried in full single-grave tradition of Central European Bell Beaker, dated to 2832–2476 BC, the need for a convoluted "Out-of-Iberia" migration for P312 is no longer necessary. From a genetic perspective, Olalde has already rejected the idea of Iberia as a the source for non-steppe ancestry in Central European Bell Beaker samples.

http://www.r1b.org/imgs/Bleckendorf_BB.png

Webb
11-28-2018, 04:11 PM
"They could not determine if there is continuity with the Bronze Age, or a partial replacement by a genetically close population."

This quote is interesting. If this is the case, it would support the wave or pulse theory you have pointed to before about DF27's arrival in Iberia. Some clades arriving with an early wave and others arriving in later waves.