PDA

View Full Version : RHAS's J2 news



RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:40 AM
"In human genetics, Haplogroup IJ is a human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroup. Haplogroup IJ is a descendant branch of Haplogroup F-L15 which in turn derives from the greater Haplogroup F. Descendants are Haplogroup I and Haplogroup J."
Haplogroup IJ.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_IJ

"Various episodes of population movement have affected southeast Europe, and the role of the Balkans as a longstanding gateway to Europe from the Near East is illustrated by the phylogenetic unification of Hgs I and J by the basal M429 mutation. This evidence of common ancestry suggests that ancestral IJ-M429* Y chromosomes probably entered Europe through the Balkan route sometime before the Last Glacial Maximum."
Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

"J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze Age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

"A 2004 study by Semino et al. contradicted this study, and showed that Italians in North-central regions (like Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna) had a higher concentration of J2 than their Southern counterparts. North-central had 26.9% J2, whereas Calabria (a far Southern region) had 20.0%, Sardinia had 9.7% and Sicily had 16.7%. This could be because of the ancient Etruscans, who some think originated in the Near East."
Wikipedia.org - Genetic History of Italy.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_Italy

"From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined."
Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

"The Neolithic control section shows nonsignificant results across all haplogroups, except for a significant J2 result in one test. The Phoenician-colony test results highlight only one haplogroup, J2, which consistently scores significantly in all three tests across the range of colonization sites. However, this haplogroup also scores significantly in Greek tests (as do some additional haplogroups), suggesting that the same haplogroup could have been spread by several expansions, which is unsurprising considering its frequency in the Eastern Mediterranean but implies that higher phylogenetic resolution is required for identification of Phoenician-specific signals."
Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

"The majority of the Balkan Hg J Y chromosomes belong to the J-M172 sub-Hg and range from 2% to 20%. Both its main branches, J-M410 and J-M12/M102*, were observed; although the first is scattered in different sub-clades (J-M67, J-M92 and J-DYS445-6) with distinct local patterns, the second is most represented by J-M241."
Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

"Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship. The oldest evidence of a cult of the bull can be traced back to Neolithic central Anatolia, notably at the sites of Çatalhöyük and Alaca Höyük. Bull depictions are omnipresent in Minoan frescos and ceramics in Crete. Bull-masked terracotta figurines and bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus (dating back as far as the Neolithic, the first presumed expansion of J2 from West Asia)."
The Sacred Bull.
http://aratta.wordpress.com/2012/12/02/the-sacred-bull/

"The most frequent haplogroups among the current population on Crete were: R1b3-M269 (17%), G2-P15 (11%), J2a1-DYS413 (9.0%), and J2a1h-M319 (9.0%). They identified J2a parent haplogroup J2a-M410 (Crete: 25.9%) with the first ancient residents of Crete during the Neolithic (8500 BCE – 4300 BCE) suggesting Crete was founded by a Neolithic population expansion from ancient Turkey/Anatolia."
The Minoans, DNA and all.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/04/14/the-minoans-dna-and-all/

"We reconstructed the genetic structure of the Levantines and found that a pre-Islamic expansion Levant was more genetically similar to Europeans than to Middle Easterners."
Genome-Wide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture.
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003316

"23andMe has a Y chromosome marker on its custom chip, rs34126399, which captures the spread of agriculture from the Near East to Europe. The G state at rs34126399 is found in most individuals carrying paternal haplogroup J2a, whose origin can ultimately be traced to Turkey 15,000 to 20,000 years ago."
The Origin of Farming in Europe: A View from the Y Chromosome.
http://blog.23andme.com/23andme-and-you/genetics-101/the-origin-of-farming-in-europe-a-view-from-the-y-chromosome/

"The authors found a weak – but significant – genetic signature among their samples that could not be explained by chance. Many of the samples belonged to a very specific branch of haplogroup J2, which the authors believe points back to distinct migrations by Phoenician traders from the Middle East into Europe and North Africa more than 3,000 years ago."
Ripples in the Mediterranean: Tracing the Genetic Origins of the Phoenicians.
http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/ripples-in-the-mediterranean-tracing-the-genetic-origins-of-the-phoenicians/

"R1b3 frequency was found to be higher in the northern part of the country, while the Y-chromosome haplogroups G and E3b1, J2 and I(xI1b2) frequencies were higher in the south and in the central part of the country, respectively."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794

"Bulgarian DNA profile is congruent with those described for most European populations. Almost the entire Bulgarian mtDNA pool is made up of West Eurasian lineages, with just 0.9% of Eastern Asian lineages. It is a similar picture from Y-chromosome haplogroups. About 80% of the total genetic variation in Bulgarians falls within haplogroups E-M35, I-M170, J-M172, R-M17 and R-M269, all found elsewhere in Europe."
Bulgarians.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarians

"Haplogroup J2 is most common in Southern Europe, Anatolia and the Caucasus, were it may have originated 18.000 years ago. It appears to have spread into Europe in a number of waves over the course of millennia."
23andme.com, 2013.
https://www.23andme.com/

"It has been plausibly suggested that M172 may be associated with the arrival of neolithic farmers from the Fertile Crescent who were the probable predecessors of the Indo-European society which later emerged in western Asia, a "hypothetical" society whose culture and language greatly influenced prehistoric peoples from India to Ireland."
Genetics & Anthropology in Sicily.
http://www.bestofsicily.com/genetics.htm

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:41 AM
"Haplogroups E1b1b and J in Europe are regarded as markers of movements from southeastern Europe to northwestern and therefore as a potential markers of introduced technology such as farming."
Genetic history of the British Isles.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_the_British_Isles

"A new genetic marker, M172, began to appear in southeastern Europe about 10,000 years ago and is found heavily in Greece and the Balkans region."
Exploring the Origins of Mankind through the Evidence of DNA.
http://www.fwquestclub.com/welcome_files/papers/dna.pdf

"J-M172, which occurs as frequently as J-M267 in some Middle Eastern populations, is the more prevalent in Europe."
Origin Diffusion and Differentation Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/

"The J-M67*, JM92, and J-M102 representatives reflect more distinctive origins and dispersal patterns. Whereas J-M67* and J-M92 show higher frequencies and variances in Europe (0.40 and 0.32, respectively) and in Turkey (0.32 and 0.30, respectively [Cinniog˘ lu et al. 2004]) than in the Middle East (0.17 and 0.09, respectively), J-M12(M102) shows its maximum frequency in the Balkans."
Origin Diffusion and Differentation Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1181965/

"The diversity within J2 is lower in the Middle East (0.43 ±0.11) compared with both Turkey (0.60±0.07) and the European locations (0.67±0.02)."
Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf

"The UEP diversity within J2 is lower in the Middle East compared to both Turkey and the European locations. In conclusion, the UEP diversity of J in Turkey and southern Europe does not seem to be a simple subset of that present in the area where this hapologroup first originated. This finding, also confirmed in the data by Semino et al. (2004), points to Turkey and the Aegean as a relevant source for the J diversity observed throughout Europe."
Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf

"Thus the most likely explanation is the emergence of J2f1 in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion phase also detected by Malaspina et al. (2001), and coincident with the expansion of the Greek world up to the European coast of the Black sea."
Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf

"Based on previously published data (Scozzari et al. 2001; Di Giacomo et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004; Marjanovic et al. 2005), we observed that another haplogroup, J-M12, shows a frequency distribution within Europe similar to that observed for E-V13."
Tracing past human male movements in northern/eastern Africa and western Eurasia.
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2007/03/10/molbev.msm049.full.pdf+html

"In addition to Hg J-M410, Hg G-P15 chromosomes, which are also common in Anatolia, have been implicated in the colonization and subsequent expansion of early farmers in Crete, the Aegean and Italy. Earlier studies have concluded that the J-M410 sub-clades, J-DYS445-6 and J-M67, are linked to the spread of farming in the Mediterranean Basin, with a likely origin in Anatolia. Interestingly, J-DYS445-6 and J-M92 (a sub-lineage of M67), both have expansion times between 7000 and 8000 years ago, consistent with the dating of the arrival of the first farmers to the Balkans."
Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

"Regarding Hg J-M12/M102, which is discernable from India to Europe, the M12/M102* chromosomes display a very high YSTR diversity, whereas on the other hand, the J-M241 sub-lineage has low diversity in the Balkans, indicating different demographic histories. Although Hg J-M241 shows high variance in India, its place of origin is still uncertain. As J-M241 has older expansion times in Sicily, Apulia and Turkey, it may have arrived in the Balkans from elsewhere."
Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

"The PC analysis, from the perspective of population Hg frequencies, reveals a tight cluster of populations not comprising southern Balkan and Caucasian groups. Common to this cluster are lower frequencies of Hgs, G-M201 and J-M410, and higher frequencies of Hgs, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241. Whereas the first two are primarily Middle Eastern Hgs and have been shown to be associated with the early Neolithic colonization of Crete, Italy and southern Caucasus, I-M423, E-V13 and J-M241, in spite of parallel Balkan patterns of distribution, have clearly different origins."
Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html

"The M172 marker defines a major subset of M304, which arose from the M89 lineage. It is found today in North Africa, the Middle East, and southern Europe. In southern Italy it occurs at frequencies of 20 percent, and in southern Spain, 10 percent of the population carries this marker. Both M304 and its subgroup M172 are found at a combined frequency of around 30 percent amongst Jewish individuals. The early farming successes of these lineages spawned population booms and encouraged migration throughout much of the Mediterranean world."
National Geographic - Genographic Project, 2011.
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

"We favor the emergence of J2f1 in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion phase also
detected by Malaspina et al. (2001) and coincident with the expansion of the Greek world to the European coast of the Black sea."
Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:42 AM
"J2-M172 is more prevalent in Europe where at least five different lineages can be traced—J2e*-M102, J2e1-M241, J2*-M172, J2f*-M67, and J2f1-M92 (fig. 2, Semino et al. 2004)."
High-Resolution Phylogenetic Analysis of Southeastern Europe Traces Major Episodes of Paternal Gene Flow Among Slavic Populations.
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/10/1964.full

"The finding that five major haplogroups (E3b1, I1–P37 (xM26), J2, R1a, and R1b) comprise more than 70% of SEE total genetic variation is consistent with the typical European Y chromosome gene pool."
Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf36/36_6.pdf

"According to Wiik, almost all European men belong to 11 Y-haplogroups (in alphabetical order: E3b, G, I1a, I1b1-P37, I1b2-M223, J2, N3, R1a, R1b, E3a, N2)."
Croatian genetic heritage: Y-chromosome story.
http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Croatian-genetic-heritage-Y-chromosome/21674820.html

"Y chromosome J2a lineages show an origin in the Levant and/or Central/Mediterranean Anatolia. These lineages may track the spread of the Neolithic to the Aegean and Central Mediterranean."
From Generation to Generation: The Genetics of Jewish Populations.
http://www.stanford.edu/dept/jewishstudies/teaching/jewishgenetics/RoyKingSlides.pdf

"Anthropologist Carleton S. Coon is quoted as saying The Iraqi population is without doubt much the same today as it was in Sumerian, Akkadian, Assyrian and Babylonian times. The Iraqi people are a Caucasian people. It has been found that Y-DNA Haplogroup J2 originated in northern Iraq (Ancient Assyria)."
Wikipedia.com - Archeogenetics of the Near East.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Archaeogenetics_of_the_Near_East

"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com , 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"Several authors have proposed that the Indo-European language presently spoken by Armenians arose during the Bronze Age, when Indo-European speaking tribes from the Balkans and Greece invaded Anatolia and Transcaucasia, leading to the subsequent spread of their culture and language. In this study, we have detected a number of lineages that are prominent in the Balkans (I2*, I2b*, J2b1 and J2b2) at low levels throughout Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, the latter of which also contains haplogroups commonly associated with Bronze Age Greece (ie, J2a8-M319 (4.9%), and E1b1b1-M78 and its sublineages (3.9%)). While this may suggest genetic input from early Greek or Phrygian tribes, it is also possible that these low levels of Balkan lineages arrived in Armenia at a later time, such as during one of the many incursions into the area during the reign of the Macedonian, Roman and Byzantine empires."
Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n3/full/ejhg2011192a.html

"It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

"The world`s maximum concentrations of J2a is in Crete (32% of the population). The subclade J2a4d (M319) appears to be native to Crete."
Eupedia.com 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The J2 lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations. Research note: Many people new to Genetic Genealogy think the J2 haplogroup is synonymous with having male Jewish ancestry. One should note that having a J2 haplogroup assignment does not necessarily indicate Jewish ancestry. The J2 haplogroup is far more ancient than the Jewish religion and is found in many lines with Mediterranean region ancient ancestry. Another relatively more recent mode for J2's entry into some parts of Europe from the Mediterranean areas could have been the Roman Legions and Roman settlements."
Kerchner.com - YDNA Haplogroup Descriptions & Information Links.
http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm

"In Southern Europe the haplogroup J2, as defined by the M172 marker, can reach frequencies up to 35%, making the dissection of such lineage critical for population studies."
Y chromosome J2 subtyping in an Italian sample: Population and forensic implications.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187517680800200X

"Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008)."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

"When looking at the diffusion of Haplogroup J2a, M410, westward into Europe, one aspect of this westward spread becomes quite clear. M410+ ancestors used a maritime and coastal route to move west."
M172 Blog - Pronounced Westward Maritime Diffusion of J2a (M410), 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/pronounced-westward-maritime-diffusion.html

"Dr. King also notes an interesting correlation with a subclade of Haplogroup J2, M67, and place names in the Aegean, Balkans and Italy while citing a deeper origin for subclade M67 in Northern Syria or southern Anatolia. The age and spread of M67 seems associated with proto-greek substratum in the Aegean."
M172 Blog - Neolithic Migrations in the Near East and Aegean, 2009.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/07/neolithic-migrations-in-near-east-and.html

"Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthagian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extend extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"HGs R1*xR1a1 and E3b, together with hg J2, were the three most common type along the peninsula (38%, 16% and 21%, respectively). Differently from the former two, J2 did not clearly show any pattern of differential distribution, with a range of frequency between 13% and 25%. In the PC plot, the northern samples (A and B) did tend to cluster with French and Basques, along axis 1, while C, D and E instead were together with other Mediterranean populations (Greeks and Calabrians)."
Y chromosome genetic structure in the Italian peninsula.
http://www.isfg.org/files/d11ee269e2a628310ac7d560ae567e5249b8b73b.03017898_ 231992470811.pdf

"While noting that multiple haplogroups are likely involved in the spread of languages through the middle east, Dr. King noted a correlation between very old Middle Eastern languages of uncertain origin and Haplogroup J2 while at the same time theorizing that Haplogroup J1 may have been involved in spreading Semitic languages through the region. These old languages possibly linked to J2 are known to have existed in Mesopotamia and the Northern Levant and this substratum is sometimes referred to as "Banana" languages due to their syllabic duplication."
M172 Blog - Neolithic Migrations in the Near East and Aegean, 2009.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/07/neolithic-migrations-in-near-east-and.html

"The Saluja’s have been a dynamic and mobile group of business people and professionals from North India. They hail from the region north of the river Jhelum, that divides the Jhelum & Gujrat districts, an area along the Salt mines (now in Pakistan). Historical records indicate that Alexander the Great of Macedonia came to India (326 B.C) crossing the Khyber Pass to Taxila near Rawalpindi. Alexander advanced to the northwest bank of the river Jhelum to the village of Haranpur, where allegedly the Macedonians set up their base camp prior to the battle with King Porus. It is quite conceivable that people from that area of North India particularly Haranpur, Jalalpur & surroundings to have Genes of people from Greece. In fact, DNA Analysis suggests that Saluja’s belong to the DNA Haplogroup J2b, which has its origin in Greece. J2b (M12, M314, M221, M102), and is mainly found in the Balkans, Greece, Italy, and India (possibly from Neolithic Greeks)*****J2b1 (M205) - formerly J2b1b. The Saluja family history can be traced directly to this historical melting pot."
Migration of Indians Across Continents spanning generations: A Case History of the Saluja Family.
http://www.amazon.com/Migration-Indians-Continents-spanning-generations/dp/0615469035

"Both E-V13 and J-M12 have also been used in studies seeking to find evidence of a remaining Greek presence in Afghanistan and Pakistan, going back to the time of Alexander the Great."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup E V-68.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E-V68_(Y-DNA)

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:44 AM
"Compared with western Asian populations, Indians show lower STR diversities at the haplogroup J background (Quintana-Murci et al. 2001; Nebel et al. 2002) and virtually lack J*, which seems to have higher frequencies in the Middle East and East Africa (Eu10 [Nebel et al. 2001]; Ht25 [Semino et al. 2002]) and is common also in Europe (Underhill et al. 2001b). Therefore, J2 could have been introduced to northwestern India from a western Asian source relatively recently and, subsequently, after comingling in Punjab with R1a, spread to other parts of India, perhaps associated with the spread of the Neolithic and the development of the Indus Valley civilization."
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707605412

"Although, on a general scale, we can argue for largely the same prehistoric genetic inheritance in Indian tribal and caste populations, this does not refute the existence of genetic footprints laid down by known historical events. This would include invasions by the Huns, Greeks, Kushans, Moghuls, Muslims, English, and others. The political influence of Seleucid and Bactrian dynastic Greeks over northwest India, for example, persisted for several centuries after the invasion of the army of Alexander the Great."
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707605412

"A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found high and diverse frequencies of :Haplogroup L3a (22.7%), H1* (20.5%), R1a (18.2%), G (18.2%), J2 (9.1%), R* (6.8%), R1* (2.3%), and L* (2.3%). Haplogroup L, Haplogroup H, and Haplogroup R1a are thought to have originated from prehistoric South Asia."
Wikipedia.org - Kalash People.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalash_people

"The sister clade to J2a-M410 is J2b-M12. In India and Pakistan, all J2b members comprise the J2b2-M241 derivative HG."
Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/

"Lastly, HG J2b2-M241–related microsatellite variance is higher in Uttar Pradesh near the border of Nepal. It should be noted that numerous Mesolithic sites have been observed in this region (Kennedy 2000)."
Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/

"Although the overall age of J2a Y-microsatellite variation exceeds the appearance of agriculture in the Indus Valley (~6 KYA), the current lack of informative subdivision within HG J2a in southwestern Asia prevents analysis of such potential layers, which are currently more evident in Anatolia, southeastern Europe, and the Mediterranean. In these regions, HGs J2a1b-M67(xM92) and J2a1b1-M92 have spatial and temporal characteristics consistent with the spread of early farmers and Bronze Age cultures (Di Giacomo et al. 2004)."
Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
http://repository.ias.ac.in/21283/1/308.pdf

"J2b has a quite different distribution from J2a. J2b seems to have a stronger association with the Chalcolithic cultures of Southeast Europe, and is particulary common in the Balkans, Central Europe and Italy, which is roughly the extent of the European Copper Age culture."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"J2a is also present in Egypt which was conquered by Macedonian Greeks, as well as Iran, but drops to a small frequency in India, and is there limited to the upper castes. This may reflect its presence in the ancient Indo-Aryans and its survival in the Brahmin caste, or alternatively may be the result of intermarriage between the Bactrian Greek aristocracy and high-class Hindus."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/did-haplogroup-j2a1-originate-in.html

"Haplogroup J2a-M410 is confined to upper caste Dravidian and Indo-European speakers, with little occurrence in the middle and lower castes."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/11/new-paper-on-indian-y-chromosome.html

"The J2 clade is nearly absent among Indian tribals, except among Austro-Asiatic speaking tribals (11%). Among the Austro-Asiatic tribals, the predominant J2b2 hg occurs only in the Lodha."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/11/new-paper-on-indian-y-chromosome.html

"One fourth of the Vlach people (isolated communities of Romance language speaking peoples in the Balkans) belong to J2, which, combined to the fact that they speak a language descended from latin, suggests that they could have had a greater part of Roman (italian) ancestry than other ethnic groups in the Balkans."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"Two clusters could be distinguished in the J2-M172 network, probably reflecting the STR differentiation between any of its subclades and/or its unresolved paragroup J2-M172. While the non-Aromun populations did not appear to display differences in distribution among these two clusters, the Y STR differentiation of J2-M172 chromosomes between Albanian Aromuns and the Aromun population from the Stip region in Macedonia was significant."
Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x/pdf

"Men in Spain relate to the three dominant haplogroups E1b1b1-M35, J2-M172, R1b1c-M269 as 83% in general."
Review of the article: Turuspekov Y., Sabitov Zh., Daulet B., Sadykov M., Khalidullin O. «The Kazakhstan DNA project hits first hundred Y-profiles for ethnic Kazakhs».
http://rjgg.molgen.org/index.php/RJGG/article/viewArticle/116

"The remaining two haplogroups, J2 and E3b, exhibit spotty frequencies in Russians, expected for low-frequency haplogroups. The haplogroups might have arrived to Russia alongside I1b from the Balkans, in which the two are frequent."
Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707000250

"The 1228 Russian Y chromosomes analyzed, all except 20 (1.6%) fall into seven major haplogroups (E, G, I, J, K2, N, and R1) characteristic to West Eurasian populations. Eleven samples could be classified up to the root level of haplogroups F and K, and nine samples (0.7%) fell into haplogroups C, Q, and R2 that are specific to East and South Asian populations. At a higher level of molecular resolution, only eight subclades of these major West Eurasian Y chromosome haplogroups are presented with their average frequency greater than 1%, including R1a, N3, I1b, R1b, I1a, J2, N2, and E3b. Taken together, they account for 95% of the total Russian Y chromosomal pool."
Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707000250

"The first broad studies of the variation of the patrilineal genetic system in Europe immediately revealed its marked phylogeographic differentiation. These two pioneering papers and subsequent studies have shown that western Europeans carry predominantly haplogroup R1b, whereas eastern Europeans have high frequency of R1a lineages, that southern Slavs are characterized by high frequency of I1b, whereas Scandinavia is enriched with I1a, and that haplogroups J2 and E3b are confined mainly to southern Europe."
Two Sources of the Russian Patrilineal Heritage in Their Eurasian Context.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707000250

"The J2 branch is now split into two subclades. J2a, defined by J-M410, contains 17 haplogroups, while J2b, defined by M12, M102, M221, and M314, contains seven haplogroups."
New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2336805/

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:45 AM
"A total of 81 samples from unrelated males of the Brazilian population of Săo Paulo State (Ribeirăo Preto) have been analyzed for 14 Y-SNPs (SRY1532, M213, M9, M70, M22, TAT, 92R7, M173, P25—multiplex 1; M170, M62, M172, M26 and M201—multiplex 2) using the SNaPshot™ methodology, and haplogroups frequencies were determined. European influence (mainly due to the male Portuguese settlers, but also the later arrival of Spanish and Italian) is therefore confirmed, given the fact that the most predominant European haplogroup R1b1 is also the most representative haplogroup (53.09%), followed by haplogroup J2 (with not more than 12.35%). The remaining haplogroups have made a minor contribution, between 9.88% and 1.23%, yet very significant."
Y-chromosome SNP analysis in the Brazilian population of Săo Paulo state (Ribeirăo Preto).
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1875176809001309

"These similarities suggest that South India may have been one of the contributors to the proto-Romanis. European genetic signatures (i.e., haplogroups E1b1b1a1b-V13, G2a-P15, I-M258, J2-M172 and R1-M173), on the other hand, were also detected in both groups, but at varying frequencies. The divergent European genetic signals in each collection are likely the result of differential gene flow and/or admixture with the European host populations but may also be attributed to dissimilar endogamous practices following the initial founder effect. Our data also support the notion that a number of haplogroups including G2a-P15, J2a3b-M67(xM92), I-M258 and E1b1b1-M35 were incorporated into the proto-Romani paternal lineages as migrants moved from northern India through Southwestern Asia, the Middle East and/or Anatolia into the Balkans."
Ancestral modal Y-STR haplotype shared among Romani and South Indian populations.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S037811191200563X

"Sicily has one of the highest frequencies of Haplogroup J2 (M172) in the mediterranean. J2-M172 made up 33% of the Y chromosome signatures on the island and was non-randomly distributed occurring at higher frequencies in the eastern areas of the island. This distinction was evident in the subclades, M67 and M92, which have previously been linked to Greek and proto-greek colonization. Both M67 and M92 were twice as frequent on the eastern portion of Sicily which displays more archaelogical traces from the Greek classic era. Even the paragroup of undistinguished J2 haplotypes (M172) was more than twice as frequent in Eastern Sicily."
M172 Blog - Y Chromosomes of Sicily, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/11/y-chromosomes-of-sicily.html

"Using these analyses, supporters of the demic diffusion model have proposed that families of lineages defined by certain combinations of SNPs, also known as haplogroups (namely E-M35, J-M172, F-M89 and G-M201 for the NRY and J, and T for mtDNA), represent tracers of the diffusion of farmers from the Middle East during the Neolithic. However, most of the subsequent analyses of the NRY highlighted a much more complex scenario than that originally envisaged by the same authors, who then restricted the set of putative tracers of the demic diffusion from the Middle East during the Neolithic period to only specific subclades (E-78; E-M123; J-M172 and its branches defined by the M67 and M102 mutations)."
A Comparison of Y-Chromosome Variation in Sardinia and Anatolia Is More Consistent with Cultural Rather than Demic Diffusion of Agriculture.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0010419

"In turn, two distinct haplogroups, J2a1h–M319 and J2a1b1–M92, had demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions to Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete was indicated by the presence of of V13."
Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf36/36_6.pdf

"Within India, J2a is more common among the upper castes and decreases in frequency with the cast level."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"Haplogroups R-M17, J-M172, R-M124, and L-M20 are among the most frequent Y lineages in caste groups. They are all significantly more frequent in caste than in tribal groups."
Independent Origins of Indian Caste and Tribal Paternal Lineages.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982204000405

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:46 AM
"The Neolithic component in the SEE paternal gene pool is most clearly marked by the presence of the J–M241 (more frequent in the Southern Balkans) lineage, and its expansion signals associated with Balkan microsatellite variation correlate with the Neolithic period."
Implications of the role of Southeastern Europe in the origins and diffusion of major Eurasian paternal lineages.
http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf36/36_6.pdf

"Rare names are strikingly more likely to share haplogroups than are common names. In the highest-frequency decile, only 7/15 surname pairs share a haplogroup, as opposed to 14/15 for the lowest-frequency decile (p = 0.001). In the high-frequency half of all surname pairs, 47% share a haplogroup, while in the low-frequency half the figure is 69% (p < 0.01). Furthermore, a greater proportion of the sharing observed within the high-frequency half probably occurs by chance, since it is overwhelmingly (91%) in hg R1b, the most prevalent haplogroup in the population. By contrast, in the low-frequency half, only 65% of sharing is within hg R1b, and there are examples of sharing within the rare haplogroups (R1a, G, DE, J2, and K*), which strongly suggests that the sharing is due to common ancestry."
Genetic Signatures of Coancestry within Surnames.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0960982206000650

"Some haplogroups that are rare (,10%) or absent in the controls exist at high frequencies within particular surnames: Examples are hgA1a in R, E1a in Bray, G in ‘‘Wadsworth,’’ J2 in Ketley, T in ‘‘Feakes,’’ Q* in ‘‘Mallinson,’’ R1* in ‘‘Northam,’’ and R1a in ‘‘Swindlehurst’’ (fig. 2a)."
Founders, Drift, and Infidelity: The Relationship between Y Chromosome Diversity and Patrilineal Surnames.
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/26/5/1093.full.pdf

"The first axis accounted for 43.71% of the haplogroup frequency variation and clearly separated east European populations from north Mediterranean groups. The second PC encompassed 34.60% of the observed variance and separated most of the north Balkan samples from the rest of European samples. Vector analysis demonstrates that the north Mediterranean cluster is most associated with haplogroups J-M172, E-v13 and R-M269. The east/central European cluster was most influenced by R-M17 while the north Balkan cluster associated mostly with I-P37."
Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053731

"In all likelihood, J2a1 originated before the ethnogenesis of the Greeks, and may be associated with multiple population movements from the Greek-Balkan region. However, I believe that it makes better sense to view it as a Balkan-Greek clade than a West-Asian one."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/did-haplogroup-j2a1-originate-in.html

"The higher frequency of J2 in southern Italy and Sicily compared to northern Italy, is also explained by this theory, as these regions were colonized by Greeks, whereas northern Italy was not."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/did-haplogroup-j2a1-originate-in.html

"The propagation of J2b and E V-13 correspond roughly to the ancient Greek and Roman spheres of influence."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml

"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/correlations-in-spread-of-viticulture.html

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml

"Die Forscher bewegten sich auf ihrer Suche nach Genmaterial von der libanesischen bis zur spanischen Küste und vom Küstengebiet Tunesiens bis zu dem von Italien. Ihre computergestützte Genanalyse ergab, dass viele Männer, die heute in Gebieten leben, wo sich einst Phönizier niedergelassen hatten, die typischen Gensignaturvarianten der Haplogruppe J2 besitzen. Anhand der männlichen DNA-Strukturen wiesen sie nach, dass sich weit verstreute Bevölkerungsschichten rund um das Mittelmeer die Gensignatur der Phönizier teilen."
Focus.de - Die Gene der Phönizier. (German)
http://www.focus.de/wissen/mensch/voelkerwanderung-die-gene-der-phoenizier_aid_344997.html

"Haplogroups common both to the European and Eurasian populations are present in Sicily. The most represented are R1b1c-M269 (24.58%), J2-M172 (15.25%) and E3b1a-M78 (11.44%). The co-occurrence of the Berber E3b1b-M81 (2.12%) and of the Mid-Eastern J1-M267 (3.81%) Hgs together with the presence of E3b1a1-V12, E3b1a3-V22, E3b1a4-V65 (5.5%) support the hypothesis of intrusion of North African genes."
Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2985948/

"The northern Y chromosomes on the Comoros, E-V22, E-M123, F*(xF2, GHIJK), G2a, I, J1, J2, L1, Q1a3, R1*, R1a*, R1a1 and R2 (29.7%), make up a diverse group. G2a, J1 and J2 (16.5%) are thought to have originated in the Middle East. J1-M267 has mainly spread south and west into the Arabic Peninsula, and into North and Northeast Africa, whereas J2-M172 lineages have expanded north into Europe and east into Asia."
Genetic diversity on the Comoros Islands shows early seafaring as major determinant of human biocultural evolution in the Western Indian Ocean.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3039498/

"In addition to the paragroup (J*), there are two major subclades (J1 and J2), which are defined by mutations M267 and M172, respectively. Haplogroup J lineages are found at high frequencies in the Middle East, North Africa, Europe, Central Asia, Pakistan, and India (Hammer et al. 2000, 2001; Underhill et al. 2001; Semino et al. 2002; Behar et al. 2004; Cinnioglu et al. 2004; Sengupta et al. 2006), with haplogroup J-M172 being the most common J haplogroup in Europe, while haplogroup J-M267 predominates in the Middle East, North Africa, and Ethiopia (Semino et al. 2004)."
New binary polymorphisms reshape and increase resolution of the human Y chromosomal haplogroup tree.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2336805/

"The strong western (-0.82) but weak southern (-0.37) orientation of J2 is unexpected if J2 came to Germany from the Balkans, but is consistent with a maritime mode of propagation of this haplogroup. Interestingly, the J2 frequencies in French (5-17.3%), Dutch (6.2%) and Belgian (5.0%) samples all exceed the German average (4.0%), so they are probably consistent with this interpretation. We really need to differentiate between J2a and J2b clades in this area, since J2a may hold the promise of reflecting maritime colonization (as its high frequency in coastal and island southern Europe suggests) or Roman descendants, while J2b may hold the signal of an expansion out of the Balkan area."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2008.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/04/haplogroup-correlations-in-germans.html

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:46 AM
"The majority of the Balkan Hg J Y chromosomes belong to the J-M172 sub-Hg and range from 2% to 20%. Both its main branches, J-M410 and J-M12/M102*, were observed; although the first is scattered in different sub-clades (J-M67, J-M92 and J-DYS445-6) with distinct local patterns, the second is most represented by J-M241."
Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2947100/

"The phylogeography of the Y-haplogroups found in northeast Indian tribal groups suggests that haplogroups D-M174 and O-M175 and its derivatives are of East/Southeast Asian origin (Underhill et al. 2001), haplogroups H-M52 and F-M89 are of indigenous Indian origin (Cordaux et al. 2004), and haplogroups J-M172, L-M20, R-M17, and R-M124 are associated with Indo-European speakers (Cordaux et al. 2004)."
The Northeast Indian Passageway: A Barrier or Corridor for Human Migrations?
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/21/8/1525.full

"Haplogroups G, E and J have been associated with the contribution of Neolithic farmers to the European gene pool."
Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n7/full/5200992a.html

"Haplogroups that likely originate in Eastern and Southern European populations are also present in our U.S. database, including RM17 (3.4%), E-M78 (2.4%), G-P15 (2.4%), and J-M172 (1.5%)."
Population structure of Y chromosome SNP haplogroups in the United States and forensic implications for constructing Y chromosome STR databases.
http://hammerlab.biosci.arizona.edu/publications/Hammer_2005.pdf

"In terms of haplogroup frequencies, the most striking differences among the three populations studied are observed in the J2 and R1 haplogroups. Although 46.2 and 47.8% of the individuals in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, are derived at M172, a frequency of only 9.8% is found in the Lasithi Plateau group. Furthermore, not only does the highland plain record a much lower percentage of J2 individuals, but it is also characterized by a lower level of diversity. While a total of seven and five J2 haplogroup types are detected in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, only two are observed in the Lasithi Plateau group. In the case of the R1 haplogroup, while frequencies of 19.2% and 21.7% are found in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, respectively, more than half (56.1%) of the Lasithi Plateau individuals are R1-M306-derived."
Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html

"In contrast with the results of the above comparisons, both the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations present J2 and R1 frequencies comparable with those previously observed in northeastern Mediterranean locations and even in Libya. Nevertheless, the frequency of J2 in these two Cretan groups is much higher than in mainland Greece, Macedonia and Albania."
Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html

"Out of the total number of J2 chromosomes in the Heraklion Prefecture and Lasithi Prefecture populations, 92 and 82% of the samples, respectively, are derived at J2-DYS413. As the CA illustrates, these proportions suggest genetic affinity with groups from the Turkish-Greek area, where this marker is believed to have originated."
Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html

"The relative expansion times for haplogroup J2-M172 generally correspond with those yielded for R1b-M343, with the exception of Greece and Crete, which, unlike haplogroup R1b-M343, are slightly older than the dates yielded for several of the Near Eastern groups as well as the four Armenian populations."
Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n3/full/ejhg2011192a.html

"The results of this study suggest that the majority of Armenian Y-chromosomes belong to lineages believed to have originated and expanded during or following the Neolithic, including E1b1b1c-M123, G-M201, J1-M267, J2-M172 and R1b1b1-L23."
Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n3/full/ejhg2011192a.html

"The clade J2, defined by M172, has it higher frequencies in Anatolia and Mesopotamia, and decreases westwards (Semino et al., 2004). This haplogroup, particularly with its subclade J2a1b1-M92, presents a similar pattern of diffusion of E31b1a-M78 and it is apparently correlated to the Neolithic demic expansion. Some downstream branches, such as J2b-M12 and J2a1b-M67, relatively frequent in Greece, southern Italy and western Turkey are compatible with the influence of the Greek colonization (Di Giacomo et al., 2004)."
Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

"The presence of J2 haplotypes in central Italy may be related to the debated hypothesis of an Anatolian origin of the Etruscan people, as suggested by mtDNA analysis on modern and ancient samples (Francalacci et al., 1996; Vernesi et al., 2004; Achilli et al., 2007), although it could be arrived in the region much earlier following the Neolithic expansion."
Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

"Northern Italy shows similar frequencies with those of Central Europe, but with the prevalence of the western R1-M173 haplogroup in respect to the eastern I-M170, while E3b1-M35 and J2-M172, have a reduced weight. On the contrary, these two haplogroups are quite common in southern Italy, whereas J2-M172 reaches its higher occurrence in Europe, indicating a significant impact of the gene flow carried out by the Neolithic farmers."
Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

"A certain occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region (Achilli et al., 2007)."
Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

"A single clade within E-M78 (E-V13) highlights a range expansion in the Bronze Age of southeastern Europe, which is also detected by haplogroup J-M12."
Tracing Past Human Male Movements in Northern/Eastern Africa and Western Eurasia: New Clues from Y-Chromosomal Haplogroups E-M78 and J-M12.
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/24/6/1300

"Clade J accounts for 13% of Indian Y chromosomes, almost exclusively because of its subcluster J2, defined by M172. Further, one quarter of the J2 chromosomes share an M12 mutation that shows relatively low background STR diversity over all of India. Interestingly, this marker has a wide geographic distribution and has also been found in polymorphic frequencies in Europe, even as far north as Kola-Saamis (Underhill et al. 1997, 2000; Raitio et al. 2001; Scozzari et al. 2001). Only two samples from Gujarat harbored the M67 mutation that is a relatively common marker at the M172 background, from the Middle East through Pakistan (Underhill et al. 2000)."
The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929707605412

"Indeed, the age estimates of J*(xJ1d,2)-12f2, G*-M201 and E3b1c*-M123 (Table 5) are consistent with an introduction to Portugal no earlier than the Neolithic. J2*-M172 presents higher age estimates (Table 5) but, judging from its wide variance, this must be a consequence of the coexistence of more than one subclade within this haplogroup (mainly J2-M172 and J2f*-M67, both of Neolithic origin according to Semino et al. 2004) that was not discriminated with the set of Y-SNP markers typed. This set of post-Paleolithic Y chromosomes comprises 17% of the male Portuguese background, a frequency that is smaller than that observed in Italy or Greece for the same component (Semino et al. 2000; Di Giacomo et al. 2003) but higher than in northeastern Europe (Semino et al. 2000; Wells et al. 2001). Within the Portuguese territory, this component is present at 17.5% in the north, 15% in the centre and 20.4% in the south."
Micro-Phylogeographic and Demographic History of Portuguese Male Lineages.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00221.x/pdf

"Nearly all European men can be classified into one of the nine most frequently occurring Y-chromosome haplogroups or clans. Haplogroups are defined by mutations or single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). The nine most common haplogroups, in alphabetical order, are E3b, G, I1a, I1b1-P37, I1b2-M223, J2, N3, R1a, and R1b."
Where Did European Men Come From?
http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik1.pdf

"Central Europe has two separate centres for the Early Farmers’ Haplogroups E+J+G (more precisely those of E3b, J2, and G2): The Hungarian centre with frequencies of about 20% is a reflection of the E+J+G centre in Greece where early farming first arrived from Anatolia and the Middle East. The Hungarian centre and its neighbouring areas in Slovakia and the Czech Republic represent the farmers of the Körös (6000-5500 BCE) and Linearbandkeramik (LBK) (4500-3900 BCE) cultures. The other Central European centre is in Holland. This area represents the other main branch of Early Farmers who expanded from Greece along the Mediterranean coast to the west and came to Central Europe along the Atlantic coast through France."
Where Did European Men Come From?
http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik1.pdf

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:47 AM
"The Haplogroups E3b, J2 and G of the Early Farmers, occur in Scandinavia, while among the Finns, Karelians, and Saami, these haplogroups are practically non-existent. The sum total of the frequencies of these Haplogroups (E3b+J2+G) is highest (4.3+3.2+0.2 = 7.7%) among the Danes and lower among the Norwegians (2.2+1.3+0= 3.5%) and Swedes (1.6+1.4+0.4 = 3.4%)."
Where Did European Men Come From?
http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik2.pdf

"Agriculture started to arrive in Europe about 10 kya. It arrived there in two possible ways, either as demic diffusion or as cultural diffusion or both. If agriculture was brought to Europe by Clans E3b, J2, and G, the men of these clans lived still outside Europe during the Ice Age; they did not live in any of the European refuges, but in the Near East or its vicinity. According to the other possibility, the representatives of these clans lived in the Balkan and/or Ukrainian refuge as early as the Ice Age, and represent the first Europeans to learn how to cultivate soil and raise cattle."
Where Did European Men Come From?
http://www.jogg.info/41/Wiik3.pdf

"Mertens et al. (2010) found unusually high frequencies of E1b1b (but also J2 and G) in specific areas of the Netherlands: the Noord-Holland province, the Utrecht province and the Groningen province. E1b1b haplogroup accounted for 23.5% (J2 and G both 11.8%) of the population of Noord-Holland, 20% of the population of Utrecht province (J2 too 20%, G absent) and 14.3% of the population of Groningen province (J2 and G both absent), while in other provinces these haplogroups were not found or were found at much lower frequencies."
Anthropology Blog - The Frisii of Roman times: remnants of a pre-IE population?
http://tsanthropologyblog.blogspot.nl/2013/06/the-frisii-of-roman-times-remnants-of.html

"The haplogroups E3b1, G, J1, J2, I1b, R1a1, and R1b3, most common in the Dniester-Carpathian region, are also common in European and Near Eastern populations."
Population History of the Dniester-Carpathians: Evidence from Alu Insertion and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms.
http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5868/1/Varzari_Alexander.pdf

"Haplogroup J2-M172 was proved the most common variant both in the European populations and in the majority of the Dniester-Carpathian samples (Di Giacomo et al. 2004; Semino et al. 2004), with the majority of lineages belonging to J2*-M172."
Population History of the Dniester-Carpathians: Evidence from Alu Insertion and Y-Chromosome Polymorphisms.
http://edoc.ub.uni-muenchen.de/5868/1/Varzari_Alexander.pdf

"Among these J2-M172 subclades, J2e1-M102 is more frequent in Szeklers (7.2%) than in Hungarians (4.0%), while the undifferentiated J2-M172* Y chromosomes are slightly more common in Hungarian population (8% vs. 3.1%). The overall frequency of J2-M172 in the two populations (Hungarian: 13%; Szekler: 11.3%) is in the same order of magnitude as reported for Czechs and Slovaks (Semino et al., 2000), Romanians, Bulgarians (Di Giacomo et al. 2004) and Ukrainians (Semino et al. 2004)."
Y-Chromosome Analysis of Ancient Hungarian and Two Modern Hungarian-Speaking Populations from the Carpathian Basin.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00440.x/full

"Haplogroup J2-M172 is more prevalent in Europe than the J1 clade. Among its subclades J2e-M12 and J2f-M67 and their derivatives are found in Europe and in Asia (Semino et al., 2004). J2e-M12 is almost totally represented by its sublineage, J2e1-M102, which shows its maximum frequency in the southern Balkans and north-central Italy; it may have diffused from the former (Semino et al., 2004). J2f*-M67 is also a widespread clade which is most frequent in the Caucasus, whereas its derivative J2f1-M92 indicates affinity between Anatolia and southern Italy and is predominantly found in the northern Mediterranean from Turkey westward (Di Giacomo et al., 2004; Semino et al., 2004)."
Y-Chromosome Analysis of Ancient Hungarian and Two Modern Hungarian-Speaking Populations from the Carpathian Basin.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00440.x/full

"There are several frequency variations across Eurasia. The first is that of the M89 lineages (including M89, M170, and M172), which distinguishes between the western and eastern extremes of the continent. It is noteworthy that M172 is a major subset of the 12f2 8kb allele, which has been attributed to the spread of farming from the Near East."
The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC56946/

"The geographical origins of many of these HGs are still debated. However, the associated high frequencies and haplotype variances of HGs H-M69, F*-M89, R1a1-M17, L1-M27, R2-M124 and C5-M356 within India, have been interpreted as evidence of an autochthonous origins of these lineages during late Pleistocene (10–30 Kya), while the lower frequency within the subcontinent of J2-M172, E-M96, G-M201 and L3-M357 are viewed as reflecting probable gene flow introduced from West Eurasian Holocene migrations in the last 10 Kya."
Population Differentiation of Southern Indian Male Lineages Correlates with Agricultural Expansions Predating the Caste System.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0050269

"Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic, 2008.
http://www.atlascom.gr/HELLENIC_DNA_PAPER.PDF

"An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with central/Mediterranean Anatolia. Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

"In turn, two distinctive haplogroups, J2a1h-M319 and J2a1b1-M92, have demographic properties consistent with Bronze Age expansions in Crete, arguably from NW/W Anatolia and Syro-Palestine, while a later mainland (Mycenaean) contribution to Crete is indicated by relative frequencies of V13."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

"Inspection of Figure 2 results shows that Crete has a high frequency of haplogroup J2a-M410 (25.9%) with Lerna/Franchthi Cave (14.1%) and Sesklo/Dimini (8.8%) having intermediate frequencies of J2a."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

"Haplogroup J2b-M12, the offsetting companion clade of J2a-M410, shows a trend of decreasing frequency from north to south, from 7% and 8.8% at Nea Nikomedeia and Sesklo, respectively, to 1.8% at Lerna/Franchthi Cave and 3.1% in Crete."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

"Vector analysis (not shown) demonstrates that the Balkan cluster is most associated with haplogroups J2b-M12, E3b1a-M78, I-M170 and R1a1-M17."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

"On the other hand, in Greece, the most frequent J2 haplogroup is J2b-M12 that is however rare (1.7%) in Anatolia (Cinnioğlu et al., 2004)."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

"The Thessalian and Greek Macedonian samples exhibit a high frequency (7–9%) of J2b-M12 with an approximate expansion time dating to the Neolithic era of c. 5000BC (Table 2). Previous work on the Balkans (Peričić et al., 2005; Marjanovic et al., 2005) regarding the frequency of J2b-M12 is consistent with our observations in Greece."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full

"Di Giacomo stressed the role of post-Neolithic migratory phenomenon, specifically that of the Ancient Greeks, as also being important in the dispersal of haplogroup J-M172."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

"According to Di Giacomo’s (2004) study, the high diversity of haplogroup J2 in Turkish and southern European populations suggests that this branch of haplogroup J originated around the Aegean, not the Middle East. Additionally, it appears that much of J2 was confined to the coastal Mediterranean areas, indicating that maritime trade, rather than earlier Neolithic agricultural expansions, may have helped spread J2 throughout the Mediterranean world."
A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

"Overall, the most frequent haplogroups in the Caucasus were G2a3b1-P303 (12%), G2a1a-P18 (8%), J1*-M267(xP58) (34%), and J2a4b*-M67(xM92) (21%), which together encompassed 73% of the Y chromosomes, while the other 24 haplogroups identified in our study comprise the remaining 27%."
Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3355373/

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:49 AM
"The two haplogroups most strongly associated with Albanian people (E-V13 and J2b) are often considered to have arrived in Europe from the Near East with the Neolithic revolution or late Mesolithic, early in the Holocene epoch. From here in the Balkans, it is thought, they spread to the rest of Europe."
Wikipedia.org - Origins of the Albanians.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_the_Albanians

"Again, haplogroup J2a4b*-M67(xM92) comprised 51-79% of the Y chromosomes in the Ingush and three Chechen populations (North-East Caucasus, Nakh linguistic group), while, in the rest of the Caucasus, its frequency was not higher than 9% (average 3%)."
Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3355373/

"Y-Dna haplogroups are found at the following frequencies in Malta : R1 (35.55% including 32.2% R1b), J (28.90% including 21.10% J2), I (12.20%), E (11.10% including 8.9% E1b1b), F (6.70%), K (4.40%), P (1.10%). Haplogroup R1 , E1b1b, J2 and I are typical in European populations. J1, K, F haplogroups consist of lineages with differential distribution within Middle East, North Africa and Europe. The low percentages of J1 are similar to the Sicilian population, suggesting common ancestry with Sicilians and negligible genetic input from both North Africa and the Middle East."
Wikipedia.org - Maltese People.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maltese_people

"Timur Serdar and Demircin Sema authored a recent study on the Y chromosomes of Antalya, which is located on the southern coast of Anatolia. Haplogroup J2 was most frequent in this study of 75 unrelated males found at a frequency of 26.6%. The J2 data was consistent with an earlier study by Cinnioglu et al which found 24% J2 in southern Anatolia. Haplogroup T (K* in the study) was next most frequent at 13.3% and this data differed from Cinnioglu's data which found only 3.3% Haplogroup K in southern Anatolia. The first record of Antalya was as Attalia, a greek city founded approximately 150BC by Attalos II, King of Pergamon."
M172 Blog - Haplogroup J2, M172 in Antalya, Turkish Republic, 2009.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/06/haplogroup-j2-m172-in-antalya-turkish.html

"The Y-chromosome haplogroups of Antalya population were defined by these 18 Y-SNP polymorphic loci and the frequencies and the distribution of haplogroups were determined. J2*(xJ2F2) (26.6%), K*(xN3,O,P) (13.3%), E3b (9.3%), F*(xH,I,J,K) (8%), R1a1*(xR1a1b) (8%), R1b*(xR1b1, R1b6, R1b8) (8%), P*(xQ3a,R1) (8%) haplogroups were identified as the most abundant in Antalya population. These haplogroups are reported as widespread also in European and neighboring Near Eastern populations."
Y-SNP haplogroups in the Antalya population in Turkish Republic.
http://www.rjlm.ro/doc/08-y-snphaplogroupsintheantalyapopulation.pdf

"In 2004, two geneticists educated at Harvard University and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells, identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research."
Familypedia.com - Phoenicia.
http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Phoenicia

"As we know Phoenicia eventually became Lebanon, and it is interesting to note that recent genetic studies have verified a DNA link between those ancient Phoenicians and the modern day inhabitants of Lebanon. The geneticists tell us that the Y-Chromosome genetic marker passed down only from male progenitor. What is also known is that haplogroup J2 (M172) is point of reference for Phoenician ancestry."
Kisses from a Distance: An Immigrant family experience.
http://books.google.nl/books?id=XfvuZeRUEckC

"The historical diffusion of Phoenicians, who were the dominant traders in the Mediterranean Sea in the first millennium BC, was studied by the same research group (Zalloua et al., 2008a). Comparing Y chromosomes from samples drawn in their Lebanese homeland and in former Phoenician colonies all over the Mediterranean, the authors identified hg J2, in general, and six Y STR haplotypes, in particular, that accounted for about 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined."
The History and Geography of the Y Chromosome SNPs in Europe: an update.
http://www.isita-org.com/jass/Contents/2010vol88/PDFonline/20834059.pdf

"Di Giacomo’s (2004) study emphasized that J2 is "Mediterranean" or "Aegean" rather than "Semitic" in character. It is found predominately in northern Mediterranean and Turkish populations, differentiating the Aegean area from the Middle East in its haplogroup J results. Going further, the researchers maintained that certain sub-clades of J2 appear to have originated well after the beginning of the Neolithic revolution and around the Aegean, spreading out to the rest of Europe during the expansion of the Greek world. It is this final idea – that much of J2 is European in origin rather than Middle Eastern – that complicates the interpretation of Jewish J2 results. Sub-clade J-M102* originated in the southern part of the Balkans and is generally absent in Middle Eastern populations (Semino et al. 2004). Ashkenazim have a 1.2% frequency of J-M102 and Sephardim have 2.4%. These results argue in favor of European gene flow into the Jewish community."
A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

"EEJ are Europeans probably of Roman descent who converted to Judaism at times, when Judaism was the first monotheistic religion that spread in the ancient world. Any other theory about their origin is not supported by the genetic data. Future studies will have to address their genetic affinities to various Italian populations and examine the possibility of other components both European and Non-European in their gene pool."
The origin of Eastern European Jews revealed by autosomal, sex chromosomal and mtDNA polymorphisms.
http://www.biologydirect.com/content/5/1/57#B10

"A recent analysis of nine Y-chromosome markers defining haplogroups A, DE, G2, I, J, P*, and R1a revealed a high degree of heterogeneity within the island of Crete. Their study uncovered that, although more than 96% of males in the Cretan prefectures of Chania, Rethymno and Heraklion can be assigned to the tested haplogroups, only 82% of the Y chromosomes in Lasithi were derived at those markers. An analysis of J2 chromosomes from Crete, similarly revealed additional examples of diversity within the island."
Paleolithic Y-haplogroup heritage predominates in a Cretan highland plateau.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v15/n4/full/5201769a.html

"The contribution of the Central Asian genetics to the modern Turkish people has been debated and become the subject of several studies. As a result, several studies have concluded that the historical (pre-Islamic) and indigenous Anatolian groups are the primary source of the present-day Turkish population, in addition to neighboring peoples, such as Balkan peoples, and central Asian Turkic people."
Genetic history of the Turkish people.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_the_Turkish_people

"Haplogroup J (J2-M172): The frequency peak is found in Dardanians (15.02%) and Taulanti (14.30%), decreasing in Liburni (10.90%), Veneti (9.60%) and Japodes (6.67%), reaching rather low values in Delmatae (2.09%) and Autariates (1.40%). It is absent in Noricum and the area of Histri."
Language Bounderies and Microevolutionary processes in South-Eastern Europe.
http://www.anthroinsula.org/resources/Iliri-english%20text%20version.pdf

"IE-speaking Iranians have largely the same haplogroups as Arabs, but a much higher representation of haplogroup J2 compared to J1. The converse is true for all Arabs except the Lebanese. But, we do know, that even in Lebanon itself, Muslims have a higher J1/J2 ratio than Christians, and Islam was the main vehicle of Arabization in the region. The Christians are descended from the pre-Arab Byzantine Greco-Aramaic populations."
Coastal-inland differences in Y chromosomes of the Levant.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2009/08/coastal-inland-differences-in-y.html

"Haplogroup J is mostly found in South-East Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Greece and Romania. It is also common in France, and in the Middle East. It is related to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians (J2), as well as the Arabs and Jews (J1). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia and southern Italy, and are associated with the Ancient Greeks."
Citizendia.org - Haplogroup J.
http://www.citizendia.org/Haplogroup_J_(Y-DNA)

"Results derived from analysis of the non-recombining portion of the Y- chromosomes (NRY) produced, at least initially, similar gradients to the classic demic diffusion hypothesis. Two significant studies were Semino 2000 and Rosser 2000, which identified Haplogroup J2 and E1b1b (formerly E3b) as the putative genetic signatures of migrating Neolithic farmers from Anatolia, and therefore represent the Y-chromosomal components of a Neolithic demic diffusion. This association was strengthened when King and Underhill (2002) found that there was a significant correlation between the distribution of Hg J2 and Neolithic painted pottery in European and Mediterranean sites."
Wikipedia.com - Neolithic Europe.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Neolithic_Europe

"The Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans all contributed to the presence of J2a in Iberia. The particulary strong frequency of J2a and other Near Eastern haplogroups (J1, E1b1b, T) in the south of the Iberian peninsula, suggest that the Phoenicians and the Carthagians played a more decisive role than other peoples."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:49 AM
"This lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. As with other populations with Mediterranean ancestry this lineage is found within Jewish populations."
FamilytreeDNA - SNP Certificate (Haplogroup J2).
http://www.familytreedna.com/

"Because of your J2a1b association, it’s possible your ancestors may have been members of populations which specifically expanded from Anatolia to the Greek island of Crete between 8500 and 4300 BC."
Ancestry.com - Paternal Ancestry Certificate.
http://www.ancestry.com/

"The J2 haplogroup can be found in today’s populations with notable frequency in Italy, Iberia, Turkey, Albania, Greece and even India, and most likely interacted with numerous cultures, including the Greeks and Romans."
Ancestry.com - Paternal Ancestry Certificate.
http://www.ancestry.com/

"Previously, the presence of Haplogroups J, E3b, and G among Jews was interpreted as additional evidence of Middle Eastern or Israelite ancestry in much the same fashion as the Cohanim Modal Haplotype. However, recent studies demonstrate that their origin is uncertain. Unfortunately, misinformation about these haplogroups continues to pervade the public and media. Haplogroup E3b is often incorrectly described as African, leaving a misimpression regarding the origin and complex history of this haplogroup. Haplogroup J2, as previously discussed, is often incorrectly equated with J1 and described as Jewish or Semitic, despite the fact that it is present in a variety of non-Jewish Mediterranean and Northern European populations."
A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

"J2 has a higher representation than its sister clade in Madeira, the Acores and South Portugal. Turkey and the Aegean areas are supposed to have acted as a secondary source for this originally Middle- Eastern haplogroup (DiGiacomo et al. 2004), from where it spread to Europe. An association with Greek and/or Phoenician eras should also be considered in Portugal."
Y-chromosome Lineages from Portugal, Madeira and Acores Record Elements of Sephardim and Berber Ancestry.
http://www3.uma.pt/abrehm/v1.1/docs/downloads/pdfs/Goncalves_Y_Portugal_AnnHumGenet2005.pdf

"The unique colonization pattern of the Phoenicians and the isolation of some of their colonies (Ibiza, Sardinia, Malta) have made it easy to identify their genetic signature. The Phoenician population was already very mixed 3000 years ago : E-V22, J1, J2, J2a4b, J2a4b1, G2a, R1a and R1b1a. E-V22 and R1b1a are quite specific to Levantines (Syrians, Lebanese, Druzes, Jews, Palestinians)."
Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/25163-Y-DNA-haplogroups-of-ancient-civilizations

"I-P37 and J-M12 are dated to 1,100BC and 1,200BC, at around the time that e.g. the Phrygians from the Balkans are believed to have migrated to Asia Minor. I-P37 and J-M12 reach their maxima in areas north of Greece where the Phrygians are said to have originated."
How Y-STR variance accumulates: a comment on Zhivotovsky, Underhill and Feldman (2006).
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/07/how-y-str-variance-accumulates-comment.html

"From about 700 BCE, the Etruscans settled around Tuscany and the Greeks in southern Italy. Etruscans probably came from Palestine and brought haplogroups J1, J2 and E with them. The Greeks in Italy were Doric and brought J2, E, G2a and probably more R1b (see above). The Romans progressively absorbed the Etruscans and Italian Greeks and mixed with them. By the time of Julius Caesar Roman citizens were probably composed of 45% of R1b, 20% of J, 15% of E, 15% of G2a and 5% of I2a."
Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/25163-Y-DNA-haplogroups-of-ancient-civilizations

"Haplogroups in Wallonia show the expected admixture of Gallo-Roman (R1b-S28, J2, G2a, E1b1b) and Germanic (R1b-S21,I1,I2b) haplogroups."
Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project, Benelux & France.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelux_france_dna_project.shtml

"Gascony, at the opposite end of France, has unsurprisingly the lowest percentage of haplogroups associated with Greco-Danubian Neolithic farmers. Only J2 is present in relatively high number there, and the near absence of E, G and T suggest an early colonization from southern Greece (Crete?), or possibly by Romans from Central Italy."
Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project, Benelux & France.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelux_france_dna_project.shtml

"Haplogroup J2 frequency has been correlated with aspects of the symbolic material culture of the Neolithic in Europe and the Near East (painted pottery and ceramic figurines) and sub-Haplogroups of J2 have also been associated with the Neolithic colonization of mainland Greece, Crete and southern Italy."
The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69

"The analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups revealed a strong genetic affinity of Euboea with Anatolian and Middle-eastern populations, while the Korinthia District population shows a closer affinity with Balkan populations. The inferences of the time at which population expansion started suggests an earlier evidence of usage of agriculture in Euboea. Moreover, the haplogroup J2a-M410, supposed to be associated with the spread of the Neolithic lifestyle from the Middle-east, was observed at higher frequency and variance in Euboea showing, for both these parameters, a decreasing gradient moving from this area. The time since expansion estimates for J2a-M410 was found to be compatible with the Neolithic transition in Greece and slightly older in Euboea."
The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

"The first studies performed for Y-chromosome (Rosser et al., 2000; Semino et al., 2004) produced, for certain haplogroups (J2-M172 and E1b-M78), gradients similar to the classical demic diffusion hypothesis, supporting the "Wave-of-advance" model. Subsequent studies have restricted the list of haplogroups that could be taken as markers of the Neolithic transition in Europe, pointing to the J2-M172 and G2a-P15 lineages (Cinnioglu et al., 2004). In the last few years several studies approached the issue of the Neolithic impact in Europe. Sengupta and colleagues in 2006 and subsequently, King et al. (2008) suggested the haplogroups J2a-M410 as the main haplogroup linked to the Neolithic spread from the Middle-east."
The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

"Both the sub-branches of haplogroup J2-M172 (J2a-M410 and J2b-M102) are found in the two Greek regions. The main branch is J2a-M410, a higher frequency of this haplogroup is observed for Euboea (15.6%) rather than Korinthia (10.9%). The inner structure of J2a-M410 reveals that the main branch for Euboea is J2a-M67, which accounts for the 40% of the total J2a-M410 haplotypes while the majority of the Korinthia haplotypes (75%) falls within the J2a-M67 and J2a-DYS445≤7 branches. The sister clade of J2a-M410, J2b-M102 shows a higher frequency in Euboea (9.4%), with the majority of haplotypes belonging to the J2b-M241 sub-branch (77.8%). On the other hand Korinthia shows a frequency of haplogroup J2b-M241 of 5.5%, with all haplotypes belonging to the J2b-M241 lineage."
The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

"The majority of the haplogroups (R1a-M17, G2a-P15, I2-M438, J1-M267 and J2b-M102) shows times since expansion which ranges from approximately 4,5Kya to 2,7Kya, compatible with Bronze Age and the development of the Helladic civilizations, more specifically with the spread of Mycenaean culture (Montjoy 1998)."
The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

"Vector analysis (data not shown) demonstrates that the Greek/Balkan cluster is more associated with haplogroups I2-M438, J2b-M102 and R1a-M17; on the other hand, the Anatolia/Middle-east cluster is more associated with haplogroups J2a-M410, J1-M267, G-M201 and R1b-M269."
The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:56 AM
"For all who are members of, or interested in Y-DNA haplogroup J2, made up of paternal-line descendants who share the M172 mutation. J2 is commonly found among peoples of the Mediterranean and northern Middle East. Major branches are J2a and J2b."
GenealogyWise - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.genealogywise.com/group/ydnahaplogroupj2

"Haplogroup J2 among Jews has been erroneously interpreted in the past as exclusively Israelite or Middle Eastern in origin. Among Ashkenazim, J2 occurs among 23.2% of the population, while Sephardim have 28.6% (Semino et al. 2004). While these percentages are nearly identical to Iraqi (22.4%) and Lebanese (25%) groups, they are also comparable to Greek (20.6%), Georgian (26.7%), Albanian (19.6%), Italian (20-29%), and to a lesser extent, French Basque (13.6%) populations (Semino et al. 2004)."
A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

"In Bosnia-Herzegovina Y chromosomes belonging to J are found mainly in the Bosniacs who, interestingly, harbour almost all the known J sub-clades (Semino et al. 2004). These are: J-M267, which has been associated with the Arab expansions; J-M92, which suggests genetic links between Anatolia and southern Italy; J-M67, which is frequent in the Caucasus; and finally J-M102, which shows frequency peaks in the southern Balkans and central-southern Italy. The last, however, appears to be more represented in the Serbs (6.2%). Thus, overall a higher extent of gene flow could have occurred in the Bosniacs, while the Croats, in whom a single undifferentiated J-M172 Y chromosome was encountered, were probably the group in which genetic drift and founder events played the most important role, as already suggested by the extremely high frequency of I-P37."
The Peopling of Modern Bosnia-Herzegovina: Y-chromosome Haplogroups in the Three Main Ethnic Groups.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1529-8817.2005.00190.x/full

"Another relatively more recent mode for J2's entry into some parts of Europe from the Mediterranean areas could have been the Roman Legions and Roman settlements."
Genetic makeup of the Balkans.
http://www.bosniafacts.info/science-and-geography/genetic-makeup-of-the-balkans

"In this study, we examine, for the first time, the Y-chromosome constitution of the general Serbian population. A total of 103 individuals were sampled and their DNA analyzed for 104 Y-chromosome bi-allelic markers and 17 associated STR loci. Our results indicate that approximately 58% of Serbian Y-chromosomes (I1-M253, I2a-P37.2 and R1a1a-M198) belong to lineages believed to be pre-Neolithic. On the other hand, the signature of putative Near Eastern Neolithic lineages, including E1b1b1a1-M78, G2a-P15, J1-M267, J2-M172 and R1b1a2-M269 accounts for 39% of the Y-chromosome."
High levels of Paleolithic Y-chromosome lineages characterize Serbia.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22310393

"The genetic mutation founding the J2b subclade is thought to have originated in Greece (or possibly in Anatolia) and to correspond roughly to the ancient Greek and Roman spheres of influence (sources: Eupedia and Romans at Stonehenge from standing stones to cosmic pillars)."
Is there a deep history Sumerian connection or Near Eastern layer to Japanese prehistory?
http://japanesemythology.wordpress.com/2011/10/26/is-there-a-deep-history-sumerian-connection-or-layer-to-japanese-history/

"The J2-M172 lineages likely entered China during the eastward migration of Central Asians."
Y-chromosome distributions among populations in Northwest China identify significant contribution from Central Asian pastoralists and lesser influence of western Eurasians.
http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v55/n5/abs/jhg201030a.html

"We show that the majority of the CAS- and WE-related genetic contribution to NEAS occurred much earlier than the time of ancient Silk Road. However, in the NEAS populations, the impact of the ancient Silk Road can also be reflected by the sporadic appearance of the minor CSA- and WE-related haplogroups, such as E-SRY4064, C5-M356, I-M170, J2a2*-M67, Jab2-M241, and T-M70, which had not have enough time to accumulate within-haplogroup genetic diversity."
Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route.
http://mbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/28/1/717.full

"It should be noted that J2 reaches its highest rate of frequency in Han China at 2.86%. It is speculated that this frequency is due to "trade relations along the Silk Road" ["Haplogroups J/J2"]. It appears that the incidences in both Okinawa and China are unrelated, since the Chinese/Honshu affinity does not demonstrate a significant incidence on the Japanese mainland, the population of which is demonstrably higher than that of Okinawa."
The Genetic Affinity Between Cretans and Okinawans.
http://kanashi.net/2011/12/21/the-genetic-affinity-between-cretans-and-okinawans/

"In western China, in the Xinjiang region, the population, while east Asian, has sometimes European characteristics. Genetic testings have corroborated the presence of west Eurasian genes in the population (for instance, subclades of the Y-DNA haplogroups R1a, R1b and J2, genetic signatures frequently found in Europe (and west Eurasian mtDNA haplogroups as well)."
Through the mist of the past - Xinjiang.
http://pastmists.wordpress.com/2010/05/12/xinjiang/

"As genetic study of man (R1a, J2, O2a), cow, mouse, pig, goat, rice and barley all gravitate towards India, there should be no doubt now that farming and Aryan languages originated and spread from India."
The First Civilization of the World.
http://priyadarshi101.wordpress.com/2010/11/15/the-first-civilization-of-the-world

"Another major lineage within the J clade is J2-M172,which ranges from 0 to 30% in Europe. In our Andalusian samples, this lineage occurs at frequencies of 5–6%, whereas in other Iberian populations, J2 varies from 3% (in the Basque area) to 15% (in southern Portugal). In Sicily, J2 is one of the most represented Y-chromosome J sub-haplogroups, being found at frequencies of 15% on the eastern side and 7% on the western side of the island."
Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
http://academia.edu/3067504/Searching_the_Peopling_of_the_Iberian_Peninsula_fr om_the_Perspective_of_Two_Andalusian_Subpopulation s

"Given the particular phylogeographical pattern of J2a across the Mediterranean as well as in Middle Eastern and western-central Asian populations, some authors have interpreted this scenario as being associated, at least in part, with the spread of agriculture. However, others have proposed that the J2a1b lineage might have emerged in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion of the Greek world, including the European coast of the Black Sea."
Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
http://academia.edu/3067504/Searching_the_Peopling_of_the_Iberian_Peninsula_fr om_the_Perspective_of_Two_Andalusian_Subpopulation s

"The distribution pattern of J2b within Europe is parallel to that observed for E-V13. Both of these account for more than one-fourth of the chromosomes currently found in the southern Balkans, highlighting the strong demographic impact of the expansion in the area, particularly during the Bronze Age."
Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
http://academia.edu/3067504/Searching_the_Peopling_of_the_Iberian_Peninsula_fr om_the_Perspective_of_Two_Andalusian_Subpopulation s

"Parys Mountain is one of only three sites in Wales which have evidence of copper mining during the Bronze and Roman Ages."
BBC News - DNA test to prove Bronze Age link.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/north_west/8007969.stm

"This type of genetic make-up is usually found in the eastern Mediterranean which made us think that there might have been strong connections between north-east Wales and this part of Europe somewhere in the past."
BBC News - 'Extraordinary' genetic make-up of north-east Wales men.
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/uk-wales-north-east-wales-14173910

"With respect to the Romans and the Visigoths, Romans appear not differ much genetically from the Iberians, particularly in relation to the Y chromosome, such that the gene frequencies of the population would not have changed much due to these invaders."
Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
http://academia.edu/3067504/Searching_the_Peopling_of_the_Iberian_Peninsula_fr om_the_Perspective_of_Two_Andalusian_Subpopulation s

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:57 AM
"The present study proposes that the majority of the genetic haplogroups present at this date (2300 BC) in Jutland would have been I1 (mostly I1-M253, but an unknown percentage of the I-M223 variety) and R-P312* with R-U106 plus a sprinkling of R1a1-M17; and a modicum (e.g., 6% each) of E3b-M78 and J2-M172 representing migrants who may have arrived with the early agriculturalists from the Balkans."
The Cimbri of Denmark, the Norse and Danish Vikings, and Y-DNA Haplogroup R-S28/U152 - (Hypothesis A).
http://www.davidkfaux.org/Cimbri-Chronology.pdf

"The project contains people from 4 distinct haplogroups. The first group (oldest SNP) is haplogroup I2b1 with ancient origins in the NorthWestern region of Europe known as Fennoscandia consisting of Norway, Sweden and Finland. The second oldest haplogroup represented is J2, whose origins are believed to be about 18,000 years old in an area around the current Asia-Europe border."
Cloud DNA Project.
http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Cloud_DNA_Project

"De verdeling der hoofdhaplogroepen met ruwweg hun plaats van ontstaan en de afgelegde weg: R1b: 145 57,31 % directe afstammelingen van de Cro-Magnons. I1: 030 11,86 % Balkan, Centraal Europa, Scandinavië. I2: 027 10,67 % Caucasus, Balkan, gebied van ex-Joegoslavië. E1: 016 06,32 % Noord-Afrika, Middellandse Zeegebied. J2: 011 04,35 % Mesopotamië, Feniciërs, Grieken, Zuid-Italië, (Romeinen)."
Familiekunde Vlaanderen - Jaarverslag 2009. (Dutch)
http://www.familiekunde-vlaanderen.be/system/files/Famvlaan%20Jaarverslag%202009.pdf

"Previous Y-chromosome genetic studies of Phoenician colonization have demonstrated that haplogroup J2 frequency was amplified in regions containing the Phoenician colonies of Iberia and North Africa in comparison to areas not containing Phoenician colonies."
The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69

"This blog is dedicated to those who carry the J2 "Y" DNA Haplogroup, with a focus on J2a4h2, also known as J-L25. Our "Y" Chromosome is inherited from father to son. Our paternal ancestors will also have the same signature. "J2 originated in northern Mesopotamia, and spread westward to Anatolia and southern Europe, and eastward to Persia and India. J2 is related to the Ancient Etruscans, (Minoan) Greeks, southern Anatolians, Phoenicians, Assyrians and Babylonians."
J2a4h Blog - J2a4h2 YHaplogroup J-L25 DNA.
http://j2a4h2.blogspot.nl/2012/04/haplogroup-j2-y-dna.html

"Sicily is an island which had well-documented and not insignificant settlements by both Greeks and Phoenicians. Moreover, these settlements were geographically divided: Greeks in the East, Phoenicians in the West. It is in the East that J2 has its highest frequency, and not in the Phoenician West."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2008.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/10/phoenician-y-chromosomes.html

"From these comparisons, we found that haplogroup J2, in general, and six Y-STR haplotypes, in particular, exhibited a Phoenician signature that contributed > 6% to the modern Phoenician-influenced populations examined. Our methodology can be applied to any historically documented expansion in which contact and noncontact sites can be identified."
Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/10/phoenician-y-chromosomes.html

"Many people new to Genetic Genealogy think the J2 haplogroup is synonymous with having male Jewish ancestry. One should note that having a J2 haplogroup assignment does not necessarily indicate Jewish ancestry. The J2 haplogroup is far more ancient than the Jewish religion and is found in many lines with Mediterranean region ancient ancestry. Another relatively more recent mode for J2's entry into some parts of Europe from the Mediterranean areas could have been the Roman Legions and Roman settlements."
Worldfamilies.net - Y-DNA Haplogroups.
http://www.worldfamilies.net/yhaplogroups

"In deze studie wordt een tot nu toe niet bekende concentratie van de haplogroepen J in oostelijk Brabant aangetroffen. Het betreft hier voornamelijk J2 en oude, gevestigde families. Het is niet onmogelijk dat hier sprake is van families van nazaten van ´Romeinse´soldaten. Ook in het grensgebied van Engeland en Schotland is een concentratie van J2 families gevonden. In dat gebied zijn ook resten van tempels van de Iraanse god Mitras bekend en blijkt er een boogschuttereenheid uit het Midden/Oosten gelegerd geweest te zijn. Romeinse aanwezigheid in het land van Cuijck en aan de randen van de Peel (de naam is afkomstig van de naam die de Romeinen aan het gied gaven: Locus Paludosus ofwel moerassige streek) is bekend, zoals ook landmetingen van militairen die zich er gevestigd hadden en landbouw bedreven."
Project Genetische Genealogie in Nederland. (Dutch)
http://www.barjesteh.nl/DNAproject.htm

"Het eerste jaar heeft tal van verrassingen opgeleverd. Via de gevonden DNA-profielen konden een aantal families aan elkaar gekoppeld worden, die voor het project nog niet van een onderlinge band wisten. Verrassend was voor tal van deelnemers ook de diepere oorsprong van de familie. Een oorsprong die bijvoorbeeld mogelijk te vinden is bij de zich in onze gebieden gevestigd hebbende soldaten uit het Romeinse leger."
Heemkundekring Weerderheem - Project Genetische Genealogie in Nederland. (Dutch)
http://www.weerderheemvalkenswaard.nl/pdf/webpublicaties-dna.pdf

"Nog een aardigheidje voor Oost-Brabant: daar is een relatieve concentratie van haplogroep J gevonden. Volgens genetisch genealogen zijn die mensen waarschijnlijk nazaten van de oude Romeinen, gelegerd in Noviomagus (Nijmegen) of rond Locus Paludosus (De Peel)."
Eindhovens Dagblad - Veel DNA komt uit Spanje en Scandinavië. (Dutch)
http://www.ed.nl/regio/4449996/Veel-DNA-komt-uit-Spanje-en-Scandinavie.ece

"Uit haplogroep J onstond zo'n 10.000 geleden de haplogroep J2 (M172) die een uitloper naar Italië heeft. Nu blijkt dat er in N.O.-Brabant een cluster J2 zit, zo tegen de Maas aan. Verder is er een cluster J2 te vinden bij de muur van Hadrianus in Engeland. Een snelle conclusie is dan dat deze J2-voorouders van Nevenzel en Volkerink afstammen van (huur)soldaten uit het Romeinse leger, die aan de limes waren gelegerd."
De haplogroep van de probandi Nevenzel en Volkerink. (Dutch)
http://www.nevenzel.com/DNA.htm

"Een van de vermoedens daarbij is dat de Romeinen groepen uit het Midden Oosten naar het grensgebied van het Romeinse Rijk brachten. Deze hogere percentages van deze groepen zouden hierdoor veroorzaakt kunnen worden. In het boek "zonen van Adam in Nederland" wordt dit als volgt geformuleerd: In deze studie wordt een tot nu toe niet bekende concentratie van de haplogroepen J in oostelijk Brabant aangetroffen. Het betreft hier voornamelijk J2 en oude, gevestigde families. Het is niet onmogelijk dat hier sprake is van families van nazaten van Romeinse soldaten. Ook in het grensgebied van Engeland en Schotland is een concentratie van J2 families gevonden. In dat gebied zijn ook resten van tempels van de Iraanse god Mitras bekend en blijkt er een boogschuttereenheid uit het Midden Oosten gelegerd geweest te zijn. Romeinse aanwezigheid in het land van Cuijck en aan de randen van de Peel (de naam is afkomstig van de naam die de Romeinen aan het gebied gaven: Locus Paludosus ofwel moerassige streek) is bekend, zoals ook landmetingen van militairen die zich er gevestigd hadden en landbouw bedreven."
Penninx.nl - Pennings Genografie. (Dutch)
http://www.penninx.nl/genografie/pennings-genografie.html

RHAS
11-20-2013, 02:59 AM
"Cruciani et al.’s E-V13 and J2-M12 coalescence times bear a striking similarity to carbon-14-based date calculations for certain archaeological sites in the Maritsa river valley and its tributaries, near the city of Nova Zagora, Bulgaria (Nilolova, 2002). These sites are associated directly with the proto-Thracian culture of the southern Balkans that came to dominate the region during the first millennium BCE. Sites surveyed included Ezero, Yunatsite, Dubene-Sarovka and Plovdiv-Nebet Tepe, all of which had deep associations with the developing EBA proto-Thracian culture of the region."
Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin.
http://www.jogg.info/32/bird.htm

"The congruence between frequency distributions, shape of the networks, pair-wise haplotypic differences and coalescent estimates point to a single evolutionary event at the basis of the distribution of haplogroups E-V13 and J-M12 within Europe, a finding never appreciated before."
Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf

"It is important to note that at least four additional YDNA markers may have arrived with the Romans. What have been described as the Balkan group (E-V13), the Ancient Caucasians (G-S314), the Herdsman-Farmers (J-M172 – and a sub-group of this, M67, looks particularly Italian) and the Anatolian marker (R1b-M269*), when taken together, potentially add another 2.3 million Englishmen and Welshmen who could trace their fatherlines to the veterans of the II Augusta, the IX Hispana, the XIV Gemina, the XX Valeria Victrix and the other Italians who crossed to Britain in their wake."
BritainsDNA Press Releases - BritainsDNA finds the Lost Legions.
http://www.britainsdna.com/about/press-releases

"Moffat said his colleagues had also discovered DNA originating from Roman-period Illyria, the area occupied by modern Croatia, which may relate to Roman occupation of lowland Scotland."
The Guardian - Scotland DNA Study Project.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/aug/15/scotland-dna-study-project

"Of course, there are more ways for J2b2 members to have spread to the areas highlighted on the J2b2 heatmap as being suggested in this paper, it is interesting however to see how easily all these regions are connected through Greek, Macedonian and/or Thracian mythology, history and migrations."
Analysis of the J2b2 M241 Geno 2.0 Heatmap. Comparing historical data with heatmap hotspots.
https://www.facebook.com/download/467207646662545/Analysis%20of%20the%20J2b2%20M241%20Geno%202.0%20H eatmap.docx

"Haplogroup J is mostly found in South-East Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Greece and Romania. It is also common in France, and in the Middle East. It is related to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians (J2), as well as the Arabs and Jews (J1). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia and southern Italy, and are associated with the Ancient Greeks."
Romanian History and Culture.
http://romanianhistoryandculture.webs.com/modernromaniansydna.htm

"This lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. J2 is found in Britain, but rarely. It is most common in Eastern European countries, leading to speculation that it is either from gypsy background or, possibly, from Eastern European soldiers stationed in Britain during the Roman occupation in the first three centuries AD."
Scotland DNA Project.
http://www.ourfamilyorigins.com/scotland/j2.htm

"J2 has been traced back to the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that comprises territory in northwestern Iraq and Iran, eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. One theory offered for the presence of J2 in northern England is the presence of Roman auxiliary soldiers stationed on Hadrian's Wall. It has been suggested that the original J2 ancestor of our Robson member may have been a Sarmatian horseman in the Roman legions."
Robson/Robeson/Robison Family DNA Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Robson/

"The very name "Van Santen" means "from" or "of" Santen. The only Santen found (now known as "Xanten") is an ancient walled German town with a strong Roman history, at one time strategically located on the Rhine river (the river has since altered course somewhat). My genealogy is well-documented to the early 1500's from where my earliest known ancestor had settled by the 16th Century, near the mouth of the same Rhine river, and the furthest west one could have gone short of crossing the channel to England."
Van Santen DNA Project (Haplogroup J2).
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/van-santen/

"J2 - This haplogroup originated during the Neolithic in Central Asia, and spread across the Mediterranean and the Middle East. It may have been brought to Britain by prehistoric farmers, Greek or Phoenician traders and Sephardic Jews among the Normans and the Flemish - as well as by Roman troops and settlers."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project.
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/

"Research conducted by the administrators of the Border Reivers DNA Project has identified numerous haplotypes in persons of British descent that show Haplotype 35 markers. Moreover, most of these haplotypes appear to originate from areas of Britain near the Antonine Wall, Hadrian's Wall and other places of Roman fortification or settlement. These areas include Galloway, Dumfries, Ayrshire and The Borders in Scotland, and Cumbria, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Shropshire and Staffordshire in England. Many of the Roman troops stationed in these areas came from Southeastern Europe or Western Asia. They included Sarmatians, Dacians, Goths, Syrians, Mesopotamians, Thracians and Anatolians. The Capelli study has shown that these areas also exhibit higher than average frequencies of haplogroups E3b and J2, neither of which is native to Britain. E3b is found most commonly in North Africa, Iberia, the Mediterranean and the Near East, and J2 occurs most frequently in the Near East, the Mediterranean and Western Asia. The fact that all three groups - E3b, J2 and Haplotype 35 - have a similar origin in territories of the Roman Empire, and occur at comparable frequencies in parts of Britain with a known history of Roman settlement, suggests that they arrived in Britain through the same means."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project (Haplogroup J2) - Haplogroup R1b (Haplotype 35).
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/haplo_r1b_ht35_analysis.htm

"In human genetics, Haplotype 35, also called ht35 or the Armenian Modal Haplotype, is a Y chromosome haplotype of Y-STR microsatellite variations, associated with the Haplogroup R1b. It is characterized by DYS393=12 (as opposed to the Atlantic Modal Haplotype, another R1b haplotype, which is characterized by DYS393=13). The members of this haplotype are found in high numbers in Anatolia and Armenia, with smaller numbers throughout Central Asia, the Middle East, the Balkans, the Caucus Mountains, and in Jewish populations. They are also present in Britain in areas that were found to have a high concentration of Haplogroup J, suggesting they arrived together, perhaps through Roman soldiers."
Wikipedia.org - Haplotype 35.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplotype_35

"Haplogroup J2, the paternal line, lands her son's ancestors smack dab in Italy. Aligning with family history, once the Y chromosome arrived they stayed in the neighborhood. See the blue route coming out of Africa? The northern branch ends close to what would become 15,000 years later — Rome, Italy (the boot is highlighted). Notes from the Genographic Project say that "J2" pioneered the shift from gathering to farming, kick starting the Neolithic Revolution."
DNA Portrait for a Science Cheerleader.
http://fellmanstudio.com/sci-art-blog/dna-portraits--2/science-cheerleader-portrait

"In our present times modern technology has contributed to our search for origins and relationships. The Clan has undertaken a DNA project to determine relationships among members. As of this writing, September 2011, a total of 77 males with the Curtin surname have been tested to varying degrees. Those tested are divided according to test results into "haplogroups," which may be likened to branches of the vast tree of mankind. The preponderance (75) of those tested fell into one of two haplogroups. Of these, 28 are in Haplogroup R1b1a2, which originated in the in the middle east, is the most common group in Western Europe, and includes 80% of the people in the British Isles. However, this group of our members includes descendents of both Clare and Cork Curtins. The majority of those tested (47), who are descended from Curtins in the Feale valley, in Cork, Kerry and Limerick, fall into haplogroup J2."
Curtin Clan - Curtin, Origin and History of the Name.
https://sites.google.com/site/curtinclan/origin-crest

"Thus we find that our two famous political Curtin/MacCurtain men are from two different haplogroups. Thomas MacCurtain, Lord Mayor of Cork, was in the R1b1 group, while John Curtin, Prime Minister of Australia, was from a Feale Valley J2 group."
Curtin Clan - Curtin, Origin and History of the Name.
https://sites.google.com/site/curtinclan/origin-crest

RHAS
11-20-2013, 03:00 AM
"Like many Americans, Nick Donofrio, IBM Executive Vice President, Innovation and Technology, knew his ancestors came from somewhere else. In his case, his grandparents came from Southern Italy to New York City. What he didn't know was that their forebears had settled in remote mountains in the Middle East 10,000 to 20,000 years ago."I never would have imagined the results," Nick says. "They're really kind of amazing." Analysis of Nick's DNA found he belonged in the Haplogroup J2."
Nick Donofrio - IBM Executive Vice President, Innovation and Technology.
http://www.ibm.com/solutions/genographic/us/en/landing/X266275H01345R01.html

"John Lorimer Worden of the U.S. Navy, commanding officer of U.S.S. Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads, first historical confrontation between iron made ships, as member of main lineage of Worden family, is supposed to belong to Y-DNA haplogroup J2b2."
List of haplogroups of historical and famous figures.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_haplogroups_of_historical_and_famous_figur es

"The bulk of J2 may have been brought to Britain by mercenaries recruited by the Romans."
Family Banks DNA Project.
https://sites.google.com/site/banksprojectsite/the-j-p215-groups

"We now have two members of Haplogroup J1 and 6 members of Haplogroup J2 in the Fox Poject. This is a Mediterranean Haplogroup but exists all over Europe to some extent. The Romans are thought to have brought this Haplogroup to Britain."
Fox FamilytreeDNA Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/FoxDNA/

"In Europe, the largest J2b populations are in Greece, Albania and Italy. This haplogroup is rare in Britain where it could represent remnants of eastern Mediterranean troops stationed on the island during the Roman occupation."
Cotton/Cotten DNA Project.
http://home.comcast.net/~cottondna/haplogroups.htm

"The Greek and Phoenician presence also brought J2 into France and of course the Roman period also would have been a major contributor of Haplogroup J2 into what is today, France. So although, rare, Haplogroup J2 can be found in local populations throughout France and Spain."
Dugas Family.
http://dugas.weebly.com/dna.html

RHAS
11-20-2013, 03:01 AM
"One coat of arms firm claims that the Judkins actually originated in Suffolk, England in far ancient times. This is where the celtic Coritani tribe of Rutland, Leiceister & Lincolnshire originated so this would preclude a Scottish origin prior to 1500 if the Judkins/Blackard J2 DNA type is linked to the Coritani rather than Romans."
Blackard Family History Blog.
http://blackardfamilyhistory.blogspot.nl/

"The Mediterranean and Middle Eastern group consists of the the two Es, the G and the two J2s. Whit Athey and others have theorized that this group is associated with the Neolithic spread of agriculture from the Middle East into Europe. On the other hand, a more recent paper by Steven C. Bird argues for a Roman origin for J2 and E3b at least."
Francis Surname Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Francissurnameproject/

"Sometime prior to that a Bretz ancestor must have come into Germany from the south, from Italy or Greece. Some researchers have suggested a family connection to Fabius Bretius, a Roman General, who came from the districts of Capua and Taranto in southern Italy to the town Trier, Germany around 224. Whether this connection is genuine or not, and it is impossible to know for sure, perhaps Roman conquests did bring Bretz DNA north 1,800 years ago as they did with so many other things. For some additional thoughts on the possible Latin origins of the family, also read the Genealogia Bretius."
Bretz Family, Haplogroup J2.
http://www.bretz.ca/GenWeb/html/dna/Y-bretz/

"Hoewel we tussen de periode van het ontstaan van onze haplogroep/subclade en het begin van de stamreeks de Sanders familiegeschiedenis niet met absolute zekerheid kunnen vaststellen ben ik van mening dat mede door het grote aantal indirecte aanwijzingen een redelijk nauwkeurig beeld van onze voorouders in die periode vastgesteld kan worden. Zo is het hoogstwaarschijnlijk dat onze voorouders in de tijd van het Romeinse rijk naar onze huidige geografische regio zijn gemigreerd. Zij waren waarschijnlijk Romeinse landbouwers en/of legionairs/veteranen van Italiaanse, Illyrische, Thracische of Griekse (Macedonische) afkomst. De indirecte relatie die we hebben met de van Santens geeft sterke aanwijzingen naar de plaats of regio Xanten, een oorspronkelijk Romeinse nederzetting die het middelpunt lijkt van de nederrijnse trojanenmythe. Deze Romeinse theorie sluit vervolgens perfect aan bij de eerstvolgende aanwijzing betreffende de afkomst van onze familie namelijk het Rooms Katholieke geloof."
Sanders Family, Haplogroup J2b2. (Dutch)
http://members.chello.nl/r.sanders20/sanders/

"Het onderzoek wees uit, dat het DNA profiel van de familie Lemmens uit de Sambeecksen Hoeck overeenkomt met Haplogroep J2. Deze Haplogroep J2 werd waargenomen bij enkele families (o.a. ook de familie van Kuppeveld) in en rond het Land van Cuijk. De oorsprong van Haplogroep J2 is het Midden Oosten. De onderzoekers stelden vast, dat de familie Lemmens vermoedelijk afstamt van de Romeinen die zich in het begin van de jaartelling ophielden in de Lage Landen, in het bijzonder in het Land van Cuijk en omstreken van Nijmegen."
Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum - De herkomst van de familie Lemmens. (Dutch)
http://www.bhic.nl/site/popup.php?id=12872

"My conclusion is that we are likely descendants of a Roman soldier serving in either Legio II or Legio XX. This Roman soldier was probably of Balkan (Macedonian, Illyrian, or Thracian) origin. It has been stated that ―The Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 within their borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency more than 5 percent), which bear an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire. More research is needed to obtain a definitive answer but, in my opinion, we are most likely descendants of Roman soldiers recruited from the Balkans (Thrace, Macedonia, or Greece). The Hollywood movie "King Arthur" (2004 by Touchstone Pictures) is a striking example of how our haplogroup could have arrived in Northwestern Europe in Roman times."
mr. R.H.A. Sanders, Haplogroup J2b2, Worden Family Newsletter August 2011.
http://wordenfamilyassoc.org/

"In which country did Mr. J2b2 live? Did Mr. J2b2 live in the Balkans and then his descendants move to India. Or was was it that Mr. J2b2 lived in India and then his descendants moved to the Balkans. One of the theories is that Mr. J2b2's descendant were part of Alexander the Greats army which made itself all the way to India."
Barr-Kumarakulasinghe’s and other families.
http://barrkumar.com/dna/whats_j2b2.html

"J2 has been well studied and can be split into several clades but whose mode of individual distribution is not well understood. Many influences such as Greek and Roman would have played a part."
Wells Family DNA Project.
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wellsfam/dnaproje/haplogroupJ.html

"How our more recent ancestors ended up in England is still a mystery. It could have been a random migration of a single man. During the Roman occupation of Europe many people immigrated there from many areas of the world. Soldiers were sent there to serve military obligations. One of these might have been a man from the Mediterranean area. His descendants eventually took the surname Field and he might have been our earliest J2b2 ancestor."
Genetic Journey of our branch of the Field family.
http://www.luciefield.net/geneticjourney.html

"Haplogroup J2b is most common in the Middle East and reaches its highest percentages in Turkey. In Europe, the largest J2b populations are in Greece, Albania and Italy. This haplogroup is rare in Britain where it could represent remnants of eastern Mediterranean troops stationed on the island during the Roman occupation."
Munley/Manley Surname Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Munley/default.aspx

"Een manlijke deelnemer van deze genealogie behoort tot de haplogroep J2a. Een Haplogroep die veel voorkomt in het Noord-Oostelijk deel van Noord-Brabant, vermoedelijk aldaar gekomen via de Romeinse nederzetting te Nijmegen."
Piet Verdonk Homepage - Genetische Genealogisch Onderzoek (DNA). (Dutch)
http://verdonk.home.xs4all.nl/DNA_Verbinding_stb_3.htm

"I've just had my DNA tested and it's coming up as a J2 Haplogroup, which probably means my ancient relation was most likely a Roman Legionaire garrisoned to the UK."
Genealogy: Jim Manley's Family Tree.
http://jimstree.blogspot.nl/

"Someone of J2a3d descent must have been living in Blacker Hill Yorkshire and acquired the Blacker name. They may well have descended from a Roman soldier or sailor from Lincoln or York who in turn must have been descended from the Phoenicians perhaps via Cantabria."
Lost Langtons.
http://www.lostlangtons.co.uk/HaplogroupJ2a4d.shtml

"We could even go so far as to suggest he probably was a member of the J Haplogroup carrying the J2 (M172 subgroup) y-chromosome."
Roman Times - Roman Archaeology.
http://ancientimes.blogspot.nl/p/roman-archaeology_29.html

"My paternal ancestors were mostly farmworkers or self-employed craftsmen of no great social standing. I can trace my line back to the 18th century (confirmed) and as far back as the late 1500s (conjectural). Our Y-DNA Haplogroup of J-M205 (J2b1, old J2b1b) would be considered, quite unambiguously, a potential "Roman Ancestry" DNA signature, being connected in earlier times to the Greek and Thracian Settlements in the Mediterranean basin. As a matter of fact, when confronted with the J2 haplotype by one of his British customers, even Dr. Bryan Sykes of Oxford Ancestors eventually suggested a Roman origin."
K. Pople, Pople Family Association.
http://poplefa.carbonmade.com/projects/4638348

"The J2 haplogroup came to England either through middle Eastern Roman soldiers who were stationed on the island (most common explanation), through Sephardic traders (not many of those), or through the migration to the island of gypsies in the 16th century (only being thought of as a possible source very recently)."
Harvey Genealogy.
http://history.earthsci.carleton.ca/harvey/genealogy/dnatestingindex.htm

RHAS
11-20-2013, 03:02 AM
"McGregor (5356) and the two brothers (7422 and 9338) belong to a DNA haplotype J2 that is found in Britain, but rarely. It is most common in Eastern European countries, leading to speculation that it is either from gypsy background or, possibly, from Eastern European soldiers stationed in Britain during the Roman occupation in the first three centuries AD."
The MacGregor DNA Project.
http://themacgregordnaproject.blogspot.nl/2005/08/where-are-we-now-update.html

"The majority of Clan Donnachaidh participants tested so far belong to the largest population group in Europe (Haplogroup R1b), which expanded throughout Western Europe after the last Ice Age and which was the first to recolonize Britain about 11 500 years ago. About 6% of Clan Donnachaidh participants belong to Haplogroup I, which is associated with Denmark and the adjoining area of Germany. Recent books published by Bryan Sykes and Stephen Oppenheimer claim that some Haplogroup I populations entered Britain from the east in prehistoric times, before the arrival of Anglians and Vikings; it would appear that this includes Haplogroup I communities in the Highlands. A very small number of participants belong to Haplogroups E, G, J and R1a."
Clan Donnachaidh (J2a4h2).
http://www.donnachaidh.com/DNA.html

"Haplogroup J2, is associated with the Romans, who also invaded Britain much earlier in about 90 AD."
Clan Strachan Society.
http://clanstrachan.org/activities/Genealogy/articles/reading_y-dna.htm

"Haplogroup J2 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J2a, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J2b, defined by the M12 genetic marker. A subclade of haplogroup J2a, defined by the M92 marker has been implicated in the ancient Greek colonization."
Leslie H. Kyle II.
http://kylehistory.x10.mx/dna.htm

"A recent DNA test was a bit of a surprise and has proven some of my family never made it home. J2 M172 is a very strange and rare YDNA for a English family to have. The best answer I have found was Syrian archers or others brought in from the middle east passed their genetic line onto my ancestors during the roman occupation of England."
A whole bunch of Ing's.
http://www.awholebunchofings.com/2012_04_01_archive.html

"The J2 haplogroup can be found in today's populations with notable frequency in Italy, Iberia, Turkey, Albania, Greece and even India, and most likely interacted with numerous cultures, including the Greeks and Romans."
Whittingham Family Ancestry.
http://www.whittinghams.me.uk/DNA.htm

"De haplogroep J is typerend voor de bevolking uit Zuid-Oost Europa, meer bepaald voor centraal en Zuid-Italië, Griekenland en Roemenië. Het wordt ook vaak teruggevonden in Frankrijk, Turkije en het Midden-Oosten. Deze haplogroep kan in verband worden gebracht met de oude Grieken, de Romeinen alsook de Pheniciërs."
The Sas Family - DNA en Genealogie. (Dutch)
http://thesasfamily.zsite.be/dna-en-genealogie

"In Europa komen vooral de Y-DNA haplogroepen R1b, R1a, I1, I2b, J2 en N3 voor."
The Sas Family - DNA en Genealogie. (Dutch)
http://thesasfamily.zsite.be/dna-en-genealogie

"There have been 18 Leonards that I am aware of who have had their y-dna tested for at least 12 markers. Those 18 sharing the Leonard surname have been distributed through testing into the E3a, E3b, I, J, and R1b Haplogroups. It would appear that Leonards of Irish and German descent generally fall in the R1b modal haplotype. This is a common haplotype in northern Europe. There aren’t enough Leonards tested in the E3a, E3b, I, and unassigned haplogroups and not enough is known about their ancestry to say very much about them yet. Six English Leonards fall into the J, more specifically, J2 haplogroup. Five of these whose genealogy has been traced back to the 1600’s are descendants of James Leonard, 1620-91, of Taunton, Massachusetts."
Leonard Y-DNA.
http://www.bradsport.com/LeonardYDNA.htm

"However, unexpected are the Y-DNA-tested Lavins with ancestors from Ireland, which so far has resulted in the predominant haplogroup of J2."
Lavin DNA Project.
http://www.worldfamilies.net/surnames/lavin

"So far Y-DNA shows that there seems to have been the assumption of the mother’s O’Neill surname among some of the O’Neill’s in Puerto Rico , and others are from various Island’s in the Caribbean including Tortola ,a Island that is close to the island of St. Croix, but not Barbados that is closer to the Island of Martinique. Only two people have tested one is of the Hg R1b sub clade and another from the J2 Haplogroup."
O'Neill's of Puerto Rico.
http://www.freewebs.com/mileshispaniae/

"I thought that you might find this interesting. Not only did I find that my paternal line is J2B2, but my paternal name is "Hammon" ("Ammon")! Alexander called himself the son of Ammon after visiting the oracle of Ammon at the Siwa Oasis! It isn't very likely that my sir name followed my yDNA. But it is intriguing! "
Hammon Family, Haplogroup J2b2, 2013.

"As to my family, My Worden branch came from Lancashire England and I can only go back to the late 1400s or early 1500s. The most likely probability is that we are descended from a Roman soldier who married a Saxon woman. There was a Roman retirement villiage right at the area we came from."
mr. R. Worden, Haplogroup J2b2, 2010.

"As far as our haplogroup goes, J2b2 is still something of a mystery - it's scattered all over Europe, including England, and I have assumed that it had to do with the spread of the Roman Empire. While J (and J1/J2) originated in the middle east and spread in several directions (even to India) it appears that J2b (and J2b2 particularly) seem to be mostly concentrated in Europe, and have probably been there for a long time."
mr. B. Goodman, Haplogroup J2b2, 2010.

RHAS
11-20-2013, 03:02 AM
"Haplogroup J2 is found frequently in Greece and Italy, in Turkey, and in the Caucasus region. J2 is also found in India, where the subclade [Haplogroup J2b2 (Y-DNA) J2b2] is widespread and another subclade [Haplogroup J2a (Y-DNA) J2a] is mainly restricted to North-West of the subcontinent population or later migrants to South and East India like Brahmins. This, together with its believed Anatolian origin, may be suggestive that it was originally a part of the Proto-Indo-European gene pool. According to the theory of Colin Renfrew, Indo-European languages spread from an Anatolian homeland."
Eat right for your type - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.drpeterjdadamo.com/wiki/w...oup_J2_(Y-DNA)

"Die Angehörigen der im Nahen Osten beheimateten Haplogruppen E3b, F, J2, G2 gelangen an der Schwelle vom 8. zum 7. Jahrtausend v.Chr. als sesshafte Ackerbauern und Viehzüchter in den südbalkanischen Raum, wo sie die das Neolithikum auf dem Alten Kontinent auslösende Sesklo-Kultur (1. Hälfte des 7. Jahrtausends v.Chr.) initiieren. 17% des Erbgutes der heutigen männlichen Europäer weisen auf die neolithischen Einwanderer aus Anatolien hin (siehe Seite 17). Für Freiburg im Breisgau/D gilt: E3b = 5% , J2 = 9% ***"
Martin Ballauf - Ballauf haplogruppe R1b1c1o. (German)
http://www.martin-ballauf.ch/Ballauf...pe_R1b1c10.pdf

"Nach einer Menge komplexer statistischer Auswertungen präsentieren Tayler-Smiths computerassistierte Genanalysatoren nun ein recht eindeutiges Ergebnis: Tatsächlich trägt die heutige männliche Bevölkerung speziell in alten Phöniziersiedlungsgebieten häufiger als anderswo typische Gensignaturvarianten der Haplogruppe J2. Charakteristisch für die Söhne altphönizischer Väter ist dabei offenbar besonders ein Austausch der Base Thymin durch Guanin an Position M172 des Y-Chromosoms. Mehr als sechs Prozent des Genpools in ehemaligen Phönizierniederlassungen stammen demnach noch heute aus den alten Linien der antiken Händler – und statistisch gesehen hat vielleicht jeder 18. lebende Mann im Mittelmeerraum direkte phönizische Vorfahren. Ganz offenbar brachten die Phönizier also einst nicht nur Handelswaren mit in neu besiedelte Gebiete."
Das Erbe der Verdrängten. (German)
http://www.spektrum.de/alias/humange...aengten/972180

"The J1-M267 and J2-M172 distributions in the Near East and Europe can be inferred from previously reported DYS388 data associated with Eu10 and Eu9, respectively (Semino et al. 2000a; Nebel et al. 2001b; Malaspina et al. 2001; Al-Zahery et al. 2003). While both J1 and J2 are found in the Near East, haplogroup J1-M267 typifies East Africans and Arabian populations, with a decreasing frequency northwards. Alternatively the majority of J lineages in Europe are J2-M172 that radiated from the Levant, coherent with the distributions of mitochondrial J, K, T1 and pre-HV clades (Richards et al. 2002)."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"The presence of J2-M172 related lineages successfully predicted the distribution of both Neolithic figurines and painted pottery attributed to agriculturalists (King and Underhill 2002)."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"The J2f-M67 clade is localized to Northwest Turkey. It is well known that during this period, Northwest Anatolia developed a complex society that engaged in widespread Aegean trade referred to as “Maritime Troia culture,” involving both the western Anatolian mainland and several of the large islands in the eastern Aegean, Chios, Lemnos and Lesbos (Korfmann 1996)."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"Another J2 component is intriguing. Although J2e-M12 lineages occur at low frequencies, they are widely distributed in the Middle East (Scozzari et al. 2001) and India (Kivisild et al. 2003), as well as in Saami from Kola, Russia (Raitio et al. 2001). By comparing data sets (Malaspina et al. 2001; Scozzari et al. 2001) we deduced that J2e-M12 lineages are distinctive from all other J2-M172 lineages on the basis of complex DYS413 and YCAII dinucleotide STRs."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"During the Bronze Age the population of Anatolia expanded, reaching an estimated level of 12 million during the late Roman Period (Russell 1958)."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"Spezielle Haplotypen von J2 findet man in Skandinavien und den britischen Inseln."
Deine DNA - Ahnenforschung. (German)
https://www.deinedna.com/index.php?ahnenforschung

"Interesting results from the lineage analysis can be summarized as follows: (i) R-L23*, the eastern branch of haplogroup R-M269, is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13, which probably originated in Western Asia, has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the spread of farming marked by haplogroup G-P15, J-M410 representatives; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea."
Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0056779

"Was im ersten Moment exotisch erscheint, ist auf den zweiten Blick gar nicht so aussergewöhnlich. Rund jeder achte Europäer stammt aus der Linie J2."
Tages Anzeiger - Für 300 Franken auf den Spuren der eigenen Vorfahren. (German)
http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/leben/ge...story/28960496

"J2a`s strong presence in Italy is owed in great part to the migration of the Etruscans from western Anatolia to central and northern Italy, and to the Greek colonisation of southern Italy. Immigration from the eastern Mediterranean to Rome during the Roman Empire, then from Anatolia, Thrace and Greece during the Byzantine period period (particularly in north-eastern Italy) further increased the incidence of j2 in the peninsula."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2. (2013)
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The likely deep ancestry source of Haplogroup J2 as found along the Anglo-Scottish border is probably to be found with members of the Roman Legions which were stationed along Hadrian's wall."
Border receivers - DNA Report Nov 2005.
http://www.borderreivers.co.uk/DNA%2...20Nov%2005.htm

"The YDNA Haplogroup of the ancient Phoenicians is J2, also identified as the signature of human migration via the Mediterranean in the Neolithic or New Stone Age around 6,000 BC, from the Levant into Europe."
Ancientmed.org - The Mediterraneans.
http://www.ancientmed.org/TheMediterraneans.htm

"Hg J: Hg J2 is present in the western Mediterranean basin, in contrast to Hg J1 which is characteristic of the Middle East and “Arabic” peoples. In Europe, Hg J2 is confined to Mediterranean Europeans, i.e. Greeks and southern Italians. Its frequency in Southern Slavs does not exceed 10%. Its presence might have been associated with certain seaborne Neolithic movements along the Mediterranean, as well as later historic events such as Greek colonization."
South Slavs.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/South_Slavs

RHAS
11-20-2013, 03:03 AM
"The Plantagenets are a bit more difficult to predict as some speculate that they are related to the Carpetian kings of France and descended from Roman citizens in the haplogroup J2 or G2."
Y-DNA of the British Monarchy.
http://www.surnamedna.com/?articles=...itish-monarchy

"Paternal genetic heritage was studied on DNA from 1,141 individuals analyzed for Y chromosome markers (data from the Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia and from the published sources) (Barač et al., 2003; Rootsi et al., 2004; Peričić et al., 2005a, 2005b). The individuals were from the continental parts of the Balkan peninsula, the north-west Adriatic and the south-east Alpine areas as well as from the Eastern Adriatic islands, i.e. the areas where the different Illyrian trybes settled during the Iron Age period (Fig.1). The sample was analyzed for Y chromosomal haplogroup frequencies in 9 populations and classified as I1a, I1b*-P37, R1a-SRY1532, R1b-M173, E3b1-M78 and J2e1 haplogroups."
Language Bounderies and Microevolutionary processes in South-Eastern Europe.
http://www.anthroinsula.org/resources/Iliri-english%20text%20version.pdf

"Attempts to ascertain Sicilian "ethnic" origins should be undertaken with caution because haplogroups do not correspond precisely to medieval or modern conceptions of nationality. At best, they are approximate. For example, J2 is identified with Greeks but also with some Germans. Speaking very broadly, the most frequent Y haplogroups of the world's most conquered island may be correlated most probably (albeit imprecisely) to the following peoples: • J2 - Greeks, Romans, Jews, Spaniards,"
Best of Sicily - Genetics.
http://www.bestofsicily.com/genetics.htm

"If J2b-Delta is a separate discrete lineage within J2b, this could have implications regarding when the lineage arrived in the British Isles. At present the two main hypotheses regarding the arrival of J2 in the British Isles that are commonly touted are 1) Neolithic farmers 2) Roman soldiers."
J2 Y-DNA Poject - J2 Cluster Analysis.
http://j2-ydnaproject.org/analysisphase3.html

"Results are also contradicted by tests on a family that believes they descend from Emperor Franz Josef. They belong to haplogroup J2. These results are also confidential."
Habsburg Family DNA Project.
http://www.geni.com/projects/Habsbur...A-Project/3775

"In summary, our data are in agreement with a major discontinuity for the peopling of southern Europe. Here, haplogroup J constitutes not only the signature of a single wave-of-advance from the Levant but, to a greater extent, also of the expansion of the Greek world, with an accompanying novel quota of genetic variation produced during its demographic growth."
Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf

"The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012). Later the Roman armies and auxiliaries played a role. Possibly even the Carthaginians under Hannibal (Battle of Cannae) played a role. Later still the Byzantine Empire, over a period of about 1000 years, very likely played a role in the movement of L24(M530) Y-chromosomes."
J2-L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012)
http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/

"Sardinians show a low overall frequency of haplotypes E and J relative to Italian populations. For example J-M172 in Sardinia has a value between 5% and 9.7% (Francalacci et al., 2003), against the frequencies of 16.7-29.1% of continental Italy (Semino et al., 2004)."
Genetic analysis of Sardinian population.
http://www.ata.org.tn/fichier_PDF/Article2.pdf

RHAS
11-20-2013, 03:43 AM
J-M172 Project.
http://j-m172.info/

J2-M172 Project.
http://j2-ydnaproject.org/

FamilytreeDNA J2-M172 Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2-M172

FamilytreeDNA J2b M102+ Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/m102/

FamiltreeDNA J-M241 Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/m241/

FamilytreeDNA J-L24 Y-DNA Haplogroup Project.
[/B]http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J-L24-Y-DNA/

FamilytreeDNA J2 Plus Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2Plus/

FamilytreeDNA J2a-PF5197 Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2a-PF5197/

FamilytreeDNA J Haplogroup Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Y-DNA_J/

FamilytreeDNA Netherlands Dual DNA Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Netherlands

Haplogroup J2-M172 Project Facebook.
https://www.facebook.com/pages/M172-Y-Dna-project/90964125661

Haplogroup J2-M172 Facebook Group.
https://www.facebook.com/groups/2406627768/

Haplogroup J2b and subclades Facebook Group.
https://www.facebook.com/groups/577326878950978/

Cultural Anthropology of Haplogroup J2 Facebook.
http://www.facebook.com/cultural.anthropology.of.haplogroup.j2

J2-M172 YouTube Channel.
http://www.youtube.com/user/YDNAHaplogroupJ2

Eupedia Haplogroup J2 Origins, Distribution & History.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

Eupedia Haplogroup Frequencies Europe.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/european_y-dna_haplogroups.shtml

J2a4h Y Haplogroup J-L25 DNA Blog.
http://j2a4h2.blogspot.com/

Y-DNA Haplogroup J2-M172 Flickr.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/ydna-haplogroup-j2-m172/

Y-DNA Haplogroup J2-M172 Imageshack.
http://imageshack.us/user/ydnahaplogroupj2

Haplogroup J2 Blog.
http://m172.blogspot.com/

GenealogyWise Y-DNA J2 Group.
http://www.genealogywise.com/group/ydnahaplogroupj2

Genomic Research.
http://kahikatearesearch.wordpress.com/

Dienekes Anthropology Blog.
http://dienekes.blogspot.com/

National Geographic Genographic Project.
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/

International Society of Genetic Genealogy.
http://www.isogg.org/

newtoboard
11-20-2013, 09:43 AM
"The Saluja’s have been a dynamic and mobile group of business people and professionals from North India. They hail from the region north of the river Jhelum, that divides the Jhelum & Gujrat districts, an area along the Salt mines (now in Pakistan). Historical records indicate that Alexander the Great of Macedonia came to India (326 B.C) crossing the Khyber Pass to Taxila near Rawalpindi. Alexander advanced to the northwest bank of the river Jhelum to the village of Haranpur, where allegedly the Macedonians set up their base camp prior to the battle with King Porus. It is quite conceivable that people from that area of North India particularly Haranpur, Jalalpur & surroundings to have Genes of people from Greece. In fact, DNA Analysis suggests that Saluja’s belong to the DNA Haplogroup J2b, which has its origin in Greece. J2b (M12, M314, M221, M102), and is mainly found in the Balkans, Greece, Italy, and India (possibly from Neolithic Greeks)*****J2b1 (M205) - formerly J2b1b. The Saluja family history can be traced directly to this historical melting pot."
Migration of Indians Across Continents spanning generations: A Case History of the Saluja Family.
http://www.amazon.com/Migration-Indians-Continents-spanning-generations/dp/0615469035


Since when did J2b originate in Greece? Thinking all or even a significant portion of the J2b in South Asia is from Alexander the great is likely nothing more than a myth or a fantasy. Everything I have said indicates J2b in South Asia is pre-Neolithic.

newtoboard
11-20-2013, 09:52 AM
*Everything I have read indicates J2b in South Asia is pre-Neolithic.

RHAS
11-20-2013, 11:15 AM
J2 Population Size Estimates

The purpose of this document is a global understanding of the J2 Y-DNA population size. Haplogroup frequencies taken from Eupedia.com. (Frequencies at Eupedia are compiled from different sources, reliability and sample size varies.) Population data taken from wikipedia.com. (Mostly 2012 data, when not available data from older dates is used.) Calculations were made assuming a 50/50 male-female ratio in each country.

J2-M172 Y-DNA European Population Estimate. (36 Countries)

Albania
Total Population: 3.002.859
Males: 1.501.430
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 19,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 292.779

Austria
Total Population: 8.219.743
Males: 4.109.871
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 12%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 493.185

Belarus
Total Population: 9.643.566
Males: 4.821.783
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 1,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 72.327

Belgium
Total Population: 10.438.353
Males: 5.219.177
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 4%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 208.767

Bosnia-Herzegovina
Total Population: 3.879.296
Males: 1.939.648
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 6%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 116.379

Bulgaria
Total Population: 7.037.935
Males: 3.518.968
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 15,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 545.440

Croatia
Total Population: 4.480.043
Males: 2.240.022
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 3,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 78.401

Czech Republic
Total Population: 10.177.300
Males: 5.088.650
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 6%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 305.319

Cyprus
Total Population: 1.099.341
Males: 549.671
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 37%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 203.378

Denmark
Total Population: 5.543.453
Males: 2.771.727
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 2,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 69.293

England
Total Population: 51.000.000 (2008)
Males: 25.500.000
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 3,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 892.500

Estonia
Total Population: 1.274.709
Males: 637.355
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 1%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 6374

France
Total Population: 62.814.233
Males: 31.407.117
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 7%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 2.198.498

Germany
Total Population: 81.305.856
Males: 40.652.928
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 4,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 1.829.382

Greece
Total Population: 10.767.827
Males: 5.383.914
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 23%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 1.238.300

Hungary
Total Population: 9.958.453
Males: 4.979.227
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 7%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 348.546

Italy
Total Population: 61.261.254
Males: 30.630.627
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 18%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 5.513.513

Ireland
Total Population: 6.399.152
Males: 3.199.576
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 1%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 31.996

Latvia
Total Population: 2.191.580
Males: 1.095.790
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 0,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 5479

Macedonia (FYROM)
Total Population: 2.082.370
Males: 1.041.185
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 12%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 124.942

Netherlands
Total Population: 16.730.632
Males: 8.365.316
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 6%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 501.919

Norway
Total Population: 5.033.675
Males: 2.516.838
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 1%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 25.168

Poland
Total Population: 38.415.284
Males: 19.207.642
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 2,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 480.192

Portugal
Total Population: 10.781.459
Males: 5.390.730
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 9,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 512.119

Romania
Total Population: 21.848.504
Males: 10.924.252
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 13%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 1.420.153

Russia
Total Population: 142.517.670
Males: 71.258.835
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 3%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 2.137.766

Scotland
Total Population: 5.295.000
Males: 2.647.500
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 2%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 52.950

Serbia
Total Population: 7.276.604
Males: 3.638.302
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 6,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 236.490

Slovakia
Total Population: 5.445.324
Males: 2.722.662
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 4%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 108.906

Slovenia
Total Population: 2.055.496
Males: 1.027.748
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 3%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 30.832

Spain
Total Population: 47.265.321
Males: 23.632.661
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 6%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 1.417.960

Sweden
Total Population: 9.540.065
Males: 4.770.033
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 3%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 143.101

Switzerland
Total Population: 8.000.000
Males: 4.000.000
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 6%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 240.000

Turkey/Anatolia
Total Population: 74.724.269
Males: 37.362.135
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 24%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 8.966.912

Ukraine
Total Population: 44.854.065
Males: 22.427.033
Haplogroup J2 Frequency: 6,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 1.457.757

Wales
Total Population: 3.063.500
Males: 1.531.750
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 1%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 15.318

Total European Estimate: 32.322.341 (32,3 Million)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Caucasus Population Estimate. (5 Countries)

Armenia
Total Population: 3.262.200
Males: 1.631.100
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 22%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 358.842

Azerbaijan
Total Population: 9.165.000
Males: 4.582.500
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 30,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 1.397.663

Chechnya
Total Population: 1.268.989
Males: 634.495
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 56,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 358.490

Georgia
Total Population: 4.469.200
Males: 2.234.600
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 27%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 603.342

Ingushetia
Total Population: 412.529
Males: 206.265
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 88%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 181.513

Total Caucasian Estimate: 2.899.850 (2,9 Million)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Middle East Population Estimate. (5 Countries)

Iran
Total Population: 75.149.669
Males: 37.574.835
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 12%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 4.508.980

Iraq
Total Population: 31.129.225
Males: 15.564.613
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 19,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 3.035.099

Jordan
Total Population: 6.508.271
Males: 3.254.136
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 13%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 423.038

Lebanon
Total Population: 4.224.000
Males: 2.112.000
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 26%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 549.120

Syria
Total Population: 22.530.746
Males: 11.265.373
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 17%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 1.915.113

Total Middle Eastern Estimate: 10.431.350 (10,4 Million)

J2-M172 Y-DNA North Africa Population Estimate. (3 Countries)

Egypt
Total Population: 82.000.000
Males: 41.000.000
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 11%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 4.510.000

Libya
Total Population: 5.670.688
Males: 2.835.344
No DNA data found.
Total J2 Y-DNA = not available.

Morocco
Total Population: 32.644.370
Males: 16.322.185
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 3%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 489.666

Tunesia
Total Population: 10.732.900
Males: 5.366.450
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 4%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 214.658

Total North African Estimate: 5.214.324 (5,2 Million)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Other Populations Estimate. (3 Groups)

Ashkenazi
Total Population: 11.200.000
Males: 5.600.000
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 19%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 1.064.000

Sephardim
Total Population: 2.000.000
Males: 1.000.000
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 25%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 250.000

Vlach/Aromun
Total Population: 500.000
Males: 250.000
Haplogroup J2 Y-DNA Frequency: 24,5%
Total J2 Y-DNA = 61.250

Total Other Population Estimate: 1.375.250 (1,4 Million)

RHAS
11-20-2013, 11:16 AM
J2-M172 Y-DNA Countries Of All Regions + Other Groups Frequency Estimate Top 25. (Top 25 of all countries & groups included in this research)

1. Ingushetia (88%)
2. Chechnya (56,5%)
3. Cyprus (37%)
4. Azerbaijan (30,5%)
5. Georgia (27%)
6. Lebanon (26%)
7. Sephardi (25%)
8. Vlachs/Aromuns (24,5%)
9. Turkey (24%)
10. Greece (23%)
11. Armenia (22%)
12. Albania & Iraq (19,5%)
13. Ashkenazi (19%)
14. Italy (18%)
15. Syria (17%)
16. Bulgaria (15,5%)
17. Romania & Jordan (13%)
18. Macedonia (FYROM), Austria, Iran (12%)
19. Egypt (11%)
20. Portugal (9,5%)
22. Spain (8%)
23. France & Hungary (7%)
24. Serbia & Ukraine (6,5%)
25. Netherlands, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Czech Republic, Switserland (6%)

J2-M172 Y-DNA European Countries Population Estimate Top 25.
(Top 25 of all European countries included in this research)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912)
2. Italy (5.513.513)
3. France (2.198.498)
4. Russia (2.137.766)
5. Germany (1.829.382)
6. Ukraine (1.457.757)
7. Romania (1.420.153)
8. Spain (1.417.960)
9. Greece (1.238.300)
10. England (892.500)
11. Bulgaria (545.440)
12. Portugal (512.119)
13. Netherlands (501.919)
14. Austria (493.185)
15. Poland (480.192)
16. Hungary (348.546)
17. Czech Republic (305.319)
18. Albania (292.779)
19. Switserland (240.000)
20. Serbia (236.490)
21. Cyprus (203.378)
22. Sweden (143.101)
23. Macedonia (FYROM) (124.942)
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina (116.379)
25. Slovakia (108.906)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Countries Of All Regions Population Estimate Top 25.
(Top 25 of all countries included in this research)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912)
2. Italy (5.513.513)
3. Egypt (4.510.000)
4. Iran (4.508.980)
5. Iraq (3.035.099)
6. France (2.198.498)
7. Russia (2.137.766)
8. Syria (1.915.113)
9. Germany (1.829.382)
10. Ukraine (1.457.757)
11. Romania (1.420.153)
12. Spain (1.417.960)
13. Azerbaijan (1.397.663)
14. Greece (1.238.300)
15. England (892.500)
16. Georgia (603.342)
17. Lebanon (549.120)
18. Bulgaria (545.440)
19. Portugal (512.119)
20. Netherlands (501.919)
21. Austria (493.185)
22. Morocco (489.666)
23. Poland (480.192)
24. Jordan (423.038)
25. Armenia (358.842)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Regional Population Size Estimate. (of regions included in this research)

1. Europe, 32,3 Million (32.322.341). -Turkey/Anatolia, 23,4 Million (23.355.429)
2. Middle East, 10,4 Million (10.431.350). +Turkey/Anatolia, 19,4 Million (19.398.262)
3. North Africa, 5,2 Million (5.214.324)
4. Caucasus, 2,9 Million (2.899.850)
5. Other, 1,4 Million (1.375.250) (Ashkenazi, Sephardi, Vlach/Aromun)

Total J2 Y-DNA in all regions = 52,2 Million (52.243.115)

RHAS
11-20-2013, 11:17 AM
Addendum.

"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com 2013

"The propagation of J2b and E V-13 correspond roughly to the ancient Greek and Roman spheres of influence."
Eupedia.com 2013

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian"
Eupedia.com 2013

"Di Giacomo stressed the role of post-Neolithic migratory phenomenon, specifically that of the Ancient Greeks, as also being important in the dispersal of haplogroup J-M172."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172 2013

"J-M172, which occurs as frequently as J-M267 in some Middle Eastern populations, is the more prevalent in Europe."
Origin Diffusion and Differentation Y-Chromosome Haplogroups E and J

J2-M172 Y-DNA European Countries Population Estimate Top 25 + Civilisations.
(Top 25 of all countries included in this research & major civilisations/tribes they were part of.)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912) - (Ancient Greece, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
2. Italy (5.513.513) - (Ancient Greece, Etruscan, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Holy Roman Empire)
3. France (2.198.498) - (Ancient Greece, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
4. Russia (2.137.766) - (Ancient Greece, Sarmatia*, Scythia, Russian Empire)
5. Germany (1.829.382) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
6. Ukraine (1.457.757) - (Ancient Greece, Sarmatia*, Scythia)
7. Romania (1.420.153) - (Ancient Greece, Thrace, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
8. Spain (1.417.960) - (Ancient Greece, Phoenician, Roman Empire, Gothic Kingdom, Moors, Spanish Empire)
9. Greece (1.238.300) - (Ancient Greece, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman)
10. England (892.500) - (Roman Empire, British Empire)
11. Bulgaria (545.440) - (Ancient Greece, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
12. Portugal (512.119) - (Ancient Greece, Phoenician, Roman Empire)
13. Netherlands (501.919) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
14. Austria (493.185) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Austria- Hungarian Empire)
15. Poland (480.192) - (Sarmatia, Polish Kingdom, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Vlach & German Settlers)
16. Hungary (348.546) - (Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria- Hungarian Empire)
17. Czech Republic (305.319) - (Roman Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
18. Albania (292.779) - (Ancient Greece, Illyria, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
19. Switserland (240.000) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
20. Serbia (236.490) - (Ancient Greece, Roman Empire, Austria- Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
21. Cyprus (203.378) - (Ancient Greece, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
22. Sweden (143.101) - (Germanic, Nordic, Viking, Kingdom of Sweden, Swedish Empire)
23. Macedonia (FYROM) (124.942) - (Ancient Greece, Macedon, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina (116.379) - (Illyria, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
25. Slovakia (108.906) - (Scytho-Thracian, Celts, Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Countries Of All Regions Population Estimate Top 25 + Civilisations.
(Top 25 of all countries included in this research & major civilisations/tribes they were part of.)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
2. Italy (5.513.513) - (Ancient Greece*, Etruscan, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Holy Roman Empire)
3. Egypt (4.510.000) - (Ancient Egypt, Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom*, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
4. Iran (4.508.980) - (Parthian Empire, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom*, Persian Empire)
5. Iraq (3.035.099) - (Mesopotamia, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
6. France (2.198.498) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
7. Russia (2.137.766) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia, Russian Empire)
8. Syria (1.915.113) - (Mesopotamia, Phoenician, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
9. Germany (1.829.382) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
10. Ukraine (1.457.757) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia)
11. Romania (1.420.153) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
12. Spain (1.417.960) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire, Gothic Kingdom, Moors, Spanish Empire)
13. Azerbaijan (1.397.663) - (Scythia, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire)
14. Greece (1.238.300) - (Ancient Greece*, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman)
15. England (892.500) - (Celtic, Roman Empire, British Empire)
16. Georgia (603.342) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire)
17. Lebanon (549.120) - (Phoenician, Persian Empire, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Ottoman)
18. Bulgaria (545.440) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
19. Portugal (512.119) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire)
20. Netherlands (501.919) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
21. Austria (493.185) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
22. Morocco (489.666) - (Phoenician, Roman Empire)
23. Poland (480.192) - (Sarmatia, Polish Kingdom, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Vlach & German Settlers)
24. Jordan (423.038) - (Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
25. Armenia (358.842) - (Kingdom of Armenia, Roman Empire, Persian Empire. Ottoman Empire, Russian)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/1074318_623171751074317_1544350417_o.jpg
(Left: The geographic space over which Classical Greek and Latin served as a lingua franca in antiquity. Right: Y-DNA Haplogroup Frequency map of J2-M172.)

Source of Language map: http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=ArticleWrapper&bdc=12&mn=4827

944

Dr_McNinja
11-20-2013, 05:20 PM
"Lastly, HG J2b2-M241–related microsatellite variance is higher in Uttar Pradesh near the border of Nepal. It should be noted that numerous Mesolithic sites have been observed in this region (Kennedy 2000)."
Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/Interesting for a number of reasons. My father's phased paternal kit (via GEDmatch's phasing tool) showed high affinity for this exact area (Nepal was high on his population match) and in DNA-Tribes my highest match was the Tharu population of this region. There were other associations with Northeast Indian tribal populations in these various tests too. There's no such association with my mother's kit which was closer to Punjabi Brahmin in the admixture tools.

Also note how the Haplogroup frequency overlaps between R1a1, R2, J2b2, but variation differs:

http://i.imgur.com/swYxoDW.png
http://i.imgur.com/dAmDj6f.png
http://i.imgur.com/uBbLpsv.png

The Geno 2.0 map shows an additional hotspot in Sindh/Gujarat which makes the correlation that much more striking.

RHAS
11-20-2013, 11:22 PM
According to the Greek legend Europa’s brother Cadmus went looking for his kidnapped sister who is depicted on the mosaic being whisked away on the back of Zeus disguised as a bull. The story goes that in his search for Europe Cadmos transmitted the Phoenician alphabet to the Hellenes.

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/577720_510383479019812_1389822478_n.jpg
The Abduction of Europa: mosaic, Byblos, 3rd century A.D . National Museum of Beirut Collection.

"Cadmus or Kadmos (Ancient Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was a Phoenician prince, the son of king Agenor and queen Telephassa of Tyre and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix and Europa. He was originally sent by his royal parents to seek out and escort his sister Europa back to Tyre after she was abducted from the shores of Phoenicia by Zeus. Cadmus founded the Greek city of Thebes, the acropolis of which was originally named Cadmeia in his honour. Cadmus was credited by the ancient Greeks (Herodotus is an example) with introducing the original Alphabet or Phoenician alphabet -- phoinikeia grammata, "Phoenician letters"—to the Greeks, who adapted it to form their Greek alphabet."
Cadmus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmus

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2011.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

Haplogroup J2, Greeks, Phoenicians, Etruscans, Romans.

"The authors found a weak – but significant – genetic signature among their samples that could not be explained by chance. Many of the samples belonged to a very specific branch of haplogroup J2, which the authors believe points back to distinct migrations by Phoenician traders from the Middle East into Europe and North Africa more than 3,000 years ago."
Ripples in the Mediterranean: Tracing the Genetic Origins of the Phoenicians.
http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/rip...e-phoenicians/

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origin...s_europe.shtml

"In 2004, two geneticists educated at Harvard University and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells, identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research."
Familypedia.com - Phoenicia.
http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Phoenicia

"Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash4/484321_510285402362953_1312221250_n.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_alphabet

"Phoenician became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it was assimilated by many other cultures and evolved."
Phoenician Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet

"The Greek alphabet was developed by a Greek with first-hand experience of contemporary Phoenician script and, almost as quickly as it was established in the Greek mainland was rapidly re-exported, eastwards to Phrygia, where a similar script was devised, and westwards with Euboean or West Greek traders, where the Etruscans adapted the Greek alphabet to their own language."
History of the Greek Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History...Greek_alphabet

"The Latin alphabet is the main writing system in use in the Western world and is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. It is the standard script of the English language and is often referred to simply as "the alphabet" in English. It is a true alphabet which originated in the 7th century BC in Italy and has changed continually over the last 2500 years. It has roots in the Semitic alphabet and its offshoot alphabets, the Phoenician, Greek, and Etruscan."
History of the Latin Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History...Latin_alphabet

The English word alphabet came into Middle English from the Late Latin word alphabetum, which in turn originated in the Greek ἀλφάβητος (alphabētos), from alpha and beta, the first two letters of the Greek alphabet. Alpha and beta in turn came from the first two letters of the Phoenician alphabet, and originally meant ox and house respectively.

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/156057_510305222360971_1621426644_n.jpg

RHAS
11-20-2013, 11:46 PM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=iDaJLDfdd6Y

"One extraordinary group carried their traditions and their chromosomes into the Mediterranean frontier. Were they the Atlantis superheroes of science fiction? No. They do appear to have been more intellectually and artistically advanced than anyone around them in the same time period. Where they settled, they made an impact. Their descendants survived through the ages with aspects of their original ancient identity largely intact until time and assimilation finally absorbed them -- as Sea Peoples and Temple-Builders, later as Minoans and Etruscans, and still later in the great civilizations of Classical Greece and Rome. Original ancestral families of settlers who make up a bridge into civilization are the people we are identifying as The Mediterraneans."
http://www.ancientmed.org/TheMediterraneans.htm

RHAS
11-21-2013, 12:33 AM
Correlations between the distribution/spread of Haplogroup J2-M172, the Roman Empire, Viticulture and Christianity.

Haplogroup J2 - Roman Empire.

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/735130_476357865755707_1979767653_n.jpg

Haplogroup J2 - Spread of Christianity.

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/555133_517420614982765_1576923373_n.jpg

Haplogroup J2 - Viticulture.

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/561950_519419698116190_165014943_n.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 12:35 AM
Haplogroup J2 & Romans.

"It is important to note that at least four additional YDNA markers may have arrived with the Romans. What have been described as the Balkan group (E-V13), the Ancient Caucasians (G-S314), the Herdsman-Farmers (J-M172 – and a sub-group of this, M67, looks particularly Italian) and the Anatolian marker (R1b-M269*), when taken together, potentially add another 2.3 million Englishmen and Welshmen who could trace their fatherlines to the veterans of the II Augusta, the IX Hispana, the XIV Gemina, the XX Valeria Victrix and the other Italians who crossed to Britain in their wake."
BritainsDNA Press Releases - BritainsDNA finds the Lost Legions.
http://www.britainsdna.com/about/press-releases

"Moffat said his colleagues had also discovered DNA originating from Roman-period Illyria, the area occupied by modern Croatia, which may relate to Roman occupation of lowland Scotland."
Guardian - Scotland DNA Study Project.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/au...-study-project

"In this study, we have detected a number of lineages that are prominent in the Balkans (I2*, I2b*, J2b1 and J2b2) at low levels throughout Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, the latter of which also contains haplogroups commonly associated with Bronze Age Greece (ie, J2a8-M319 (4.9%), and E1b1b1-M78 and its sublineages (3.9%)). While this may suggest genetic input from early Greek or Phrygian tribes, it is also possible that these low levels of Balkan lineages arrived in Armenia at a later time, such as during one of the many incursions into the area during the reign of the Macedonian, Roman and Byzantine empires."
Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...g2011192a.html

"One fourth of the Vlach people (isolated communities of Romance language speaking peoples in the Balkans) belong to J2, which, combined to the fact that they speak a language descended from latin, suggests that they could have had a greater part of Roman (italian) ancestry than other ethnic groups in the Balkans."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The J2 haplogroup can be found in today’s populations with notable frequency in Italy, Iberia, Turkey, Albania, Greece and even India, and most likely interacted with numerous cultures, including the Greeks and Romans."
Ancestry.com - Paternal Ancestry Certificate.
http://www.ancestry.com/

"Haplogroups in Wallonia show the expected admixture of Gallo-Roman (R1b-S28, J2, G2a, E1b1b) and Germanic (R1b-S21,I1,I2b) haplogroups."
Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project, Benelux & France.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelu..._project.shtml

"With respect to the Romans and the Visigoths, Romans appear not differ much genetically from the Iberians, particularly in relation to the Y chromosome, such that the gene frequencies of the population would not have changed much due to these invaders."
Searching the Peopling of the Iberian Peninsulafrom the Perspective of Two Andalusian Subpopulations: A Study Based on Y-chromosome Haplogroups J and E.
http://academia.edu/3067504/Searchin...Subpopulations

RHAS
11-21-2013, 12:37 AM
"Research conducted by the administrators of the Border Reivers DNA Project has identified numerous haplotypes in persons of British descent that show Haplotype 35 markers. Moreover, most of these haplotypes appear to originate from areas of Britain near the Antonine Wall, Hadrian's Wall and other places of Roman fortification or settlement. These areas include Galloway, Dumfries, Ayrshire and The Borders in Scotland, and Cumbria, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Shropshire and Staffordshire in England. Many of the Roman troops stationed in these areas came from Southeastern Europe or Western Asia. They included Sarmatians, Dacians, Goths, Syrians, Mesopotamians, Thracians and Anatolians. The Capelli study has shown that these areas also exhibit higher than average frequencies of haplogroups E3b and J2, neither of which is native to Britain. E3b is found most commonly in North Africa, Iberia, the Mediterranean and the Near East, and J2 occurs most frequently in the Near East, the Mediterranean and Western Asia. The fact that all three groups - E3b, J2 and Haplotype 35 - have a similar origin in territories of the Roman Empire, and occur at comparable frequencies in parts of Britain with a known history of Roman settlement, suggests that they arrived in Britain through the same means."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project (Haplogroup J2) - Haplogroup R1b (Haplotype 35).
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb....5_analysis.htm

"The members of this haplotype are found in high numbers in Anatolia and Armenia, with smaller numbers throughout Central Asia, the Middle East, the Balkans, the Caucus Mountains, and in Jewish populations. They are also present in Britain in areas that were found to have a high concentration of Haplogroup J, suggesting they arrived together, perhaps through Roman soldiers."
Wikipedia.org - Haplotype 35.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplotype_35

"We could even go so far as to suggest he probably was a member of the J Haplogroup carrying the J2 (M172 subgroup) y-chromosome."
Roman Times - Roman Archaeology.
http://ancientimes.blogspot.nl/p/rom...eology_29.html

"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com , 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"Another relatively more recent mode for J2's entry into some parts of Europe from the Mediterranean areas could have been the Roman Legions and Roman settlements."
Kerchner.com - YDNA Haplogroup Descriptions & Information Links.
http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm

"This lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India. J2 is found in Britain, but rarely. It is most common in Eastern European countries, leading to speculation that it is either from gypsy background or, possibly, from Eastern European soldiers stationed in Britain during the Roman occupation in the first three centuries AD."
Scotland DNA Project.
http://www.ourfamilyorigins.com/scotland/j2.htm

"Nog een aardigheidje voor Oost-Brabant: daar is een relatieve concentratie van haplogroep J gevonden. Volgens genetisch genealogen zijn die mensen waarschijnlijk nazaten van de oude Romeinen, gelegerd in Noviomagus (Nijmegen) of rond Locus Paludosus (De Peel)."
Eindhovens Dagblad - Veel DNA komt uit Spanje en Scandinavië. (Dutch)
http://www.ed.nl/regio/4449996/Veel-...candinavie.ece

Translated: One remarkable fact about this research is the concentration of J(2) found in the province of North Brabant, Genetic Genealogist believe these people are decended from Roman Soldiers stationed in Noviomagus (City of Nijmegen) and Locus Paludosis (De Peel)"

"From about 700 BCE, the Etruscans settled around Tuscany and the Greeks in southern Italy. Etruscans probably came from Palestine and brought haplogroups J1, J2 and E with them. The Greeks in Italy were Doric and brought J2, E, G2a and probably more R1b (see above). The Romans progressively absorbed the Etruscans and Italian Greeks and mixed with them. By the time of Julius Caesar Roman citizens were probably composed of 45% of R1b, 20% of J, 15% of E, 15% of G2a and 5% of I2a."
Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...-civilizations

"De verdeling der hoofdhaplogroepen met ruwweg hun plaats van ontstaan en de afgelegde weg: R1b: 145 57,31 % directe afstammelingen van de Cro-Magnons. I1: 030 11,86 % Balkan, Centraal Europa, Scandinavië. I2: 027 10,67 % Caucasus, Balkan, gebied van ex-Joegoslavië. E1: 016 06,32 % Noord-Afrika, Middellandse Zeegebied. J2: 011 04,35 % Mesopotamië, Feniciërs, Grieken, Zuid-Italië, (Romeinen)."
Familiekunde Vlaanderen - Jaarverslag 2009. (Dutch)
http://www.familiekunde-vlaanderen.b...lag%202009.pdf

"In deze studie wordt een tot nu toe niet bekende concentratie van de haplogroepen J in oostelijk Brabant aangetroffen. Het betreft hier voornamelijk J2 en oude, gevestigde families. Het is niet onmogelijk dat hier sprake is van families van nazaten van ´Romeinse´soldaten. Ook in het grensgebied van Engeland en Schotland is een concentratie van J2 families gevonden. In dat gebied zijn ook resten van tempels van de Iraanse god Mitras bekend en blijkt er een boogschuttereenheid uit het Midden/Oosten gelegerd geweest te zijn. Romeinse aanwezigheid in het land van Cuijck en aan de randen van de Peel (de naam is afkomstig van de naam die de Romeinen aan het gied gaven: Locus Paludosus ofwel moerassige streek) is bekend, zoals ook landmetingen van militairen die zich er gevestigd hadden en landbouw bedreven."
Project Genetische Genealogie in Nederland. (Dutch)
http://www.barjesteh.nl/DNAproject.htm

Translated: "In this study is an untill now unknown concentration of J haplogroups found in eastern Brabant. These mainly are old established J2 families. It is not impossible that these families are descendants of Roman Soldiers. Also in the border area of England and Scotland concentrations of J2 families are found. In these areas temples of the Iranian god Mithras are known to have excisted and there appears to be remnants of an archer unit stationed in the Middle / East. Roman presence in the country in that area of Cuijck and at the edges of the Peel (the name comes from the name the Romans gave to the area: Locus paludosus either swampy area) is known, as surveying of soldiers who had established and agriculture experts ".

"J2 - This haplogroup originated during the Neolithic in Central Asia, and spread across the Mediterranean and the Middle East. It may have been brought to Britain by prehistoric farmers, Greek or Phoenician traders and Sephardic Jews among the Normans and the Flemish - as well as by Roman troops and settlers."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project.
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb..../~gallgaedhil/

"Het eerste jaar heeft tal van verrassingen opgeleverd. Via de gevonden DNA-profielen konden een aantal families aan elkaar gekoppeld worden, die voor het project nog niet van een onderlinge band wisten. Verrassend was voor tal van deelnemers ook de diepere oorsprong van de familie. Een oorsprong die bijvoorbeeld mogelijk te vinden is bij de zich in onze gebieden gevestigd hebbende soldaten uit het Romeinse leger."
Heemkundekring Weerderheem - Project Genetische Genealogie in Nederland. (Dutch)
http://www.weerderheemvalkenswaard.n...caties-dna.pdf

Translated: The first year has yielded many surprises. A number of families could be linked together, which did not yet know of a mutual bond. Surprisingly for many participants were the discovery of deeper origins of the family. An origin that may be found for example in the areas were soldiers from the Roman army having settled.

"The propagation of J2b and E V-13 correspond roughly to the ancient Greek and Roman spheres of influence."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origin...s_europe.shtml

"TONGEREN/ALKEN/WELLEN - Welke Tongerse families stammen echt af van de Romeinen? Onderzoekers van de KU Leuven zoeken dat uit aan de hand van DNA-stalen van tientallen mannen. Het Romeins DNA-project is een initiatief van het laboratorium van forensische genetica en moleculaire archeologie van de Leuvense universiteit en Familiekunde Vlaanderen."
Nieuwsblad - Romeins DNA van Limburgers onderzocht.
http://www.nieuwsblad.be/article/det...21104_00357111

Translated: Which Tongeren families are really descendants of the Romans? Researchers of the University of Leuven are investigation the DNA samples of dozens of men. The Roman DNA-project is an initiative of the laboratory of forensic genetics and molecular archeology of the University of Leuven and the Genealogical Society of Flanders.

"In 380, under Emperor Theodosius I, Christianity became the state religion of the Roman Empire by the decree of the Emperor, which would persist until the fall of the Western Empire, and later, with the Eastern Roman Empire, until the Fall of Constantinople."
History of the Catholic Church.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History...atholic_Church

Tiberius Julius Abdes Pantera.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tiberiu..._Abdes_Pantera

Roman DNA Project.
http://romandnaproject.org/

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/1011016_557977024260457_2073484420_n.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 12:38 AM
Haplogroup J2 & Viticulture.

"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/corr...ticulture.html

"Ancient Rome played a pivotal role in the history of wine. The earliest influences on the viticulture of the Italian peninsula can be traced to ancient Greeks and the Etruscans. The rise of the Roman Empire saw both technological advances in and burgeoning awareness of winemaking, which spread to all parts of the empire. Rome's influence has had a profound effect on the histories of today's major winemaking regions in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal and Spain."
Ancient Rome and Wine.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome_and_wine

"The influence of ancient Greece on wine is significant, not only to the Greek wine industry but to the development of almost all European wine regions and to the history of wine itself. The importance of viticulture in ancient Greek society is evident in a quote from the Greek historian Thucydides:“ The peoples of the Mediterranean began to emerge from barbarism when they learned to cultivate the olive and the vine. ” The ancient Greeks pioneered new methods of viticulture and wine production that they shared with early winemaking communities in what are now France, Italy, Austria and Russia, as well as others, through trade and colonization. Along the way, they markedly influenced the ancient European winemaking cultures of the Celts, Etruscans, Scythians and ultimately the Romans."
Ancient Greece and wine.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Greece_and_wine

"The culture of the ancient Phoenicians was one of the first to have had a significant effect on the history of wine. Phoenicia was a civilization centered in the northern reaches of Canaan along the eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea, in what is now modern-day Lebanon. Between 1550 BC and 300 BC, the Phoenicians developed a maritime trading culture that expanded their influence from the Levant to North Africa, the Greek Isles, Sicily, and the Iberian Peninsula. Through contact and trade, they spread not only their alphabet but also their knowledge of viticulture and winemaking, including the propagation of several ancestral varieties of the Vitis vinifera species of wine grapes."
Phoenicians and wine.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenicians_and_wine

"Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794

"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com , 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origin...s_europe.shtml

"The most frequent haplogroups among the current population on Crete were: R1b3-M269 (17%), G2-P15 (11%), J2a1-DYS413 (9.0%), and J2a1h-M319 (9.0%). They identified J2a parent haplogroup J2a-M410 (Crete: 25.9%) with the first ancient residents of Crete during the Neolithic (8500 BCE – 4300 BCE) suggesting Crete was founded by a Neolithic population expansion from ancient Turkey/Anatolia."
The Minoans, DNA and all.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wor...s-dna-and-all/

"Both Early Christianity and Early Rabbinical Judaism were significantly influenced by Hellenistic religion and Hellenistic philosophy. Christianity in particular inherited many features of Greco-Roman paganism in its structure, its terminology, its cult and its theology. Titles such as Pontifex Maximus and Sol Invictus were taken directly from Roman religion. The influence of Neoplatonism on Christian theology is significant, visible for example in Augustine of Hippo's identification of God as summum bonum and of evil as privatio boni. Striking parallels between the New Testament account of Jesus and classical gods or demigods such as Bacchus, Bellerophon or Perseus were recognized by the Church Fathers and termed "demonic imitation" by Justin Martyr in the 2nd century."
Origins of Christianity.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origins_of_Christianity

"Modern scholars such as Martin Hengel, Barry Powell, Robert M. Price, and Peter Wick, among others, argue that Dionysian religion and Christianity have notable parallels."
Dionysus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dionysus


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ce5lrfQN0Bk

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/602075_496308773760616_1899390364_n.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 12:45 AM
https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/1234612_587696551288504_1044586635_n.jpg

Article from the Flemish Society of Genealogy. (Dutch Language) (2009)

(Translated: copyright VVF Bruges
DNA-PROJECT 2009-2010 (continued)
Results for the main haplogroups of the first 505 samples:
Group Number% Origin...
Rlb 298 59.01 direct descent from the Cro-Magnons
I1 61 17.08 Balkans, Central Europe and Scandinavia
I2 43 8.51 Caucasus, Balkans, the former Yugoslavia
E1 25 4.95 North Africa, Midde Lands region
J2 24 4.75 Mesopotamia, Phoenicians, Greeks, southern Italy (Romans)
R1a 20 3.96 Ukraine, Russia, Scandinavia
G2 17 3.37 Caucasus, Georgia, Armenia
J1 7 1.39 Mesopotamia, Arabs, Jews
L 4 0.79 India and Pakistan, Russia, North Europe
Q 3 0.59 Siberia, North and South America)

http://www.brugseverenigingen.be/_us...ber%202009.pdf

RHAS
11-21-2013, 12:48 AM
Viticulture.

"The earliest evidence of grape vine cultivation and winemaking dates back 7,000 years. The history of viticulture is closely related to the history of wine, with evidence that humans cultivated wild grapes to make wine as far back as the Neolithic period. Evidence suggests that some of the earliest domestication of Vitis vinifera occurred in the area of the modern country Georgia. There is also evidence of grape domestication in the Near East in the early Bronze Age, around 3200 BC."
Viticulture.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viticulture

"Wine has a rich history dating back to around 6000 BC and is thought to have originated in areas now within the borders of Georgia. Wine probably appeared in Europe at about 4500 BC in what is now Bulgaria, and Greece, and was very common in ancient Greece, Thrace and Rome. Wine has also played an important role in religion throughout history. The Greek god Dionysus and the Roman equivalent Bacchus represented wine, and the drink is also used in Catholic Eucharist ceremonies and the Jewish Kiddush."
Cradle of wine - Georgia.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dtMNyb1iEWE

RHAS
11-21-2013, 12:51 AM
https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/285709_496832190374941_341618156_n.png

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/1150305_591299907594835_72728669_n.jpg

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/1236259_591804834211009_98755787_n.jpg

http://www.anthrogenica.com/attachment.php?attachmentid=949&d=1384995229

949

948

947

RHAS
11-21-2013, 12:59 AM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q8qGNPo4QMA

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:03 AM
The tale of Aeneas (Romulus and Remus, Rome) and J-M92.

The red area in Anatolia (on the J-M92 Map) is were Troy was situated. Aeneas and his family, when he fled Troy, eventually ended up in Cumae near Naples (the other red area in Italy on the J-M92 map) were he saw some priestes of Apollo. She told him his descendants would create the Roman Empire. (Romulus and Remus)

"In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (/ɪˈniːəs/; Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praise") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite. His father was the second cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas Priam's second cousin, once removed. He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad, and receives full treatment in Roman mythology as the legendary founder of what would become Ancient Rome, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid."
Aeneas.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeneas

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Aeneas%27_Flight_from_Troy_by_Federico_Barocci.jpg

"An earlier tradition that gave Romulus a distant ancestor in the semi-divine Trojan prince Aeneas was further embellished, and Romulus was made the direct ancestor of Rome's first Imperial dynasty. Possible historical bases for the broad mythological narrative remain unclear and disputed. The image of the she-wolf suckling the divinely fathered twins became an iconic representation of the city and its founding legend, making Romulus and Remus preeminent among the feral children of ancient mythography."
Romulus and Remus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus_and_Remus

Haplogroup J-M92

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/539802_497512770306883_1591683737_n.jpg

Map Navigatio Troiani Aeneas

http://www.bergbook.com/images/17715-01.jpg

Map travels of Aeneas.

http://www.daviddarling.info/images/journeys_of_Aeneas.jpg

-------

"The J2f-M67 clade is localized to Northwest Turkey. It is well known that during this period, Northwest Anatolia developed a complex society that engaged in widespread Aegean trade referred to as "Maritime Troia culture," involving both the western Anatolian mainland and several of the large islands in the eastern Aegean, Chios, Lemnos and Lesbos (Korfmann 1996)."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"2.1. The Maritime Troy Culture.The coastline of the North Aegean and the costal regions of the Marmara Sea were determined as the area of distribution of the “Maritime Troy Culture”, which encompasses the first three settlement phases of Troy from c. 2920 to 2200 BC (KORFMANN 2006:4). In more general terms this is the period of the Early Bronze Age (EBA)"
http://tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de/v...ss_Guendem.pdf

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/1264211_598415363549956_1173191371_o.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:17 AM
Vintage a History of Wine.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TJnHLdGxhlc


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3wLelD6PfEQ


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uFm6GaNTmlE

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:19 AM
Romans, Christianity and viticulture/Agriculture.

"Now nearly extinct in the wild, grapes (vitis vinifera) grew throughout the ancient Mediterranean, the juice readily fermenting as the enzymes of wild yeasts that naturally collect on the waxy skin break down the sugar content of the grape into alcohol and carbon dioxide. In Italy, grape vines were cultivated both in the north by the Etruscans and in the south by Greek colonists. Wine growing was less important to the Romans, who, in the early years of the Republic, were fighting to expand their domination of the peninsula. By the middle of the second century BC, however, with the defeat of the Etruscans and the Samnites, Pyrrhus and the Greeks, Philip of Macedonia and the Carthaginians, Rome controlled the Mediterranean, and there were both the wealth and markets to invest in vineyards.The earliest work on wine and agriculture was written in Punic. After the destruction of Carthage in 146 BC, the Senate decreed that this treatise be translated into Latin, and it subsequently became the source for all Roman writing on viticulture. Ironically, it was Cato who had insisted on the destruction of Carthage in the Punic wars and who, about 160 BC, wrote De Agri Cultura, the first survey of Roman viticulture, which, significantly, also is the earliest surviving prose work in Latin. In it, he discusses the production of wine on large slave-based villa estates, which suggests how important vine cultivation had become in an agrarian economy that traditionally was subsistence farming."
Wine and Rome.
http://penelope.uchicago.edu/~grout/...wine/wine.html

"Roman villas illustrate the Christianization of Europe, since the country villa served as "pieces of cities broken off" and Christianity originated as an urban religion.[39] The Galois aristocrats benefited from conversion by closer ties to Rome (and the emperor's family) after Constantine’s conversion. Roman culture was flexible, so a multicultural blend (or sympathetic intermingling) was usually the result with many villas religiously ambiguous. The local peasants (and their pagan traditions) were ignored; pre-Roman religious sites evolved into Roman cult sites and (later) Christian pilgrimage destinations. Because the church kept all records throughout the fall of Rome and the Middle Ages, historians have little information about local non-Christian beliefs."
Roman Villas in Northwestern Gaul.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_v...thwestern_Gaul

"Agriculture in ancient Rome was not only a necessity, but was idealized among the social elite as a way of life. Cicero considered farming the best of all Roman occupations. In his treatise On Duties, he declared that "of all the occupations by which gain is secured, none is better than agriculture, none more profitable, none more delightful, none more becoming to a free man." When one of his clients was derided in court for preferring a rural lifestyle, Cicero defended country life as "the teacher of economy, of industry, and of justice" (parsimonia, diligentia, iustitia). Cato, Columella, Varro and Palladius wrote handbooks on farming practice. The staple crop was spelt, and bread was the mainstay of every Roman table. In his treatise De agricultura ("On Farming", 2nd century BC), Cato wrote that the best farm was a vineyard, followed by an irrigated garden, willow plantation, olive orchard, meadow, grain land, forest trees, vineyard trained on trees, and lastly acorn woodlands."
Roman Agriculture.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Roman_agriculture

http://www.whittinghams.me.uk/images/web/j2b-ds.png

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:20 AM
Romans & Haplogroup J2.

"J2a`s strong presence in Italy is owed in great part to the migration of the Etruscans from western Anatolia to central and northern Italy, and to the Greek colonisation of southern Italy. Immigration from the eastern Mediterranean to Rome during the Roman Empire, then from Anatolia, Thrace and Greece during the Byzantine period period (particularly in north-eastern Italy) further increased the incidence of j2 in the peninsula."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2. (2013)
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The likely deep ancestry source of Haplogroup J2 as found along the Anglo-Scottish border is probably to be found with members of the Roman Legions which were stationed along Hadrian's wall."
Border receivers - DNA Report Nov 2005.
http://www.borderreivers.co.uk/DNA%2...20Nov%2005.htm

"The Plantagenets are a bit more difficult to predict as some speculate that they are related to the Carpetian kings of France and descended from Roman citizens in the haplogroup J2 or G2."
Y-DNA of the British Monarchy.
http://www.surnamedna.com/?articles=...itish-monarchy

"If J2b-Delta is a separate discrete lineage within J2b, this could have implications regarding when the lineage arrived in the British Isles. At present the two main hypotheses regarding the arrival of J2 in the British Isles that are commonly touted are 1) Neolithic farmers 2) Roman soldiers."
J2 Y-DNA Poject - J2 Cluster Analysis.
http://j2-ydnaproject.org/analysisphase3.html

"Attempts to ascertain Sicilian "ethnic" origins should be undertaken with caution because haplogroups do not correspond precisely to medieval or modern conceptions of nationality. At best, they are approximate. For example, J2 is identified with Greeks but also with some Germans. Speaking very broadly, the most frequent Y haplogroups of the world's most conquered island may be correlated most probably (albeit imprecisely) to the following peoples: • J2 - Greeks, Romans, Jews, Spaniards,"
Best of Sicily - Genetics
http://www.bestofsicily.com/genetics.htm

https://scontent-b-lhr.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/1235530_621418664582959_1325191331_n.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:27 AM
Romans & Christianity


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Om5SA6El3yA

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:28 AM
Etruscans (J2) and Rome.

"From about 700 BCE, the Etruscans settled around Tuscany and the Greeks in southern Italy. Etruscans probably came from Palestine and brought haplogroups J1, J2 and E with them. The Greeks in Italy were Doric and brought J2, E, G2a and probably more R1b (see above). The Romans progressively absorbed the Etruscans and Italian Greeks and mixed with them. By the time of Julius Caesar Roman citizens were probably composed of 45% of R1b, 20% of J, 15% of E, 15% of G2a and 5% of I2a."
Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/25163-Y-DNA-haplogroups-of-ancient-civilizations

"A 2004 study by Semino et al. contradicted this study, and showed that Italians in North-central regions (like Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna) had a higher concentration of J2 than their Southern counterparts. North-central had 26.9% J2, whereas Calabria (a far Southern region) had 20.0%, Sardinia had 9.7% and Sicily had 16.7%. This could be because of the ancient Etruscans, who some think originated in the Near East."
Wikipedia.org - Genetic History of Italy.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_Italy

"Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794

"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/corr...ticulture.html

"J2a`s strong presence in Italy is owed in great part to the migration of the Etruscans from western Anatolia to central and northern Italy, and to the Greek colonisation of southern Italy. Immigration from the eastern Mediterranean to Rome during the Roman Empire, then from Anatolia, Thrace and Greece during the Byzantine period period (particularly in north-eastern Italy) further increased the incidence of j2 in the peninsula."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2. (2013)
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The presence of J2 haplotypes in central Italy may be related to the debated hypothesis of an Anatolian origin of the Etruscan people, as suggested by mtDNA analysis on modern and ancient samples (Francalacci et al., 1996; Vernesi et al., 2004; Achilli et al., 2007), although it could be arrived in the region much earlier following the Neolithic expansion."
Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

"A certain occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region (Achilli et al., 2007)."
Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

Etruscan Origins of Rome and Italy.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NWudBCYO8ZE

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:33 AM
Haplogroup J2, Britain, Romans and Viticulture.

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/1403555_622024857855673_177574294_o.jpg

"Rome's influence on Britain with respect to wine is not so much viticultural as it is cultural. Throughout modern history, the British have played a key role in shaping the world of wine and defining global wine markets. Though evidence of V. vinifera vines in the British Isles dates back to the Hoxnian Stage when the climate was much warmer than i...t is today, British interest in wine production greatly increased following the Roman conquest of Britain in the 1st century AD.

Amphoras from Italy indicate that wine was regularly transported to Britain at great expense by sea, around the Iberian Peninsula. The development of wine-producing regions in Bordeaux and Germany made supplying the needs of Roman colonists much easier at less cost. The presence of amphora production houses found in what is now Brockley and Middlesex indicates that the British probably had vineyards of their own as well.

There is clear evidence that the Roman cult of Bacchus, the wine god, was practiced in Britain: more than 400 artifacts depicting his likeness have been found throughout Britain. Included in the Mildenhall Treasure collection is a silver dish engraved with Bacchus having a drinking contest with Hercules. In Colchester, excavations have uncovered containers identifying over 60 different types of wines from Italy, Spain, the Rhine and Bordeaux."
Ancient Rome and Wine.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ancient_Rome_and_wine

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:34 AM
"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com, 2013.

-----------------------------------------

J2-M172 Y-DNA European Countries Population Estimate Top 25 + Civilisations.
(Top 25 of all countries included in this research & major civilisations/tribes they were part of.)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
2. Italy (5.513.513) - (Ancient Greece*, Etruscan, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Holy Roman Empire)
3. France (2.198.498) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
4. Russia (2.137.766) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia, Russian Empire)
5. Germany (1.829.382) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
6. Ukraine (1.457.757) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia)
7. Romania (1.420.153) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
8. Spain (1.417.960) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire, Gothic Kingdom, Moors, Spanish Empire)
9. Greece (1.238.300) - (Ancient Greece*, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman)
10. England (892.500) - (Roman Empire, British Empire)
11. Bulgaria (545.440) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
12. Portugal (512.119) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire)
13. Netherlands (501.919) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
14. Austria (493.185) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Austria- Hungarian Empire)
15. Poland (480.192) - (Sarmatia, Polish Kingdom, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Vlach & German Settlers)
16. Hungary (348.546) - (Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria- Hungarian Empire)
17. Czech Republic (305.319) - (Roman Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
18. Albania (292.779) - (Ancient Greece*, Illyria, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
19. Switserland (240.000) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
20. Serbia (236.490) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Austria- Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
21. Cyprus (203.378) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
22. Sweden (143.101) - (Germanic, Nordic, Viking, Kingdom of Sweden, Swedish Empire)
23. Macedonia (FYROM) (124.942) - (Ancient Greece*, Macedon, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina (116.379) - (Illyria, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
25. Slovakia (108.906) - (Scytho-Thracian, Celts, Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Countries Of All Regions Population Estimate Top 25 + Civilisations.
(Top 25 of all countries included in this research & major civilisations/tribes they were part of.)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
2. Italy (5.513.513) - (Ancient Greece*, Etruscan, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Holy Roman Empire)
3. Egypt (4.510.000) - (Ancient Egypt, Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom*, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
4. Iran (4.508.980) - (Parthian Empire, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom*, Persian Empire)
5. Iraq (3.035.099) - (Mesopotamia, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
6. France (2.198.498) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
7. Russia (2.137.766) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia, Russian Empire)
8. Syria (1.915.113) - (Mesopotamia, Phoenician, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
9. Germany (1.829.382) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
10. Ukraine (1.457.757) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia)
11. Romania (1.420.153) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
12. Spain (1.417.960) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire, Gothic Kingdom, Moors, Spanish Empire)
13. Azerbaijan (1.397.663) - (Scythia, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire)
14. Greece (1.238.300) - (Ancient Greece*, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman)
15. England (892.500) - (Celtic, Roman Empire, British Empire)
16. Georgia (603.342) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire)
17. Lebanon (549.120) - (Phoenician, Persian Empire, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Ottoman)
18. Bulgaria (545.440) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
19. Portugal (512.119) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire)
20. Netherlands (501.919) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
21. Austria (493.185) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
22. Morocco (489.666) - (Phoenician, Roman Empire)
23. Poland (480.192) - (Sarmatia, Polish Kingdom, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Vlach & German Settlers)
24. Jordan (423.038) - (Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
25. Armenia (358.842) - (Kingdom of Armenia, Roman Empire, Persian Empire. Ottoman Empire, Russian)

Taken from: http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?1606-Haplogroup-J2-M172-Population-Size-Estimates
Original File: https://www.facebook.com/download/64...Estimates.docx

https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc1/1074318_623171751074317_1544350417_o.jpg
(Left: The geographic space over which Classical Greek and Latin served as a lingua franca in antiquity. Right: Y-DNA Haplogroup Frequency map of J2-M172.)

Source of Language map: http://chs.harvard.edu/wa/pageR?tn=A...bdc=12&mn=4827

950

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:46 AM
https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/1395772_622326191158873_1248586073_n.jpg

BritainsDNA Press Releases - BritainsDNA finds the Lost Legions.
http://www.britainsdna.com/about/press-releases

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:46 AM
https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash4/1380084_622325291158963_1434254641_n.jpg

BritainsDNA Press Releases - BritainsDNA finds the Lost Legions.
http://www.britainsdna.com/about/press-releases

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:48 AM
https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/1380679_622324627825696_904941909_n.jpg

BritainsDNA Press Releases - BritainsDNA finds the Lost Legions.
http://www.britainsdna.com/about/press-releases

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:49 AM
Haplogroup J2, Romans & Britain.

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/1403681_622703424454483_2047931370_o.jpg

"Little is known of Aulus Plautius's early career. An inscription reveals he was involved in the suppression of a slave revolt in Apulia, probably in 24, alongside Marcus Aelius Celer.[1] He was suffect consul for the second half of 29, and held a provincial governorship, probably of Pannonia, in the early years of Claudius's reign: another inscription shows he oversaw the building of a road between Trieste and Rijeka at this time. Claudius appointed him to lead his invasion of Britannia in 43, in support of Verica, king of the Atrebates and an ally of Rome, who had been deposed by his eastern neighbours the Catuvellauni. The army was composed of four legions, IX Hispana, then in Pannonia, II Augusta, XIV Gemina, and XX Valeria Victrix, plus approximately 20,000 auxiliary troops, including Thracians and Batavians."
Aulus Plautius
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aulus_Plautius

"It is important to note that at least four additional YDNA markers may have arrived with the Romans. What have been described as the Balkan group (E-V13), the Ancient Caucasians (G-S314), the Herdsman-Farmers (J-M172 – and a sub-group of this, M67, looks particularly Italian) and the Anatolian marker (R1b-M269*), when taken together, potentially add another 2.3 million Englishmen and Welshmen who could trace their fatherlines to the veterans of the II Augusta, the IX Hispana, the XIV Gemina, the XX Valeria Victrix and the other Italians who crossed to Britain in their wake."
BritainsDNA Press Releases - BritainsDNA finds the Lost Legions.
http://www.britainsdna.com/about/press-releases

"Cruciani et al.’s E-V13 and J2-M12 coalescence times bear a striking similarity to carbon-14-based date calculations for certain archaeological sites in the Maritsa river valley and its tributaries, near the city of Nova Zagora, Bulgaria (Nilolova, 2002). These sites are associated directly with the proto-Thracian culture of the southern Balkans that came to dominate the region during the first millennium BCE. Sites surveyed included Ezero, Yunatsite, Dubene-Sarovka and Plovdiv-Nebet Tepe, all of which had deep associations with the developing EBA proto-Thracian culture of the region."
Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin.
http://www.jogg.info/32/bird.htm

RHAS
11-21-2013, 01:52 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Romans.

"A recent DNA test was a bit of a surprise and has proven some of my family never made it home. J2 M172 is a very strange and rare YDNA for a English family to have. The best answer I have found was Syrian archers or others brought in from the middle east passed their genetic line onto my ancestors during the roman occupation of England."
A whole bunch of Ing's.
http://www.awholebunchofings.com/2012_04_01_archive.html

"J2a`s strong presence in Italy is owed in great part to the migration of the Etruscans from western Anatolia to central and northern Italy, and to the Greek colonisation of southern Italy. Immigration from the eastern Mediterranean to Rome during the Roman Empire, then from Anatolia, Thrace and Greece during the Byzantine period period (particularly in north-eastern Italy) further increased the incidence of j2 in the peninsula."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2. (2013)
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The J2 haplogroup can be found in today's populations with notable frequency in Italy, Iberia, Turkey, Albania, Greece and even India, and most likely interacted with numerous cultures, including the Greeks and Romans."
Whittingham Family Ancestry.
http://www.whittinghams.me.uk/DNA.htm

"De haplogroep J is typerend voor de bevolking uit Zuid-Oost Europa, meer bepaald voor centraal en Zuid-Italië, Griekenland en Roemenië. Het wordt ook vaak teruggevonden in Frankrijk, Turkije en het Midden-Oosten. Deze haplogroep kan in verband worden gebracht met de oude Grieken, de Romeinen alsook de Pheniciërs."
The Sas Family - DNA en Genealogie. (Dutch)
http://thesasfamily.zsite.be/dna-en-genealogie

"Haplogroup J2, is associated with the Romans, who also invaded Britain much earlier in about 90 AD."
Clan Strachan Society.
http://clanstrachan.org/activities/Genealogy/articles/reading_y-dna.htm

"The J2 haplogroup came to England either through middle Eastern Roman soldiers who were stationed on the island (most common explanation), through Sephardic traders (not many of those), or through the migration to the island of gypsies in the 16th century (only being thought of as a possible source very recently)."
Harvey Genealogy.
http://history.earthsci.carleton.ca/harvey/genealogy/dnatestingindex.htm

"McGregor (5356) and the two brothers (7422 and 9338) belong to a DNA haplotype J2 that is found in Britain, but rarely. It is most common in Eastern European countries, leading to speculation that it is either from gypsy background or, possibly, from Eastern European soldiers stationed in Britain during the Roman occupation in the first three centuries AD."
The MacGregor DNA Project.
http://themacgregordnaproject.blogspot.nl/2005/08/where-are-we-now-update.html

"J2 has been well studied and can be split into several clades but whose mode of individual distribution is not well understood. Many influences such as Greek and Roman would have played a part."
Wells Family DNA Project.
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wellsfam/dnaproje/haplogroupJ.html

"How our more recent ancestors ended up in England is still a mystery. It could have been a random migration of a single man. During the Roman occupation of Europe many people immigrated there from many areas of the world. Soldiers were sent there to serve military obligations. One of these might have been a man from the Mediterranean area. His descendants eventually took the surname Field and he might have been our earliest J2b2 ancestor."
Genetic Journey of our branch of the Field family.
http://www.luciefield.net/geneticjourney.html

"Haplogroup J2b is most common in the Middle East and reaches its highest percentages in Turkey. In Europe, the largest J2b populations are in Greece, Albania and Italy. This haplogroup is rare in Britain where it could represent remnants of eastern Mediterranean troops stationed on the island during the Roman occupation."
Munley/Manley Surname Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Munley/default.aspx

"I've just had my DNA tested and it's coming up as a J2 Haplogroup, which probably means my ancient relation was most likely a Roman Legionaire garrisoned to the UK."
Genealogy: Jim Manley's Family Tree.
http://jimstree.blogspot.nl/

"Someone of J2a3d descent must have been living in Blacker Hill Yorkshire and acquired the Blacker name. They may well have descended from a Roman soldier or sailor from Lincoln or York who in turn must have been descended from the Phoenicians perhaps via Cantabria."
Lost Langtons.
http://www.lostlangtons.co.uk/HaplogroupJ2a4d.shtml

"One coat of arms firm claims that the Judkins actually originated in Suffolk, England in far ancient times. This is where the celtic Coritani tribe of Rutland, Leiceister & Lincolnshire originated so this would preclude a Scottish origin prior to 1500 if the Judkins/Blackard J2 DNA type is linked to the Coritani rather than Romans."
Blackard Family History Blog.
http://blackardfamilyhistory.blogspot.nl/

"The Mediterranean and Middle Eastern group consists of the the two Es, the G and the two J2s. Whit Athey and others have theorized that this group is associated with the Neolithic spread of agriculture from the Middle East into Europe. On the other hand, a more recent paper by Steven C. Bird argues for a Roman origin for J2 and E3b at least."
Francis Surname Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Francissurnameproject/

"Sometime prior to that a Bretz ancestor must have come into Germany from the south, from Italy or Greece. Some researchers have suggested a family connection to Fabius Bretius, a Roman General, who came from the districts of Capua and Taranto in southern Italy to the town Trier, Germany around 224. Whether this connection is genuine or not, and it is impossible to know for sure, perhaps Roman conquests did bring Bretz DNA north 1,800 years ago as they did with so many other things. For some additional thoughts on the possible Latin origins of the family, also read the Genealogia Bretius."
Bretz Family, Haplogroup J2.
http://www.bretz.ca/GenWeb/html/dna/Y-bretz/

"The bulk of J2 may have been brought to Britain by mercenaries recruited by the Romans."
Family Banks DNA Project.
https://sites.google.com/site/banksprojectsite/the-j-p215-groups

"We now have two members of Haplogroup J1 and 6 members of Haplogroup J2 in the Fox Poject. This is a Mediterranean Haplogroup but exists all over Europe to some extent. The Romans are thought to have brought this Haplogroup to Britain."
Fox FamilytreeDNA Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/FoxDNA/

"In Europe, the largest J2b populations are in Greece, Albania and Italy. This haplogroup is rare in Britain where it could represent remnants of eastern Mediterranean troops stationed on the island during the Roman occupation."
Cotton/Cotten DNA Project.
http://home.comcast.net/~cottondna/haplogroups.htm

"The Greek and Phoenician presence also brought J2 into France and of course the Roman period also would have been a major contributor of Haplogroup J2 into what is today, France. So although, rare, Haplogroup J2 can be found in local populations throughout France and Spain."
Dugas Family.
http://dugas.weebly.com/dna.html

"J2 - This haplogroup originated during the Neolithic in Central Asia, and spread across the Mediterranean and the Middle East. It may have been brought to Britain by prehistoric farmers, Greek or Phoenician traders and Sephardic Jews among the Normans and the Flemish - as well as by Roman troops and settlers."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project.
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/

"J2 has been traced back to the area between the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea that comprises territory in northwestern Iraq and Iran, eastern Turkey, Armenia, Azerbaijan and Georgia. One theory offered for the presence of J2 in northern England is the presence of Roman auxiliary soldiers stationed on Hadrian's Wall. It has been suggested that the original J2 ancestor of our Robson member may have been a Sarmatian horseman in the Roman legions."
Robson/Robeson/Robison Family DNA Project.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/Robson/

"The Plantagenets are a bit more difficult to predict as some speculate that they are related to the Carpetian kings of France and descended from Roman citizens in the haplogroup J2 or G2."
Y-DNA of the British Monarchy.
http://www.surnamedna.com/?articles=...itish-monarchy

"Although Normandy has so far been established as the origin of this family, a family legend related in a poem places their origin earlier, perhaps, even to Roman times: "A noble Roman was the Root, from which Montgomeries came, Who brought his legions from the war, and settled the same. Upon a hill twixt Rome and Spain. Gomericus by name; From which he and his offspring do their sire name still retain.""
Montgomery Family Crest and History
http://www.houseofnames.com/montgomery-family-crest

FTDNA Montgomery DNA Results (J2)
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/...ction=yresults

RHAS
11-21-2013, 02:01 AM
Haplogroup J2 & Romans.

"The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012). Later the Roman armies and auxiliaries played a role. Possibly even the Carthaginians under Hannibal (Battle of Cannae) played a role. Later still the Byzantine Empire, over a period of about 1000 years, very likely played a role in the movement of L24(M530) Y-chromosomes."
J2 L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012).
http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/

"The Byzantine Empire was the predominantly Greek-speaking continuation of the Roman Empire during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages. Its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), originally known as Byzantium. Initially the eastern half of the Roman Empire (often called the Eastern Roman Empire in this context), it survived the 5th century fragmentation and collapse of the Western Roman Empire and continued to thrive, existing for an additional thousand years until it fell to the Ottoman Turks in 1453. During most of its existence, the empire was the most powerful economic, cultural, and military force in Europe. Both "Byzantine Empire" and "Eastern Roman Empire" are historiographical terms applied in later centuries; its citizens continued to refer to their empire as the Roman Empire (Ancient Greek: Βασιλεία Ῥωμαίων, tr. Basileia Rhōmaiōn; Latin: Imperium Romanum), and Romania (Ῥωμανία)."
Byzantine Empire
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Byzantine_Empire

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Justinian555AD.png

Ancient Roman Imperium.

"Y-DNA haplogroups in Turkey. Simplified information on Y-DNA haplogroups. Less than 10 % of population is related to Turkic tribes of Central Asia. As high as 90% of population in Turkey is left over grand children of Ancient Roman Imperium."
Youtube - Y-DNA haplogroups in Turkey.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xxe-Hq0O9kg

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/270883_531117423613084_1527967865_n.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 02:04 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Romans.

"Het onderzoek wees uit, dat het DNA profiel van de familie Lemmens uit de Sambeecksen Hoeck overeenkomt met Haplogroep J2. Deze Haplogroep J2 werd waargenomen bij enkele families (o.a. ook de familie van Kuppeveld) in en rond het Land van Cuijk. De oorsprong van Haplogroep J2 is het Midden Oosten. De onderzoekers stelden vast, dat de familie Lemmens vermoedelijk afstamt van de Romeinen die zich in het begin van de jaartelling ophielden in de Lage Landen, in het bijzonder in het Land van Cuijk en omstreken van Nijmegen."
Brabants Historisch Informatie Centrum - De herkomst van de familie Lemmens. (Dutch)
http://www.bhic.nl/site/popup.php?id=12872

"Een manlijke deelnemer van deze genealogie behoort tot de haplogroep J2a. Een Haplogroep die veel voorkomt in het Noord-Oostelijk deel van Noord-Brabant, vermoedelijk aldaar gekomen via de Romeinse nederzetting te Nijmegen."
Piet Verdonk Homepage - Genetische Genealogisch Onderzoek (DNA). (Dutch)
http://verdonk.home.xs4all.nl/DNA_Verbinding_stb_3.htm

"My paternal ancestors were mostly farmworkers or self-employed craftsmen of no great social standing. I can trace my line back to the 18th century (confirmed) and as far back as the late 1500s (conjectural). Our Y-DNA Haplogroup of J-M205 (J2b1, old J2b1b) would be considered, quite unambiguously, a potential “Roman Ancestry” DNA signature, being connected in earlier times to the Greek and Thracian Settlements in the Mediterranean basin. As a matter of fact, when confronted with the J2 haplotype by one of his British customers, even Dr. Bryan Sykes of Oxford Ancestors eventually suggested a Roman origin."
K. Pople, Pople Family Association.
http://poplefa.carbonmade.com/projects/4638348

"The very name "Van Santen" means "from" or "of" Santen. The only Santen found (now known as "Xanten") is an ancient walled German town with a strong Roman history, at one time strategically located on the Rhine river (the river has since altered course somewhat). My genealogy is well-documented to the early 1500's from where my earliest known ancestor had settled by the 16th Century, near the mouth of the same Rhine river, and the furthest west one could have gone short of crossing the channel to England."
Van Santen DNA Project (Haplogroup J2).
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/van-santen/


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=bjhDQu1YajM

RHAS
11-21-2013, 02:06 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Romans.

"Nog een aardigheidje voor Oost-Brabant: daar is een relatieve concentratie van haplogroep J gevonden. Volgens genetisch genealogen zijn die mensen waarschijnlijk nazaten van de oude Romeinen, gelegerd in Noviomagus (Nijmegen) of rond Locus Paludosus (De Peel)."
Eindhovens Dagblad - Veel DNA komt uit Spanje en Scandinavië. (Dutch)
http://www.ed.nl/regio/4449996/Veel-...candinavie.ece

Translated: One remarkable fact about this research is the concentration of J(2) found in the province of North Brabant, Genetic Genealogist believe these people are decended from Roman Soldiers stationed in Noviomagus (City of Nijmegen) and Locus Paludosis (De Peel)"

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/560813_624791310912361_1467710557_n.jpg

Noviomagus (Nijmegen).


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K_1COdzfYOk

"Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum is de naam van Nijmegen in de laat-Romeinse tijd; het voorvoegsel Ulpia verwijst naar keizer Marcus Ulpius Traianus hetgeen het mogelijk maakt de naam te dateren op 104 n.C. Voorheen stond de plaats bekend onder de naam Oppidum Batavorum. Of Batavodurum (versterkte stad van de Bataven) inderdaad dezelfde nederzetting aanduidt, is niet zeker."
Ulpia Noviomagus Batavorum (Dutch)
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ulpia_Noviomagus_Batavorum

Locus Paludosis (De Peel)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fJmNabYM2WI

This documentary explores not only the Roman helmet itself, but also the stories told about it over the past 100 years. How did a soldier's golden helmet end up in the marsh? Who was the mysterious knight of De Peel? And did the peat-cutters find the entire hoard of treasure? Over the past hundred years all these questions have received many different answers, some based on the facts and some on fiction. The helmet has stirred many people's imaginations. It was a magnificent find, one of the leading twentieth-century archaeological discoveries in the Netherlands. The gold of the helmet was analysed and showed to be comming from Roman workshops in Constantinople during the age of Christian Roman emperor Constantine.

951

RHAS
11-21-2013, 02:12 AM
Haplogroup J2(b2) and Romans.

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/1412764_628020043922821_2086965139_o.jpg

The small hotspot in North West Europe on the left in the J2b2 map seems to be situated around the now French town of Bologne-Sur-Mer, in Roman times known as Gesoriacum, the port Portus Itius was believed to be situated there. The bigger hotspot on the right seems to have its center between the river Meuse and the Rhine. This area was heavily Romanized with dozens of fortresses and/or towns (many are not shown on this map), most notably the Dutch city of Nijmegen (In Roman times called Noviomagus), the German city of Koln in Roman times know as Colonia Agrippina (which was the largest Roman city north of the Alps), the Belgian town of Tongeren in Roman times called Atuatuca, the modern German city of Xanten with its fortress Castra Vetera and the modern German City of Neuss in Roman times called Novaesium. The last 2 seems to be right in the center of the J2b2 Hotspot.

J2a members with Xanten derived surnames like Santen are also reported in these areas. While most agree that the name of the city is derived from an executed Roman soldier from the Theban legion who later became a saint, there are those who connect its name to the river god Scamandros/Xanthos who dwelled near the river Scamander in the vicinity of Troy. There is also a river named Xanthus in Anatolia.

All major Roman settlements north of Mainz (Britain excluded) are located in the 2 J2b2 areas. Many Roman legions were stationed in this area over the years, for instance; Legio V Alaudae, Legio XX Valeria Victrix, Legio X Gemina, Legio IV Macedonica and Ala I Thracum an auxiliary unit with Thracian Horsemen. It is known that the Romans used the Balkans as a major recruiting area for legionnaires and there are artifacts known that suggest some of these legionairs settled in the Rhineland after their military service was completed. Interesting also are the references to Troy in this region which include; The Trojan heritage claimed by the Dukes of Kleve, The Roman history writer Tacitus who tells of Greek inscriptions at the fortress of Asciburgium connected to Odysseus (just like the Portuguese city Lisbon), and the Frankish Trojan origin myth regarding the Sicambri tribe.

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/704363_473217516068948_508554809_o.jpg

"In deze studie wordt een tot nu toe niet bekende concentratie van de haplogroepen J in oostelijk Brabant aangetroffen. Het betreft hier voornamelijk J2 en oude, gevestigde families. Het is niet onmogelijk dat hier sprake is van families van nazaten van ´Romeinse´soldaten. Ook in het grensgebied van Engeland en Schotland is een concentratie van J2 families gevonden. In dat gebied zijn ook resten van tempels van de Iraanse god Mitras bekend en blijkt er een boogschuttereenheid uit het Midden/Oosten gelegerd geweest te zijn. Romeinse aanwezigheid in het land van Cuijck en aan de randen van de Peel (de naam is afkomstig van de naam die de Romeinen aan het gied gaven: Locus Paludosus ofwel moerassige streek) is bekend, zoals ook landmetingen van militairen die zich er gevestigd hadden en landbouw bedreven."
Project Genetische Genealogie in Nederland. (Dutch)
http://www.barjesteh.nl/DNAproject.htm

Translated: "In this study is an untill now unknown concentration of J haplogroups found in eastern Brabant. These mainly are old established J2 families. It is not impossible that these families are descendants of Roman Soldiers. Also in the border area of England and Scotland concentrations of J2 families are found. In these areas temples of the Iranian god Mithras are known to have excisted and there appears to be remnants of an archer unit stationed in the Middle / East. Roman presence in the country in that area of Cuijck and at the edges of the Peel (the name comes from the name the Romans gave to the area: Locus paludosus either swampy area) is known, as surveying of soldiers who had established themselves here and were agriculture experts."

"Nog een aardigheidje voor Oost-Brabant: daar is een relatieve concentratie van haplogroep J gevonden. Volgens genetisch genealogen zijn die mensen waarschijnlijk nazaten van de oude Romeinen, gelegerd in Noviomagus (Nijmegen) of rond Locus Paludosus (De Peel)."
Artikel/Boekrecensie "Zonen van Adam in Nederland", Eindhovens Dagblad dinsdag 03 februari 2009.

Translated: "One remarkable fact about this research is the concentration of J(2) found in the province of North Brabant, Genetic Genealogist believe these people are decended from Roman Soldiers stationed in Noviomagus (City of Nijmegen) and Locus Paludosis (De Peel)"

"Het voorkomen van J houdt mogelijk verband met de Romeinse tijd. Zij komen m.n. voor in Noord-Oost Brabant, waar het Romeinse leger nog lang aanwezig is geweest. Wellicht dat ook het voorkomen van de haplogroepen G en E hiermee verband houden."
Project Genetische Genealogie 2008, Website Nederlandse Genealogische Vereniging 2011.

Translated: "The occurence of Haplogroup J is possibly linked to Roman times. It is large present in North East brabant, were the Roman military was present for a long time. It is possible that Haplogroups E and G are also related to these times."

"„Ceterum et Ulixen quidam opinantur longo illo et fabuloso errore in hunc Oceanum delatum adisse Germaniae terras, Asciburgiumque, quod in ripa Rheni situm hodieque incolitur, ab illo constitutum nominatumque; aram quin etiam Ulixi consecratam, adiecto Laertae patris nomine, eodem loco olim repertam, monumentaque et tumulos quosdam Graecis litteris inscriptos in confinio Germaniae Raetiaeque adhuc extare.“
Tacitus, Germania.

"In contrast to many other Germanic tribes, no Merovingians claimed to be descended from Wodan. Instead, the sacred tradition of a cart pulled by bulls seems to be present from the early Merovingians on. The bulls that pulled the cart were taken as special animals, and according to Salian law the theft of those animals would impose a high sanction. In the grave of Childeric I (died 481) was found the head of a bull, craftily made out of gold."
Frankish Mythology.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankish_mythology

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niederr...er_Trojamythos
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franks
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xanten
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Limes
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Skamandros

RHAS
11-21-2013, 02:13 AM
https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/1395182_628104387247720_1078771643_n.jpg

Ancient Tartessos was an old harbor city/trading post mentioned first in Greek sources from about the middle of the first millennium BC. Greeks and Phoenicians competed to gain influence in the Tartessos region. The area was rich in metals. A Tartessian king with the name Arganthonios is known to have invited a Greek group of Phocaeans (close to Troy, Xanthus and Phrygia) to settle in his city. He also gave them large amounts of silver to pay for defensive measures for the Phocaeans homeland in Asia Minor. Greek trading posts are believed to have existed in this region, like Portus Menesthei which surprisingly enough is linked to a Trojan myth regarding the settlement of the Trojan king Menestheus in Iberia. Lisbon on the edge of the J2b2 heatmap area in Portugal has an origin myth connected to Odysseus, just like the Rhineland fortress of Asciburgium. Tartessos is believed by some to be the legendary city of Atlantis. It is in this region that the Pillars of Hercules are located and here Hercules/Heracles stole the Cattle of Geryon as one of his Ten Labours. It is the home of the Spanish cult of the Bull as much as Knossos, was the home of the Minoan cult of the Bull. Tartessos was probably destroyed by Cathagians, but recent finds also show a flood event at the time of its disappearance from history. The Conii or Cynetes are a group of people we find in the Algarve region in Roman times after the fall of Tartessos. While they lived in Celtic areas it is Herodotus who distinguished them from the Celts. The Conii were allied to Rome. Several Roman cities existed in the region. A retirement settlement for Roman legionnaires from the Legions V Alaudae (also present in Xanten, Rhineland and Dacia, Balkans) and X Gemina (also present in the Rhineland and the Balkans) was built at Merida (Emerito Augusta). Biblical archeologists often identify the place-name Tarshish in the Hebrew Bible with Tartessos, though others connect it to Tarsus in Anatolia (see Anatolia/Asia Minor Cluster) or other places as far as India. (See entry for Jonah in the Jewish Encyclopedia.) Tarshish, like Tartessos, is associated with extensive mineral wealth (Iberian Pyrite Belt)." While the origins of the Tartessians remains unknown, it is known they were in contact with ancient Greeks (Phocaeans) who even seem to have settled in the region, based on that fact it seems possible for the J2b2`s in the Portugal region to have Greek ancestry. Another origin possibility for the J2b2s in this region would be the settlement of Roman legionnaires with Thracian, Macedonian or Greek ancestry, from the same stock that would populate the Rhineland.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartessos
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartessian_language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lissabon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerita_Augusta
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynetes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phocaea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odysseus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arganthonios
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legio_V_Alaudae
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legio_X_Gemina

RHAS
11-21-2013, 02:14 AM
https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/996635_628107213914104_1173937926_n.jpg

The Northern hotspot in Anatolia on the J2b2 heatmap corresponds to the territory of the ancient Bithynians and Phrygians. The Bithynians are immigrants to Asia Minor from the Balkans, their original homeland is situated in Thrace were they were called the Thyni. Phrygians (ca. 1200 - 700 BC) are also ancient immigrants to Anatolia from the Balkans (Macedonia) were they were originally known as the Bryges. The Phrygians were allied to Troy and participated in the Trojan wars. Phrygians are also known for the Gordian Knot legend which together with their Macedonian ancestry links them to Alexander the Great and for their Phrygian Cap which would be the hat the god Mithras (popular with Roman Legionnaires) is wearing. Herodotus claims the Phrygians founded the Armenian Nation. Both areas were also Roman provinces. The origin history of the people/region in the south of Asia Minor is slightly harder to connect directly to the Balkans/Greece but it is situated roughly were we find the Hellenized Armenian Seleucid Kingdom(s) of Commagene and Sophene, and on a side note the ancient site of Gobekli Tepe wich by some is believed to be the original garden of Eden. The Commagene dynasty claimed ties with Alexander the Great (Macedonia) and Antiochus I Theos of Commagene was allied to the Roman general Pompey. Anatolia in general is also the place where we find the city of Troy, the river Xanthus and the city of Tarsus. Anatolia was part of the Roman empire for about 15 centuries. (Roman Empire + Byzantium) While it’s possible that the J2b2`s found in Anatolia, immigrated to Asia minor as Roman Soldiers (recruited from Thrace and/or Macedon) or have some form of Greek heritage, they seem to be especially linked to Bithynians and Phrygians whose origins are documented by Greek historians like Herodotus to be situated in the Balkans (Macedonia & Thrace).

"Several authors have proposed that the Indo-European language presently spoken by Armenians arose during the Bronze Age, when Indo-European speaking tribes from the Balkans and Greece invaded Anatolia and Transcaucasia, leading to the subsequent spread of their culture and language. In this study, we have detected a number of lineages that are prominent in the Balkans (I2*, I2b*, J2b1 and J2b2) at low levels throughout Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, the latter of which also contains haplogroups commonly associated with Bronze Age Greece (ie, J2a8-M319 (4.9%), and E1b1b1-M78 and its sublineages (3.9%)). While this may suggest genetic input from early Greek or Phrygian tribes, it is also possible that these low levels of Balkan lineages arrived in Armenia at a later time, such as during one of the many incursions into the area during the reign of the Macedonian, Roman and Byzantine empires."
Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...g2011192a.html

"I-P37 and J-M12 are dated to 1,100BC and 1,200BC, at around the time that e.g. the Phrygians from the Balkans are believed to have migrated to Asia Minor. I-P37 and J-M12 reach their maxima in areas north of Greece where the Phrygians are said to have originated."
How Y-STR variance accumulates: a comment on Zhivotovsky, Underhill and Feldman (2006)
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/07/...s-comment.html

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygians
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bithynia
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Troy
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seleucid
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Commagene
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sophene
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scamander
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tarsus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Xanthus

RHAS
11-21-2013, 03:45 AM
"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2011.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Çatalhöyük

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship. The oldest evidence of a cult of the bull can be traced back to Neolithic central Anatolia, notably at the sites of Çatalhöyük and Alaca Höyük. Bull depictions are omnipresent in Minoan frescos and ceramics in Crete. Bull-masked terracotta figurines and bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus (dating back as far as the Neolithic, the first presumed expansion of J2 from West Asia)."
The Sacred Bull.
http://aratta.wordpress.com/2012/12/02/the-sacred-bull/

"Çatalhöyük (Turkish pronunciation: [tʃaˈtaɫhřjyc]; also Çatal Höyük and Çatal Hüyük; çatal is Turkish for "fork", höyük for "mound") was a very large Neolithic and Chalcolithic proto-city settlement in southern Anatolia, which existed from approximately 7500 BC to 5700 BC, and flourished around 7000BC. It is the largest and best-preserved Neolithic site found to date. In July 2012, it was inscribed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Çatalhöyük is located overlooking the Konya Plain, southeast of the present-day city of Konya (ancient Iconium) in Turkey, approximately 140 km (87 mi) from the twin-coned volcano of Mount Hasan. The eastern settlement forms a mound which would have risen about 20 m (66 ft) above the plain at the time of the latest Neolithic occupation. There is also a smaller settlement mound to the west and a Byzantine settlement a few hundred meters to the east. The prehistoric mound settlements were abandoned before the Bronze Age. A channel of the Çarşamba river once flowed between the two mounds, and the settlement was built on alluvial clay which may have been favourable for early agriculture."
Çatalhöyük
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C3%87atalh%C3%B6y%C3%BCk

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/43/Catal_H%C3%BCy%C3%BCk,_bull_heads.JPG

RHAS
11-21-2013, 03:48 AM
Bull leaping, (taurokathapsia)

"Bull-leaping (also taurokathapsia, from Greek ταυροκαθάψια) is a motif of Middle Bronze Age figurative art, notably of Minoan Crete, but also found in Hittite Anatolia, the Levant, Bactria and the Indus Valley. It is often interpreted as a depiction of a ritual performed in connection with bull worship. This ritual consists of an acrobatic leap over a bull; when the leaper grasps the bull's horns, the bull will violently jerk his neck upwards giving the leaper the momentum necessary to perform somersaults and other acrobatic tricks or stunts."
Bull-leaping
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bull-leaping

"The most frequent haplogroups among the current population on Crete were: R1b3-M269 (17%), G2-P15 (11%), J2a1-DYS413 (9.0%), and J2a1h-M319 (9.0%). They identified J2a parent haplogroup J2a-M410 (Crete: 25.9%) with the first ancient residents of Crete during the Neolithic (8500 BCE – 4300 BCE) suggesting Crete was founded by a Neolithic population expansion from ancient Turkey/Anatolia."
The Minoans, DNA and all.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/04/14/the-minoans-dna-and-all/

Minoan Bull-Leaping Fresco.

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/184303_496342860423874_1076560344_n.jpg

Modern Recortadores


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n8wYIARooEE

RHAS
11-21-2013, 03:52 AM
Zeus and Europa

"In Greek mythology Europa (Greek Ευρώπη Eurṓpē) was a Phoenician woman of high lineage, from whom the name of the continent Europe has ultimately been taken. The story of her abduction by Zeus in the form of a white bull was a Cretan story; as Kerényi points out "most of the love-stories concerning Zeus originated from more ancient tales describing his marriages with goddesses. This can especially be said of the story of Europa".
Europa (Mythology)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Europa_(mythology)

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rKg8Fv9ydRM

http://www.greek-gods.info/greek-heroes/europe/images/europe-euro-coin.jpg

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/577720_510383479019812_1389822478_n.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 03:58 AM
The bull: symbol of power fertilizing, propagation vital. Associate for their horns with the moon and its influences. Connects with the mythical figure of the Minotaur, with the Egyptian Apis bull, bullfighting dance with ancient Crete, and the cult of Mithras.

El toro: símbolo de potencia fecundante, de propagación vital. Asociado por sus cuernos con la luna y sus influjos. Entroncado con la figura mítica del Minotauro, con el toro egipcio Apis, con las danzas taurinas de la antigua Creta, y con el culto de Mitra.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=19cgZpcWARo

RHAS
11-21-2013, 03:59 AM
Mithras.

http://www.eupedia.com/forum/attachment.php?attachmentid=5993&d=1377524273

"The tauroctony scene is the cult relief (i.e. the central icon) of the Mithraic Mysteries. It depicts Mithras killing a bull, hence the name 'tauroctony', given to the scene in modern times possibly after the Greek ταυροκτόνος (tauroktonos) "slaughtering bulls", which derives from ταῦρος (tauros) "bull" + κτόνος (ktonos) "murder", from κτείνω (kteinō), "I kill, slay"."
Tauroctony
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tauroctony

"The Mithraic Mysteries were a mystery religion practiced in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to 4th centuries AD. The name of the Persian god Mithra (proto-Indo-Iranian Mitra), adapted into Greek as Mithras, was linked to a new and distinctive imagery. Writers of the Roman Empire period referred to this mystery religion by phrases which can be anglicized as Mysteries of Mithras or Mysteries of the Persians; modern historians refer to it as Mithraism, or sometimes Roman Mithraism. The mysteries were popular in the Roman military."
Mithraic Mysteries
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithraic_mysteries


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=TQ5eeQ_XKyQ

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:01 AM
"Bucranium, plural bucrania (Latin, from Greek βουκράνιον, referring to the skull of an ox) was a common form of carved decoration in Classical architecture used to fill the metopes between the triglyphs of the frieze of Doric temples. A bas-relief or painted decor consisting of a series of ox-skulls draped or decorated with garlands of fruit or flowers was a Roman motif drawn from marble altars, which have survived in some number; the motif was also later used on Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclassical buildings. The name is generally considered to be a reference to the practice of garlanding sacrificial oxen, the heads of which were displayed on the walls of the temples, a practice with a long history reaching back to the sophisticated Neolithic site of Çatalhöyük in eastern Anatolia, where cattle skulls were overlaid with white plaster."
Bucranium
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bucranium

"In the Roman Empire of the 2nd to 4th centuries, taurobolium referred to practices involving the sacrifice of a bull, which after mid-2nd century became connected with the worship of the Great Mother of the Gods; though not previously limited to her cultus, after 159 CE all private taurobolia inscriptions mention Magna Mater. Originating in Asia Minor, its earliest attested performance in Italy occurred in 134 CE, at Puteoli, in honor of Venus Caelestis, documented by an inscription."
Taurobolium.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taurobolium

"In the ancient Mediterranean region, bugonia or bougonia was a ritual based on the belief that bees were spontaneously generated from a cow's carcass, although it is possible that the ritual had more currency as a poetic and learned trope than as an actual practice."
Bugonia.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bugonia

"The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar to the Western world in the Biblical episode of the idol of the Golden Calf. The Golden Calf after being made by the Hebrew people in the wilderness of Sinai, were rejected and destroyed by Moses and the Hebrew people after Moses' time upon Mount Sinai (Book of Exodus). Marduk is the "bull of Utu". Shiva's steed is Nandi, the Bull. The sacred bull survives in the constellation Taurus. The bull, whether lunar as in Mesopotamia or solar as in India, is the subject of various other cultural and religious incarnations, as well as modern mentions in new age cultures."
Sacred Bull.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sacred_bull

"The name comes from Greek Bosporos (Βόσπορος), which the ancient Greeks analysed as bous βοῦς 'ox' + poros πόρος 'means of passing a river, ford, ferry', thus meaning 'ox-ford', which is a reference to Io (mythology) from Greek mythology who was transformed into a cow and condemned to wander the earth until she crossed the Bosphorus where she met Prometheus."
Bosphoros.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosphorus

"Taurus is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic. Its name is a Latin word meaning "bull", and its astrological symbol is a stylized bull's head: Taurus.svg (Unicode ♉). Taurus is a large and prominent constellation in the northern hemisphere's winter sky. It is one of the oldest constellations, dating back to at least the Early Bronze Age when it marked the location of the Sun during the spring equinox. Taurus came to symbolize the bull in the mythologies of Ancient Babylon, Egypt and Greece."
Taurus Constellation.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taurus_(constellation)

"Bucephalus or Bucephalas (/bjuːˈsɛfələs/; Ancient Greek: Βουκέφαλος or Βουκεφάλας, from βούς bous, "ox" and κεφαλή kephalē, "head" meaning "ox-head") (c. 355 BC – June 326 BC) was Alexander the Great's horse and one of the most famous actual horses of antiquity. Ancient accounts state that Bucephalus died after the Battle of the Hydaspes in 326 BC, in what is now modern Pakistan, and is buried in Jalalpur Sharif outside of Jhelum, Pakistan. Another account states that Bucephalus is buried in Phalia, a town in Pakistan's Mandi Bahauddin District, which is named after him."
Bucephalus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bucephalus

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:02 AM
The First Eden: The Mediterranean World and Man is a BBC documentary series written and presented by David Attenborough, first transmitted in the United Kingdom from 8 March 1987. Attenborough explores the influence of the first Mediterranean civilisations, placing the symbolism of the bull at the centre of his narrative.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4RoJLkHX_0o

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:03 AM
Theseus and the Minotaur

"In Greek mythology, the Minotaur (/ˈmaɪnətɔː/, /ˈmɪnəˌtɔr/; Ancient Greek: Μῑνώταυρος [miːnɔ̌ːtau̯ros], Latin: Minotaurus, Etruscan Θevrumineś), was a creature with the head of a bull on the body of a man or, as described by Roman poet Ovid, "part man and part bull". He dwelt at the center of the Cretan Labyrinth, which was an elaborate maze-like construction designed by the architect Daedalus and his son Icarus, on the command of King Minos of Crete. The Minotaur was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus."
Minotaur.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Minotaur


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8qrZ1clEp-Y

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:05 AM
Sacred Egyptian cows and bulls (Apis)

"In Egyptian mythology, Apis or Hapis (alternatively spelled Hapi-ankh), is a bull-deity that was worshipped in the Memphis region."
Apis
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apis_(god)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZXbz--mBAI4

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:06 AM
Heracles and the Cretan Bull.

"Whistling merrily at his success so far, Heracles was then sent to capture the bull by Eurystheus as his seventh task. He sailed to Crete, whereupon the King, Minos, gave Heracles permission to take the bull away and offered him assistance, which Heracles denied because of pride,[1] as it had been wreaking havoc on Crete by uprooting crops and leveling orchard walls. Heracles sneaked up behind the bull and then used his hands to strangle it, and then shipped it back to Athens. Eurystheus, who hid in his pithos at first sight of the creature, wanted to sacrifice the bull to Hera, who hated Heracles. She refused the sacrifice because it reflected glory on Heracles. The bull was released and wandered into Marathon, becoming known as the Marathonian Bull.[1] Theseus would later sacrifice the bull to Athena and/or Apollo. Eurystheus then sent Heracles to bring back the man-eating Mares of Diomedes."
Cretan Bull - The Seventh Labour of Heracles
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretan_Bull

"The most frequent haplogroups among the current population on Crete were: R1b3-M269 (17%), G2-P15 (11%), J2a1-DYS413 (9.0%), and J2a1h-M319 (9.0%). They identified J2a parent haplogroup J2a-M410 (Crete: 25.9%) with the first ancient residents of Crete during the Neolithic (8500 BCE – 4300 BCE) suggesting Crete was founded by a Neolithic population expansion from ancient Turkey/Anatolia."
The Minoans, DNA and all.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wor...s-dna-and-all/

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/860635_500440700014090_1819551888_o.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:07 AM
Cretan/Minoan Bull

"When the moon has reached the constellation of Taurus, it has passed over an area that the ancients referred to as the sea - the region from Capricorn to the region containing Aries. It was referred to as the sea due to the high concentration of constellations identified as sea creatures within it, Aries being identified as a golden flying ram who flew over the sea. Crete is in a direct line from the natural harbor of Argo, a direction which due the shape of Argo's harbor, and surrounding coastline, requires that all ships initially take this course. Apart from being a bull, Taurus contains a very bright and red star (Aldebaran), meaning that many took it to be evil. Some forms of Greek mythology associated the constellation with the tame white bull, in some versions Zeus in disguise, that seduced Europa and took her to Crete (Minos), whereas others associate it with the white bull that fathered the Minotaur. The Cretan Bull which fathered the Minotaur was originally calm and sent from Poseidon, but king Minos whom it was sent to fell out of favor with Poseidon, and so in some versions of the story, Poseidon made the bull angry. The myth of Poseidon sending the bull (which seduced Minos' wife) may simply be an earlier version of the myth of Zeus seducing Europa, as in earlier Mycenean times, Poseidon had significantly more importance than Zeus. The change of gods was due to the replacement of the Mycenean culture and religion, with a later one favoring Zeus. Poseidon and Zeus, which have the same etymological origin (Poseidon deriving from Posei-Deion which means Lord God[citation needed], and Zeus deriving from Deus which also means God[citation needed]), may be the result of the parallel evolution of the same original god in separate cultures, one (Poseidon - who is also associated with horses) becoming associated more with the sea (due to change in the main source of trade), and thus eventually becoming noticeably different."
Cretan Bull
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cretan_Bull

"It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/901643_519990728059087_661792251_o.png

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:08 AM
"The Mithraic Mysteries were a mystery religion practiced in the Roman Empire from about the 1st to 4th centuries AD. The name of the Persian god Mithra (proto-Indo-Iranian Mitra), adapted into Greek as Mithras, was linked to a new and distinctive imagery. Writers of the Roman Empire period referred to this mystery religion by phrases which can be anglicized as Mysteries of Mithras or Mysteries of the Persians; modern historians refer to it as Mithraism, or sometimes Roman Mithraism. The mysteries were popular in the Roman military."
Mithraic Mysteries
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mithraic_mysteries


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7uht5o1fJM

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:09 AM
Nandi.

"Nandi, is the name for the bull which serves as the mount (Sanskrit: Vahana) of the god Shiva and as the gate keeper of Shiva and Parvati, and in Hindu mythology. He is the chief guru of eighteen masters(18 siddhas) including Patanjali and Thirumular. Temples venerating Shiva display stone images of a seated Nandi, generally facing the main shrine. There are also a number of temples dedicated solely to Nandi."
Nandi Bull
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nandi_(bull)

"The J2 lineage originated in the northern portion of the Fertile Crescent where it later spread throughout central Asia, the Mediterranean, and south into India."
Kerchner.com - YDNA Haplogroup Descriptions & Information Links.
http://www.kerchner.com/haplogroups-ydna.htm

"Within India, J2a is more common among the upper castes and decreases in frequency with the cast level."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

http://www.dollsofindia.com/images/products/shiva-pictures/lord-shiva-sitting-on-bull-with-parvati-and-ganesha-QG46_l.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:09 AM
"Thus, it is possible to contemplate the existence of an ancient genetic trail represented by the Y-DNA J2 out of Near East to the Caucasus to the southern parts of Japan, Okinawa, where J2 haplotype 1 is found at 1.15%."
Japanese Mythology - Is there a deep sumerian connetion or layer to japanese history?
http://japanesemythology.wordpress.c...anese-history/

"Tōgyū (闘牛?) also known as ushi-zumo or Bull sumo, is a spectator sport native to Ryukyu Islands of Japan, especially in the Okinawa Prefecture. It is also held in other regions of Japan, such as Iwate Prefecture, Niigata Prefecture, Shimane Prefecture, Ehime Prefecture and Kagoshima Prefecture. Although sometimes known to Westerners as "Okinawan bullfighting", it is drastically different from the Spanish or Portuguese style of bullfighting where the matches are between a bull and a human, with blood being spilt. Tōgyū has more in common with northern Portugal's sport of chegas and the Swiss sport of cow fighting."
Tōgyū
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/T%C5%8Dgy%C5%AB


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_Fu_vT6njlw

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:10 AM
Io

"Io /ˈaɪ.oʊ/ (Ancient Greek: Ἰώ [iːɔ̌ː]) was, in Greek mythology, a priestess of Hera in Argos, a nymph who was seduced by Zeus, who changed her into a heifer to escape detection. His wife Hera sent ever-watchful Argus Panoptes, with 100 eyes, to watch her, but Hermes was sent to distract the guardian and slay him. Heifer Io was loosed to roam the world, stung by a maddening gadfly sent by Hera, and wandered to Egypt, thus placing her descendant Belus in Egypt; his sons Cadmus (Cadmus was also named as a son of Belus' brother Agenor) and Danaus would then "return" to mainland Greece."
IO Mythology
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Io_(mythology)

"The name comes from Greek Bosporos (Βόσπορος), which the ancient Greeks analysed as bous βοῦς 'ox' + poros πόρος 'means of passing a river, ford, ferry', thus meaning 'ox-ford', which is a reference to Io (mythology) from Greek mythology who was transformed into a cow and condemned to wander the earth until she crossed the Bosphorus where she met Prometheus."
Bosphoros.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bosphorus

"Haplogroup J-M12 was associated with Neolithic Greece (ca. 8500 - 4300 BCE) and was reported to be found in modern Crete (3.1%) and mainland Greece (Macedonia 7.0%, Thessaly 8.8%, Argolis 1.8%) (King 2008)."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/cf/Hermes_Io_Argos_Staatliche_Antikensammlungen_585.j pg/800px-Hermes_Io_Argos_Staatliche_Antikensammlungen_585.j pg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 04:11 AM
Attalids & Bullworship

"Timur Serdar and Demircin Sema authored a recent study on the Y chromosomes of Antalya, which is located on the southern coast of Anatolia. Haplogroup J2 was most frequent in this study of 75 unrelated males found at a frequency of 26.6%. The J2 data was consistent with an earlier study by Cinnioglu et al which found 24% J2 in southern Anatolia. Haplogroup T (K* in the study) was next most frequent at 13.3% and this data differed from Cinnioglu's data which found only 3.3% Haplogroup K in southern Anatolia. The first record of Antalya was as Attalia, a greek city founded approximately 150BC by Attalos II, King of Pergamon."
M172 Blog - Haplogroup J2, M172 in Antalya, Turkish Republic, 2009.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/06/haplogroup-j2-m172-in-antalya-turkish.html

He was the second son of Attalus I Soter and queen Apollonis, and ascended the throne first as co-ruler alongside his ailing brother Eumenes II in 160 BC, whose widow Stratonice of Pergamon he married in 158 BC upon Eumenes' death.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalus_II_Philadelphus

"The victory brought Attalus legendary fame. A story arose, related by Pausanias, of an oracle who had foretold these events a generation earlier:
Then verily, having crossed the narrow strait of the Hellespont,
The devastating host of the Gauls shall pipe; and lawlessly
They shall ravage Asia; and much worse shall God do
To those who dwell by the shores of the sea
For a short while. For right soon the son of Cronos
Shall raise a helper, the dear son of a bull reared by Zeus
Who on all the Gauls shall bring a day of destruction."
Attalus I
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalus_I

---------------------------------------------------------

Phrygians & Bullworship

"Several authors have proposed that the Indo-European language presently spoken by Armenians arose during the Bronze Age, when Indo-European speaking tribes from the Balkans and Greece invaded Anatolia and Transcaucasia, leading to the subsequent spread of their culture and language. In this study, we have detected a number of lineages that are prominent in the Balkans (I2*, I2b*, J2b1 and J2b2) at low levels throughout Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, the latter of which also contains haplogroups commonly associated with Bronze Age Greece (ie, J2a8-M319 (4.9%), and E1b1b1-M78 and its sublineages (3.9%)). While this may suggest genetic input from early Greek or Phrygian tribes, it is also possible that these low levels of Balkan lineages arrived in Armenia at a later time, such as during one of the many incursions into the area during the reign of the Macedonian, Roman and Byzantine empires."
Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v...g2011192a.html

"I-P37 and J-M12 are dated to 1,100BC and 1,200BC, at around the time that e.g. the Phrygians from the Balkans are believed to have migrated to Asia Minor. I-P37 and J-M12 reach their maxima in areas north of Greece where the Phrygians are said to have originated."
How Y-STR variance accumulates: a comment on Zhivotovsky, Underhill and Feldman (2006)
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/07/...s-comment.html

"It was the "Great Mother", Cybele, as the Greeks and Romans knew her, who was originally worshiped in the mountains of Phrygia, where she was known as "Mountain Mother". In her typical Phrygian form, she wears a long belted dress, a polos (a high cylindrical headdress), and a veil covering the whole body. The later version of Cybele was established by a pupil of Phidias, the sculptor Agoracritus, and became the image most widely adopted by Cybele's expanding following, both in the Aegean world and at Rome. It shows her humanized though still enthroned, her hand resting on an attendant lion and the other holding the tympanon, a circular frame drum, similar to a tambourine. The Phrygians also venerated Sabazios, the sky and father-god depicted on horseback. Although the Greeks associated Sabazios with Zeus, representations of him, even at Roman times, show him as a horseman god. His conflicts with the indigenous Mother Goddess, whose creature was the Lunar Bull, may be surmised in the way that Sabazios' horse places a hoof on the head of a bull, in a Roman relief at the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston."
Phrygians
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygians

RHAS
11-21-2013, 10:02 AM
Roman DNA

"Dennis Cleeton from Llandrindod Wells, Powys has spent 20 years tracking his ancestors back to the 16th Century - then a chance request to take a DNA test took him back even further to the invading Roman armies."
BBC News - DNA links pensioner with Romans
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/wales/7804845.stm

"De komende maanden zullen wetenschappers van de KU Leuven DNA-stalen nemen in een aantal regio's om na te gaan of er een genetische band bestaat tussen de huidige inwoners van Vlaanderen en de Romeinse bezetters van 2.000 jaar geleden."
Leven er nog Romeinen in Vlaanderen?
http://www.deredactie.be/cm/vrtnieuw...land/1.1441551

Transated: The comming months researchers of the University of Leuven will collect DNA samples in a number of regions to see if there is a genetic link between the current inhabitants of Flanders and the Roman occupiers from 2000 years go.

"Bij 50 inwoners van Snellegem is een DNA-staal genomen. Dat gebeurde in het kader van een onderzoek van de KU Leuven. Wetenschappers willen nagaan of er in de regio nog mensen zijn met een genetische band met de Romeinse bezetters."
DNA-test gaat op zoek naar nakomelingen van de Romeinen in Snellegem
http://www.focus-wtv.be/nieuws/algem...0186010538.htm

Translated: DNA samples of 50 Snellegem inhabitants was collected. This happend in the light of the University of Leuven`s research project. Sientist are trying to determine of there is a genetic link between the current inhabitants and the Roman invaders.

"In hoeverre stammen de Vlamingen nog af van de Romeinen die onze gebieden 2000 jaar geleden bezetten? Dat proberen wetenschappers van de universiteit van Leuven te achterhalen. Ze doen daarvoor een groot DNA-onderzoek. Mannen op verschillende plaatsen in Vlaanderen staan vrijwillig een speekselstaal af om dat te laten analyseren."
Stammen we af van de Romeinen?
http://nieuws.vtm.be/binnenland/2013...an-de-romeinen

Translated: To what extend are Flemish people descendant of Romans who occupied these areas 2000 years ago? Researchers of the Leuven University are trying to determine that. They will do this by means of a large DNA project. Men at different locations in Flanders are volunteering to have their DNA samples collected.

"Parys Mountain is one of only three sites in Wales which have evidence of copper mining during the Bronze and Roman Ages."
BBC News - DNA test to prove Bronze Age link.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/w...st/8007969.stm

http://www.deredactie.be/polopoly_fs/1.1441559!image/1019570329.jpg_gen/derivatives/landscape670/1019570329.jpg

RHAS
11-21-2013, 10:09 AM
Haplotype 35

https://sphotos-b-vie.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/644589_519597904765036_1604809963_n.jpg

"Research conducted by the administrators of the Border Reivers DNA Project has identified numerous haplotypes in persons of British descent that show Haplotype 35 markers. Moreover, most of these haplotypes appear to originate from areas of Britain near the Antonine Wall, Hadrian's Wall and other places of Roman fortification or settlement. These areas include Galloway, Dumfries, Ayrshire and The Borders in Scotland, and Cumbria, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Shropshire and Staffordshire in England. Many of the Roman troops stationed in these areas came from Southeastern Europe or Western Asia. They included Sarmatians, Dacians, Goths, Syrians, Mesopotamians, Thracians and Anatolians. The Capelli study has shown that these areas also exhibit higher than average frequencies of haplogroups E3b and J2, neither of which is native to Britain. E3b is found most commonly in North Africa, Iberia, the Mediterranean and the Near East, and J2 occurs most frequently in the Near East, the Mediterranean and Western Asia. The fact that all three groups - E3b, J2 and Haplotype 35 - have a similar origin in territories of the Roman Empire, and occur at comparable frequencies in parts of Britain with a known history of Roman settlement, suggests that they arrived in Britain through the same means."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project (Haplogroup J2) - Haplogroup R1b (Haplotype 35).
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb....5_analysis.htm

"The members of this haplotype are found in high numbers in Anatolia and Armenia, with smaller numbers throughout Central Asia, the Middle East, the Balkans, the Caucus Mountains, and in Jewish populations. They are also present in Britain in areas that were found to have a high concentration of Haplogroup J, suggesting they arrived together, perhaps through Roman soldiers."
Wikipedia.org - Haplotype 35.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplotype_35

"The likely deep ancestry source of Haplogroup J2 as found along the Anglo-Scottish border is probably to be found with members of the Roman Legions which were stationed along Hadrian's wall."
Border receivers - DNA Report Nov 2005.
http://www.borderreivers.co.uk/DNA%2...20Nov%2005.htm

RHAS
11-24-2013, 04:22 PM
https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/1395182_628104387247720_1078771643_n.jpg

Ancient Tartessos was an old harbor city/trading post mentioned first in Greek sources from about the middle of the first millennium BC. Greeks and Phoenicians competed to gain influence in the Tartessos region. The area was rich in metals. A Tartessian king with the name Arganthonios is known to have invited a Greek group of Phocaeans (close to Troy, Xanthus and Phrygia) to settle in his city. He also gave them large amounts of silver to pay for defensive measures for the Phocaeans homeland in Asia Minor. Greek trading posts are believed to have existed in this region, like Portus Menesthei which surprisingly enough is linked to a Trojan myth regarding the settlement of the Trojan king Menestheus in Iberia. Lisbon on the edge of the J2b2 heatmap area in Portugal has an origin myth connected to Odysseus, just like the Rhineland fortress of Asciburgium. Tartessos is believed by some to be the legendary city of Atlantis. It is in this region that the Pillars of Hercules are located and here Hercules/Heracles stole the Cattle of Geryon as one of his Ten Labours. It is the home of the Spanish cult of the Bull as much as Knossos, was the home of the Minoan cult of the Bull. Tartessos was probably destroyed by Cathagians, but recent finds also show a flood event at the time of its disappearance from history. The Conii or Cynetes are a group of people we find in the Algarve region in Roman times after the fall of Tartessos. While they lived in Celtic areas it is Herodotus who distinguished them from the Celts. The Conii were allied to Rome. Several Roman cities existed in the region. A retirement settlement for Roman legionnaires from the Legions V Alaudae (also present in Xanten, Rhineland and Dacia, Balkans) and X Gemina (also present in the Rhineland and the Balkans) was built at Merida (Emerito Augusta). Biblical archeologists often identify the place-name Tarshish in the Hebrew Bible with Tartessos, though others connect it to Tarsus in Anatolia (see Anatolia/Asia Minor Cluster) or other places as far as India. (See entry for Jonah in the Jewish Encyclopedia.) Tarshish, like Tartessos, is associated with extensive mineral wealth (Iberian Pyrite Belt)." While the origins of the Tartessians remains unknown, it is known they were in contact with ancient Greeks (Phocaeans) who even seem to have settled in the region, based on that fact it seems possible for the J2b2`s in the Portugal region to have Greek ancestry. Another origin possibility for the J2b2s in this region would be the settlement of Roman legionnaires with Thracian, Macedonian or Greek ancestry, from the same stock that would populate the Rhineland.

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartessos
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tartessian_language
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lissabon
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Emerita_Augusta
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cynetes
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phocaea
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Odysseus
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Arganthonios
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legio_V_Alaudae
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Legio_X_Gemina

"J2b2a-L283 was discovered by Family Tree DNA through its "Walk Through The Y" program, and is predominantly Middle-Eastern, Mediterranean and European. The M12/M241 frequency peak in the Balkan Peninsula and Italy observed by Semino et al. [35] and Cruciani et al. [45], may instead belong to sub-clade L283. A recent Z631 sub-branch expansion from east to west through the heart of Europe to the UK along with presence in Italy and Spain might be associated with Roman expansion using mercenaries and slaves acquired in the Balkans."
Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using "next-generation" sequencing data.
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/e...802.1.full.pdf

RHAS
11-24-2013, 06:58 PM
New:

"J2b2a-L283 was discovered by Family Tree DNA through its "Walk Through The Y" program, and is predominantly Middle-Eastern, Mediterranean and European. The M12/M241 frequency peak in the Balkan Peninsula and Italy observed by Semino et al. and Cruciani et al., may instead belong to sub-clade L283. A recent Z631 sub-branch expansion from east to west through the heart of Europe to the UK along with presence in Italy and Spain might be associated with Roman expansion using mercenaries and slaves acquired in the Balkans."
Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using "next-generation" sequencing data.
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/e...802.1.full.pdf

"Haplogroup J-M241 shows a network with the central and most frequent haplotype being widespread in the Southern Balkans - a likely consequence of a rapid expansion probably started in Neolithic times in Asia Minor [34]. Since the periphery of the network is mainly occupied by haplotypes found outside this region (Apulians, Indians and Nepalese) the present results do not provide any useful evidence for the identification of the J-M241 homeland. On the other hand, the high age estimates in these populations could be due to recurrent gene flow from different sources. Leaving aside Apulians, Indians and Nepalese, the highest ages, compatible with a Neolithic expansion, are obtained in regions around the Black Sea, namely Anatolia (9.1±2 kya) and Bulgaria, in particular its central part (7.8±3 kya). Consequently, in this region, haplogroup J-M241 can be considered as a genetic signal of the expansion of farmers towards Southeast Europe possibly enhanced by the breaching of the Bosphorus Sill and the flood of the Pontic Lake with marine water."
Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0056779

RHAS
12-27-2013, 03:54 PM
"Based on the results from the Benelux Y-DNA Project it can be inferred that the Frank`s main paternal lineage was haplogroup R1b-U106, and that they belong overwhemingly the Z381 subclade. They also possesed other typical Germanic lineages like I1, I2a2a and R1a (L664 and Z283 subclades), although their ratio to R1b-U106 would have been 1:2, 1:6 and 1:7 respectivly. Like modern Scandinavians, the Franks also probably carried a substantial amount of R1b-P312 lineages, including the l21, U152 and DF27 subclades, as well as a minority of E-V13, G2a3b1 and J2. Since all these lineages are also typical of popultion of Celtic or Italic (including Roman) descent, is not clear at present what proportion of these lineages in the Benelux can be attributed to the Gauls and the Romans, as opposed to the Franks."
Eupedia.com - A brief history of the Franks.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/frankish_influence_modern_europe.shtml

"Between 600 BCE and 300 BCE the Greeks founded colonies along the Mediterranean coast of France, founding Agde, Mareille, Hyeres and Nice. The ancient Greeks would have brought chiefly haplogroups E1b1b and J2 with them, with also a minority of G2a, J1, R1b-L23 and T. Then came the Romans, who stayed for 500 years in Gaul. The Romans are thought have belonged essentially to R1b-U152, with substantial minorities of E1b1b (probably more E-M123), G2a (especially G2a3b1a), J1, J2 (both J2a and J2b2), and T."
Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project: Benelux & France.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelux_france_dna_project.shtml

RHAS
12-27-2013, 03:55 PM
"Based on the results from the Benelux Y-DNA Project it can be inferred that the Frank`s main paternal lineage was haplogroup R1b-U106, and that they belong overwhemingly the Z381 subclade. They also possesed other typical Germanic lineages like I1, I2a2a and R1a (L664 and Z283 subclades), although their ratio to R1b-U106 would have been 1:2, 1:6 and 1:7 respectivly. Like modern Scandinavians, the Franks also probably carried a substantial amount of R1b-P312 lineages, including the l21, U152 and DF27 subclades, as well as a minority of E-V13, G2a3b1 and J2. Since all these lineages are also typical of popultion of Celtic or Italic (including Roman) descent, is not clear at present what proportion of these lineages in the Benelux can be attributed to the Gauls and the Romans, as opposed to the Franks."
Eupedia.com - A brief history of the Franks.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/frankish_influence_modern_europe.shtml

"Between 600 BCE and 300 BCE the Greeks founded colonies along the Mediterranean coast of France, founding Agde, Mareille, Hyeres and Nice. The ancient Greeks would have brought chiefly haplogroups E1b1b and J2 with them, with also a minority of G2a, J1, R1b-L23 and T. Then came the Romans, who stayed for 500 years in Gaul. The Romans are thought have belonged essentially to R1b-U152, with substantial minorities of E1b1b (probably more E-M123), G2a (especially G2a3b1a), J1, J2 (both J2a and J2b2), and T."
Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project: Benelux & France.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelux_france_dna_project.shtml

RHAS
04-04-2014, 03:44 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Romans (Etruscans)

"Haplogroup J2: (Greco-Anatolian) Bronze Age immigrants – this haplogroup is reasonably common in southern Europe; it may be associated with the Etruscans, the Minoans and the Phoenicians. Its presence across European populations is theorised to have come about via Roman colonisation (including the stationing of Roman troops all over the empire). About 20% of Romans belonged to haplogroup J (probably via Etruscan and Greek ancestors). This haplogroup is apparently associated with bull worship – which was probably not common among early Indo-Europeans. Haplogroup J2 is most common in Turkey and surrounding regions."
Y-DNA Haplogroups of Europe.
http://romanpagan.blogspot.nl/2013/0...of-europe.html (http://romanpagan.blogspot.nl/2013/08/y-dna-haplogroups-of-europe.html)

Haplogroup J and Romans.

"Y-DNA haplogroep. Vaak voorkomende haplogroepen in West-Europa. J. Typerend voor Zuid-Oost-Europa, meer bepaald Centraal en Zuid-Italië, Griekenland en Romenië. Ook teruggevonden in Frankrijk, Turkije en het Midden-Oosten. Kan in verband worden gebracht met de oude Grieken, de Romeinen en de Pheniciërs."
Gent University, Heemkring Ansfried - Genetica als hulpwetenschap bij het historisch onderzoek naar de oorsprong van de Kempische bevolking. (Dutch)
http://www.heemkringansfried.be/down...g_mechelen.pdf (http://www.heemkringansfried.be/download/lezing_mechelen.pdf)

RHAS
04-04-2014, 03:47 AM
Viticulture. (Mesopotamians, Iranians, Egypt, Greeks, Phoenicians, Phrygians, Romans. etc.)

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/t1.0-9/1236463_10151847273610944_1931030569_n.jpg

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/t1.0-9/1237589_10151847273645944_1598243303_n.jpg



"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/corr...ticulture.html

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/602075_496308773760616_1899390364_n.jpg

RHAS
04-04-2014, 03:52 AM
"J2a-M92 is a well-defined J2a-M67 sub-lineage, with a distribution restricted to Asia Minor, the Balkans and the north-eastern Mediterranean coasts. Frequency and variance maps make plausible an origin in north-western Turkey, where the highest variance is registered, and a subsequent migration to the Balkans and then to the Italian Peninsula."
Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...e-0041252-g002 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041252#pone-0041252-g002)

"J2 is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/Iran region and its spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550 BC- 300 BC)."
Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...e.0080293.s007 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080293;jsessi onid=A4F16FE1589558524BBA7A734977E8E7#pone.0080293 .s007)

"Today we know little of these earliest Sicilians, though they were probably part of an influx of Neolithic settlers who arrived in the central Mediterranean from the East sometime before 10000 BC, identified genetically with Y Haplogroup J2 (M172). Indeed, it seems that the earliest known inhabitants of Malta arrived from Sicily and they quite literally laid the foundations of a culture which in many ways have been far more sophisticated than anything else in Europe or the Mediterranean region at that time."
Pyramids in Sicily.
http://www.bosnian-pyramid.org/italy-vii/

"Nick Donofrio, executive VP of innovation and technology at IBM, which is partnering with National Geographic on the Genographic Project, is a proud Italian. He was stunned when his Y test came back saying he was a member of haplogroup J2,... meaning his ancestors had lived in the Middle East some 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. "You could have pushed me over with a feather," he says. After Donofrio announced his results on IBM's Web site, his in box started filling up with J2 colleagues. "A lot of Armenians have been sending me e-mails saying 'J2 rocks!' "
Newsweek - In Our Blood.
http://www.newsweek.com/our-blood-113321

"Haplogroup J2: (Greco-Anatolian) Bronze Age immigrants – this haplogroup is reasonably common in southern Europe; it may be associated with the Etruscans, the Minoans and the Phoenicians. Its presence across European populations is theorised to have come about via Roman colonisation (including the stationing of Roman troops all over the empire). About 20% of Romans belonged to haplogroup J (probably via Etruscan and Greek ancestors). This haplogroup is apparently associated with bull worship – which was probably not common among early Indo-Europeans. Haplogroup J2 is most common in Turkey and surrounding regions."
Y-DNA Haplogroups of Europe.
http://romanpagan.blogspot.nl/2013/0...of-europe.html (http://romanpagan.blogspot.nl/2013/08/y-dna-haplogroups-of-europe.html)

"Y-DNA haplogroep. Vaak voorkomende haplogroepen in West-Europa. J. Typerend voor Zuid-Oost-Europa, meer bepaald Centraal en Zuid-Italië, Griekenland en Romenië. Ook teruggevonden in Frankrijk, Turkije en het Midden-Oosten. Kan in verband worden gebracht met de oude Grieken, de Romeinen en de Pheniciërs."
Gent University, Heemkring Ansfried - Genetica als hulpwetenschap bij het historisch onderzoek naar de oorsprong van de Kempische bevolking. (Dutch)
http://www.heemkringansfried.be/down...g_mechelen.pdf (http://www.heemkringansfried.be/download/lezing_mechelen.pdf)

RHAS
04-04-2014, 03:54 AM
Franks and Bull worship.

"Based on the results from the Benelux Y-DNA Project it can be inferred that the Frank`s main paternal lineage was haplogroup R1b-U106, and that they belong overwhemingly the Z381 subclade. They also possesed other typical Germanic lineages like I1, I2a2a and R1a (L664 and Z283 subclades), although their ratio to R1b-U106 would have been 1:2, 1:6 and 1:7 respectivly. Like modern Scandinavians, the Franks also probably carried a substantial amount of R1b-P312 lineages, including the l21, U152 and DF27 subclades, as well as a minority of E-V13, G2a3b1 and J2. Since all these lineages are also typical of popultion of Celtic or Italic (including Roman) descent, is not clear at present what proportion of these lineages in the Benelux can be attributed to the Gauls and the Romans, as opposed to the Franks."
Eupedia.com - A brief history of the Franks.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/franki...n_europe.shtml (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/frankish_influence_modern_europe.shtml)

"In contrast to many other Germanic tribes, no Merovingians claimed to be descended from Wodan. Instead, the sacred tradition of a cart pulled by bulls seems to be present from the early Merovingians on. The bulls that pulled the cart were taken as special animals, and according to Salian law the theft of those animals would impose a high sanction. In the grave of Childeric I (died 481) was found the head of a bull, craftily made out of gold."
Wikipedia - Frankish Mythology.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankish_mythology

"The Quinotaur (Lat. Quinotaurus) is a mythical sea creature mentioned in the 7th century Frankish Chronicle of Fredegar. Referred to as "bestea Neptuni Quinotauri similis", (the beast of Neptune which resembles a Quinotaur) it was held to have fathered Meroveus by attacking the wife of the Frankish king Chlodio and thus to have sired the line of Merovingian kings. The name translates from Latin as "bull with five horns", whose attributes have commonly been interpreted as the incorporated symbols of the sea god Neptune with his trident, and the horns of a mythical bull or Minotaur. The suggested rape and subsequent family relation of this monster attributed to Frankish mythology correspond to both the Indo-European etymology of Neptune (from PIE '*nepots', "grandson" or "nephew", compare also the Indo-Aryan 'Apam Napat', "grandson/nephew of the water") and to bull-related fertility myths in Greek mythology, where for example the Phoenician princess Europa was abducted by the god Zeus, in the form of a white bull, that swam her to Crete."
Wikipedia - Quintotaur.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quinotaur

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/t1.0-9/1555549_677488842309274_930101075_n.jpg
(Image: Quinotaur)

RHAS
04-04-2014, 03:56 AM
"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com, 2013.

-----------------------------------------

J2-M172 Y-DNA European Countries Population Estimate Top 25 + Civilisations.
(Top 25 of all countries included in this research & major civilisations/tribes they were part of.)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
2. Italy (5.513.513) - (Ancient Greece*, Etruscan, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Holy Roman Empire)
3. France (2.198.498) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
4. Russia (2.137.766) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia, Russian Empire)
5. Germany (1.829.382) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
6. Ukraine (1.457.757) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia)
7. Romania (1.420.153) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
8. Spain (1.417.960) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire, Gothic Kingdom, Moors, Spanish Empire)
9. Greece (1.238.300) - (Ancient Greece*, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman)
10. England (892.500) - (Roman Empire, British Empire)
11. Bulgaria (545.440) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
12. Portugal (512.119) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire)
13. Netherlands (501.919) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
14. Austria (493.185) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire, Austria- Hungarian Empire)
15. Poland (480.192) - (Sarmatia, Polish Kingdom, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Vlach & German Settlers)
16. Hungary (348.546) - (Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary, Austria- Hungarian Empire)
17. Czech Republic (305.319) - (Roman Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
18. Albania (292.779) - (Ancient Greece*, Illyria, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
19. Switserland (240.000) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
20. Serbia (236.490) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Austria- Hungarian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
21. Cyprus (203.378) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
22. Sweden (143.101) - (Germanic, Nordic, Viking, Kingdom of Sweden, Swedish Empire)
23. Macedonia (FYROM) (124.942) - (Ancient Greece*, Macedon, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
24. Bosnia-Herzegovina (116.379) - (Illyria, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
25. Slovakia (108.906) - (Scytho-Thracian, Celts, Roman Empire, Kingdom of Hungary)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Countries Of All Regions Population Estimate Top 25 + Civilisations.
(Top 25 of all countries included in this research & major civilisations/tribes they were part of.)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
2. Italy (5.513.513) - (Ancient Greece*, Etruscan, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Holy Roman Empire)
3. Egypt (4.510.000) - (Ancient Egypt, Greek Ptolemaic Kingdom*, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
4. Iran (4.508.980) - (Parthian Empire, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Greco-Bactrian Kingdom*, Persian Empire)
5. Iraq (3.035.099) - (Mesopotamia, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
6. France (2.198.498) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
7. Russia (2.137.766) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia, Russian Empire)
8. Syria (1.915.113) - (Mesopotamia, Phoenician, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
9. Germany (1.829.382) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
10. Ukraine (1.457.757) - (Ancient Greece*, Sarmatia, Scythia)
11. Romania (1.420.153) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Ottoman Empire)
12. Spain (1.417.960) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire, Gothic Kingdom, Moors, Spanish Empire)
13. Azerbaijan (1.397.663) - (Scythia, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire)
14. Greece (1.238.300) - (Ancient Greece*, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman)
15. England (892.500) - (Celtic, Roman Empire, British Empire)
16. Georgia (603.342) - (Ancient Greece*, Roman Empire)
17. Lebanon (549.120) - (Phoenician, Persian Empire, Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Ottoman)
18. Bulgaria (545.440) - (Ancient Greece*, Thrace, Roman Empire, Byzantium, Ottoman Empire)
19. Portugal (512.119) - (Ancient Greece*, Phoenician, Roman Empire)
20. Netherlands (501.919) - (Germania, Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
21. Austria (493.185) - (Roman Empire, Frankish Empire, Holy Roman Empire)
22. Morocco (489.666) - (Phoenician, Roman Empire)
23. Poland (480.192) - (Sarmatia, Polish Kingdom, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth, Vlach & German Settlers)
24. Jordan (423.038) - (Greek Seleucid Empire*, Roman Empire, Persian Empire, Ottoman Empire)
25. Armenia (358.842) - (Kingdom of Armenia, Roman Empire, Persian Empire. Ottoman Empire, Russian)

Taken from: http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?1606-Haplogroup-J2-M172-Population-Size-Estimates

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/t31.0-8/1926092_720050028053155_806363549_o.jpg

"Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794)

"DNA of men whose forebears probably were Etruscans show they weren't local, but migrated, study says. Genetic studies of Italians in Tuscany show that their forefathers, the ancient Etruscans, moved to Italy from what is now Turkey -- an origin that many archeologists have dismissed as unlikely. The Etruscans, who emerged about 1200 BC, reached their zenith in the 6th century BC, dominating Italy and the Mediterranean area until being assimilated into the Roman Republic about 200 BC. They provided many of the cultural underpinnings of Roman society. They were skilled metallurgists and masterful seafarers, but their origin has been a source of dispute for at least 2,500 years."
LA Times - Genetic tests: Italians were from Turkey
http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun...ci-etruscans18 (http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun/18/science/sci-etruscans18)

Hg J2-M172 & Roman Republic.

https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/t1.0-9/1236259_591804834211009_98755787_n.jpg

Roman Empire: East & West.

http://fanack.com/uploads/pics/turkey_byzantine_map_318px.jpg

RHAS
04-04-2014, 04:03 AM
https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/t31.0-8/1926092_720050028053155_806363549_o.jpg

"DNA of men whose forebears probably were Etruscans show they weren't local, but migrated, study says. Genetic studies of Italians in Tuscany show that their forefathers, the ancient Etruscans, moved to Italy from what is now Turkey -- an origin that many archeologists have dismissed as unlikely. The Etruscans, who emerged about 1200 BC, reached their zenith in the 6th century BC, dominating Italy and the Mediterranean area until being assimilated into the Roman Republic about 200 BC. They provided many of the cultural underpinnings of Roman society. They were skilled metallurgists and masterful seafarers, but their origin has been a source of dispute for at least 2,500 years."
LA Times - Genetic tests: Italians were from Turkey
http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun...ci-etruscans18 (http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun/18/science/sci-etruscans18)


http://i253.photobucket.com/albums/hh72/gundalilama/RomulusEtRemus.jpg

"An earlier tradition that gave Romulus a distant ancestor in the semi-divine Trojan prince Aeneas was further embellished, and Romulus was made the direct ancestor of Rome's first Imperial dynasty. Possible historical bases for the broad mythological narrative remain unclear and disputed. The image of the she-wolf suckling the divinely fathered twins became an iconic representation of the city and its founding legend, making Romulus and Remus preeminent among the feral children of ancient mythography."
Romulus and Remus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus_and_Remus

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Aeneas'_Flight_from_Troy_by_Federico_Barocci.jpg
Aeneas Flight from Troy by Federico Barocci.

"In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (/ɪˈniːəs/; Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praise") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite. His father was the second cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas Priam's second cousin, once removed. He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad, and receives full treatment in Roman mythology as the legendary founder of what would become Ancient Rome, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid."
Aeneas.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeneas

http://www.bergbook.com/images/17715-01.jpg
Map Aeneae Troiani Navigatio

http://www.daviddarling.info/images/journeys_of_Aeneas.jpg
Travels of Aeneas



"The J2f-M67 clade is localized to Northwest Turkey. It is well known that during this period, Northwest Anatolia developed a complex society that engaged in widespread Aegean trade referred to as "Maritime Troia culture," involving both the western Anatolian mainland and several of the large islands in the eastern Aegean, Chios, Lemnos and Lesbos (Korfmann 1996)."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"2.1. The Maritime Troy Culture.The coastline of the North Aegean and the costal regions of the Marmara Sea were determined as the area of distribution of the “Maritime Troy Culture”, which encompasses the first three settlement phases of Troy from c. 2920 to 2200 BC (KORFMANN 2006:4). In more general terms this is the period of the Early Bronze Age (EBA)"
http://tobias-lib.uni-tuebingen.de/v...ss_Guendem.pdf

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/1264211_598415363549956_1173191371_o.jpg

"J2a-M92 is a well-defined J2a-M67 sub-lineage, with a distribution restricted to Asia Minor, the Balkans and the north-eastern Mediterranean coasts. Frequency and variance maps make plausible an origin in north-western Turkey, where the highest variance is registered, and a subsequent migration to the Balkans and then to the Italian Peninsula."
Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...e-0041252-g002 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041252#pone-0041252-g002)

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/539802_497512770306883_1591683737_n.jpg

RHAS
04-04-2014, 04:10 AM
Etruscans (J2) and Rome.

"A 2004 study by Semino et al. contradicted this study, and showed that Italians in North-central regions (like Tuscany and Emilia-Romagna) had a higher concentration of J2 than their Southern counterparts. North-central had 26.9% J2, whereas Calabria (a far Southern region) had 20.0%, Sardinia had 9.7% and Sicily had 16.7%. This could be because of the ancient Etruscans, who some think originated in the Near East."
Wikipedia.org - Genetic History of Italy.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Genetic_history_of_Italy

"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/corr...ticulture.html

"J2a`s strong presence in Italy is owed in great part to the migration of the Etruscans from western Anatolia to central and northern Italy, and to the Greek colonisation of southern Italy. Immigration from the eastern Mediterranean to Rome during the Roman Empire, then from Anatolia, Thrace and Greece during the Byzantine period period (particularly in north-eastern Italy) further increased the incidence of j2 in the peninsula."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2. (2013)
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The presence of J2 haplotypes in central Italy may be related to the debated hypothesis of an Anatolian origin of the Etruscan people, as suggested by mtDNA analysis on modern and ancient samples (Francalacci et al., 1996; Vernesi et al., 2004; Achilli et al., 2007), although it could be arrived in the region much earlier following the Neolithic expansion."
Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

"A certain occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region (Achilli et al., 2007)."
Phylogeography of Y-chromosome in Europe.
http://eprints.uniss.it/2783/1/Francalacci_P_Articolo_2008_History.pdf

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash2/t1.0-9/428377_529844790407014_802592639_n.jpg
Image: Artist depiction of Etruscans by Milo Manara as featured during Rome’s Museum of Etruscan Civilisation - Museo Nazionale Etrusco di Villa Giulia - unique exhibition of Etruscan themed comic books conceived by the archeaological services of southern Etruria (northern Lazio). The show had the backing of the Lazio region and was realized with the assistance of Civita, a cultural association and Comicon, one of Rome’s biggest comic expos.)

Agamemnon
04-04-2014, 04:19 AM
The absence of J2 from all the Neolithic samples tested to date is one of the biggest mysteries in population genetics, actually it's probably the haplogroup I'm the most impatient to see on an archeogenetic sample.

Fingers crossed.

ChrisR
04-07-2014, 06:58 PM
J2-M172 Y-DNA Countries Of All Regions Population Estimate Top 25.
(Top 25 of all countries included in this research)

1. Turkey/Anatolia (8.966.912)
2. Italy (5.513.513)
...
25. Armenia (358.842)

J2-M172 Y-DNA Regional Population Size Estimate. (of regions included in this research)

1. Europe, 32,3 Million (32.322.341). -Turkey/Anatolia, 23,4 Million (23.355.429)
2. Middle East, 10,4 Million (10.431.350). +Turkey/Anatolia, 19,4 Million (19.398.262)
...

Total J2 Y-DNA in all regions = 52,2 Million (52.243.115)
Great work RHAS! Let me make the reminder that setting up a Google Sheet with population sizes and frequencies could allow for easy updating of this stats, including charts/reports.

Mehrdad
04-07-2014, 07:46 PM
South Asia also has large concentrations of J2 among the Tamils it's around 9% give or take 1% possibly making it the 5th largest Y-Haplogroup in South Asia, I believe it to be higher in Northern Indian populations.

http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?1983-South-Asia-Y-DNA-Distribution

Rathna
04-08-2014, 01:22 AM
By watching your map it seems to me clear that J2-M172 has two centers of irradiation: one is Caucasus and southwards of it, but the other more than Romans is the North Italian zone, what we may call "Alpine Region" and southwards. I have posted many letters about the high and varied presence of this haplogroup in the about 100 Tuscans of the 1KGP.
I haven't studied this haplogroup like my R1b1 and subclades, but it seems to me that something similar has happened: two contemporary centers of irradiation.

RHAS
04-08-2014, 05:37 PM
By watching your map it seems to me clear that J2-M172 has two centers of irradiation: one is Caucasus and southwards of it, but the other more than Romans is the North Italian zone, what we may call "Alpine Region" and southwards. I have posted many letters about the high and varied presence of this haplogroup in the about 100 Tuscans of the 1KGP.
I haven't studied this haplogroup like my R1b1 and subclades, but it seems to me that something similar has happened: two contemporary centers of irradiation.

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/t31.0-8/1926092_720050028053155_806363549_o.jpg

"DNA of men whose forebears probably were Etruscans show they weren't local, but migrated, study says. Genetic studies of Italians in Tuscany show that their forefathers, the ancient Etruscans, moved to Italy from what is now Turkey -- an origin that many archeologists have dismissed as unlikely. The Etruscans, who emerged about 1200 BC, reached their zenith in the 6th century BC, dominating Italy and the Mediterranean area until being assimilated into the Roman Republic about 200 BC. They provided many of the cultural underpinnings of Roman society. They were skilled metallurgists and masterful seafarers, but their origin has been a source of dispute for at least 2,500 years."
LA Times - Genetic tests: Italians were from Turkey
http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun...ci-etruscans18

Mehrdad
04-11-2014, 09:56 PM
Surprisingly J2(M172) is also very common among in the Maldives (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22256/full#ajpa22256-fig-0003), higher than most populations in South Asia.

Here's a portion from the article that was really interesting for me


about 25% (19.5–25.3) of the Maldivian Y-chromosomes could be contributed by individuals from the West reference population. This is most likely explained by haplogroup J2(M172), which is abundant in Southwest Asia and reaches a higher frequency in the Maldives compared to South Asia.

J Man
04-13-2014, 11:28 AM
Surprisingly J2(M172) is also very common among in the Maldives (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22256/full#ajpa22256-fig-0003), higher than most populations in South Asia.

Here's a portion from the article that was really interesting for me

Wow now that interesting! You would not expect J2 to be very common in the Maldives. I wonder if it is mostly J2a or J2b?

LUKE33
04-13-2014, 11:59 AM
Geneticist Guido Barbujani of the University of Ferrara in northern Italy conducted an analysis of burials, and in a report in 2004 concluded that the Etruscans had, indeed, come from Turkey. That study, however, has been criticized by other experts, who say the minute amounts of DNA Barbujani obtained from Etruscan burials had been overwhelmed by modern-day DNA contamination -- a problem not unusual in such analyses.



Source : http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun/18/science/sci-etruscans18

Rathna
04-13-2014, 12:44 PM
Source : http://articles.latimes.com/2007/jun/18/science/sci-etruscans18

You know that I broke in pieces many papers that thought having demonstrated that Etruscans came from Asia Minor, beginning from that of Brisighelli et al., and that I named Cavalli Sforza like Cavallo Sforzesco and Barbujani like Fargugliani demonstrates which is my thinking about them. The same Barbujani in his last papers says that if a link there were between Etruscans and Asia Minor it is old of many thousands of years and not due what Herodotus says, the other way around as to what thought his compatriot Dionysius of Alicarnassus and more documented than him.
What is said in the paper you quoted is laughable: "The men's families had been living in the region for at least three generations and their surnames were Etruscan in origin".
I am a Tuscan from hundreds and perhaps from thousands of years. Some friends of mine invited me to put my 23andMe to Ged-Match. I didn't it so far, because you know that I prefer to study the Y and the mt, and all my theories are based on them. But lastly my friend Marco Grassi put my data. This are the results:

Population
Anatolian Farmer 19.69%
Baltic Hunter Gatherer 25.63%
Middle Eastern Herder% 11:11
East Asian Farmer 1.61%
South American Hunter Gatherer -
South Asian Hunter Gatherer 0.60%
North Eurasian Hunter Gatherer 0:24%
East African Pastoralist -
Hunter Gatherer 0:14 Oceanian%
Farmer Mediterranean 40.96%
Pygmy Hunter Gatherer -
Bantu Farmer -

And this is a letter I wrote this morning to his friend Francini:
Dear Francini, I thank you very much for your information, which seem to me anyway interesting. I haven't ever given much importance to these tests, because I have seen how they have been stretched for demonstrating a thesis rather than another and above all they don't say how and when a component has reached me.
I say this even though in a short period of time I have always used them: I found the father of an adopted American woman through 23andMe, from a link with a supposed third cousin, and I think that the link between you and me does mean something real.
Said in other words: these components of mine (40% Mediterranean Farmers, 25% Ancient European Hunter-Gatherers, 20% Anatolian Farmers, 11% Middle Easterner pastoralists: the rest is a background noise, 0% from Africa and East Asia and Americas) may still mean that I descend from peoples who live in Tuscany from 40,000 years and these links are due to the differentiation of people in their coming from Africa: the furthest link have been deleted, whereas the most recent ones have still a detectable percentage.
For this I have privileged the study of the Y and the mt, by which I am demonstrating (I think having demonstrated) my theory of the Italian Refugium of hg Rib1 (and others): see if you can my postings on Anthrogenica where I am "Rathna".
I'll send other data to Marco Grassi, because I am curious to verify them too.
Many thanks for your interest and Good Holidays. Of course for me Easter, Passover etc. does mean only a Farmer Feast, which people gave other meanings in circumstances that scholars study, understand and falsify, as I have done and do of all the beliefs about haplogroups, mutation rate etc.
Gioiello

BMG
04-13-2014, 12:44 PM
Surprisingly J2(M172) is also very common among in the Maldives (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.22256/full#ajpa22256-fig-0003), higher than most populations in South Asia.

Here's a portion from the article that was really interesting for me

I think the maldives population is quite similar to south western coastal regions including kerala . J2 seems to be around 15-20% in kerala from the results i could gather .Also notable is similarly high percentage of mtdna U1a .

LUKE33
04-13-2014, 12:51 PM
.
What is said in the paper you quoted is laughable: "The men's families had been living in the region for at least three generations and their surnames were Etruscan in origin".

I posted the quote so ,that my felllow members could see that experts had criticized the study - nothing more...nothing less.

SO -- read carefully before commenting....

The quote from the article originally posted by @ RHAS :


Geneticist Guido Barbujani of the University of Ferrara in northern Italy conducted an analysis of burials, and in a report in 2004 concluded that the Etruscans had, indeed, come from Turkey. That study, however, has been criticized by other experts, who say the minute amounts of DNA Barbujani obtained from Etruscan burials had been overwhelmed by modern-day DNA contamination -- a problem not unusual in such analyses.

Rathna
04-13-2014, 01:11 PM
SO -- read carefully before commenting.



You should have noted that the laughable thing is to say that those Tuscans had "Etruscan" surnames.
No Tuscan surname derives directly from the Etruscan ones, because Tuscans have spoken meanwhile Latin and Italian for at least more than one thousand years before taking a surname.
My most ancient one (1300) is del Badia, which hasn't anything of Etruscan.

Who writes a similar nonsense isn't believable also for the rest.

LUKE33
04-13-2014, 01:14 PM
Who writes a similar nonsense isn't believable also for the rest.

I now know what you are trying to say but sometimes it is hard to understand you....:biggrin1:

Generally speaking - it doesn't mean that just because certain elements of a study ( wording ) are erroneous that all of the study should be dismissed.

The link to the article was posted originally by @RHAS -- shows how much attention you pay to what is said.

Rathna
04-13-2014, 01:31 PM
I now know what you are trying to say but sometimes it is hard to understand you....:biggrin1:

................

LUKE33
04-13-2014, 02:08 PM
Publius Vergilius Maro was of Etruscan family but wrote in Latin:

Timeo Danaos et dona ferentes

No need for such comments -- on topic English comments please.

GTC
04-13-2014, 03:07 PM
A reminder to all posters to refrain from personal criticisms, oblique or otherwise, and to remain on topic.

RHAS
04-20-2014, 07:56 PM
Haplgroup J2, Greeks and Phoenicians.

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origin...s_europe.shtml

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash2/t1/539463_496317803759713_282752127_n.jpg

"Thus the most likely explanation is the emergence of J2f1 in the Aegean area, possibly during the population expansion phase also detected by Malaspina et al. (2001), and coincident with the expansion of the Greek world up to the European coast of the Black sea."
Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/t1/76080_496849587039868_855898377_n.jpg

RHAS
04-20-2014, 07:58 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Mesopotamians.

"J-M172 can be classified as Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and/or Caucasian and is linked to the earliest indigenous populations of Anatolia. It was carried by Bronze Age immigrants to Europe, and ultimately descends from the Cro-Magnon population (IJ-M429 Y-DNA) that emerged in Southwest Asia around 35,000 years ago."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA))

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash2/t1/184359_496844723707021_1899234460_n.jpg

"Sumer (from Akkadian Šumeru; Sumerian ki-en-ĝir, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land" was an ancient civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. Although the earliest historical records in the region do not go back much further than c. 2900 BC, modern historians have asserted that Sumer was first permanently settled between c. 4500 and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic people who may or may not have spoken the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc. as evidence). These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans" or "Ubaidians", and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria)."
Sumer.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sumer



http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=PyX_MkqRvg4

RHAS
04-20-2014, 07:59 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

"It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2 M172.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA))


https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/1467256_643694045688754_1642300461_n.jpg

"The Greeks, also known as the Hellenes (Greek: Έλληνες [ˈelines]), are an ethnic group native to Greece, Cyprus, Anatolia and other regions. They also form a significant diaspora, with Greek communities established around the world. Greek colonies and communities have been historically established in most corners of the Mediterranean, but Greeks have always been centered around the Aegean Sea, where the Greek language has been spoken since antiquity. Until the early 20th century, Greeks were uniformly distributed between the Greek peninsula, the western coast of Asia Minor, Pontus, Egypt, Cyprus and Constantinople; many of these regions coincided to a large extent with the borders of the Byzantine Empire of the late 11th century and the Eastern Mediterranean areas of the ancient Greek colonization."
Greeks
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Greeks

"The UEP diversity within J2 is lower in the Middle East compared to both Turkey and the European locations. In conclusion, the UEP diversity of J in Turkey and southern Europe does not seem to be a simple subset of that present in the area where this hapologroup first originated. This finding, also confirmed in the data by Semino et al. (2004), points to Turkey and the Aegean as a relevant source for the J diversity observed throughout Europe."
Phylogeography of Y Chromosomal haplogroups as reporters of Neolithic and post-Neolithic population processes in the Mediterranean area.
http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf (http://arheologija.ff.uni-lj.si/documenta/pdf35/novelletto35.pdf)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uniGvuthJxA&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:00 PM
Haplogroup J2 Phoenicians and Greeks.

"The Neolithic control section shows nonsignificant results across all haplogroups, except for a significant J2 result in one test. The Phoenician-colony test results highlight only one haplogroup, J2, which consistently scores significantly in all three tests across the range of colonization sites. However, this haplogroup also scores significantly in Greek tests (as do some additional haplogroup...s), suggesting that the same haplogroup could have been spread by several expansions, which is unsurprising considering its frequency in the Eastern Mediterranean but implies that higher phylogenetic resolution is required for identification of Phoenician-specific signals."
Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/t1/1510376_666331360091689_2070684644_n.jpg

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:00 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Phoenicians.

"In 2004, two geneticists educated at Harvard University and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells, identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research."
Familypedia.com - Phoenicia.
http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Phoenicia

"The authors found a weak – but significant – genetic signature among their samples that could not be explained by chance. Many of the samples belonged to a very specific branch of haplogroup J2, which the authors believe points back to distinct migrations by Phoenician traders from the Middle East into Europe and North Africa more than 3,000 years ago."
Ripples in the Mediterranean: Tracing the Genetic Origins of the Phoenicians.
http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/rip...e-phoenicians/ (http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/ripples-in-the-mediterranean-tracing-the-genetic-origins-of-the-phoenicians/)

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/552866_519566144768212_920425770_n.jpg

"Tyrian purple (Greek, πορφύρα, porphyra, Latin: purpura), also known as royal purple, imperial purple or imperial dye, is a reddish-purple natural dye, which is a secretion produced by a certain species of predatory sea snails in the family Muricidae, a type of rock snail by the name Murex. This dye was possibly first used by the ancient Phoenicians as early as 1570 BC. The dye was greatly prized in antiquity because the colour did not easily fade, but instead became brighter with weathering and sunlight. Tyrian purple was expensive: the 4th-century-BC historian Theopompus reported, "Purple for dyes fetched its weight in silver at Colophon" in Asia Minor. The expense meant that purple-dyed textiles became status symbols, and early sumptuary laws restricted their uses. The production of Tyrian purple was tightly controlled in Byzantium and was subsidized by the imperial court, which restricted its use for the colouring of imperial silks, so that a child born to a reigning emperor was porphyrogenitos, "born in the purple", although this term may also refer to the fact that the imperial birthing apartment was walled in the purple-red rock known as porphyry."
Tyrian Purple.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tyrian_purple

http://altaeeblog.com/wp-content/uploads/2013/12/Phoenician.jpg

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/11087_496317297093097_2027828163_n.jpg

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:01 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Mesopotamians.

"While noting that multiple haplogroups are likely involved in the spread of languages through the middle east, Dr. King noted a correlation between very old Middle Eastern languages of uncertain origin and Haplogroup J2 while at the same time theorizing that Haplogroup J1 may have been involved in spreading Semitic languages through the region. These old languages possibly linked to J2 are known to have existed in Mesopotamia and the Northern Levant and this substratum is sometimes referred to as "Banana" languages due to their syllabic duplication."
M172 Blog - Neolithic Migrations in the Near East and Aegean, 2009.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/07/neolithic-migrations-in-near-east-and.html (http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/07/neolithic-migrations-in-near-east-and.html)

"Proto-Euphratean was considered by some Assyriologists (for example Samuel Noah Kramer), to be the substratum language of the people that introduced farming into Southern Iraq in the Early Ubaid period (5300-4700 BC). Benno Landsberger and other Assyriologists argued that by examining the structure of Sumerian names of occupations, as well as toponyms and hydronyms, one can suggest that there was once an earlier group of people in the region who spoke an entirely different language, often referred to as Proto-Euphratean. Terms for "farmer", "smith", "carpenter", and "date" (as in the fruit), also do not appear to have a Sumerian or Semitic origin. Post-Soviet linguists coined a different term, "banana languages," proposed by Igor Dyakonov and Vladislav Ardzinba, based on a characteristic feature of multiple personal names attested in Sumerian texts, namely reduplication of syllables (like in the word banana): Inanna, Zababa, Chuwawa, Bunene etc. The same feature was attested in some other unclassified Oriental languages, including Minoan language."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Euphratean_language (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Proto-Euphratean_language)

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/69512_496315390426621_1936780404_n.jpg (Image: Inanna)

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash2/285311_496332007091626_1520032559_n.jpg (Image: Asassara)

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:02 PM
Haplogroup J2 Sicily and Greeks. (Geographical map of Sicilian DNA Samples.)

"Haplogroups common both to the European and Eurasian populations are present in Sicily. The most represented are R1b1c-M269 (24.58%), J2-M172 (15.25%) and E3b1a-M78 (11.44%). The co-occurrence of the Berber E3b1b-M81 (2.12%) and of the Mid-Eastern J1-M267 (3.81%) Hgs together with the presence of E3b1a1-V12, E3b1a3-V22, E3b1a4-V65 (5.5%) support the hypo...thesis of intrusion of North African genes."
Differential Greek and northern African migrations to Sicily are supported by genetic evidence from the Y chromosome.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2985948/

"Sicily has one of the highest frequencies of Haplogroup J2 (M172) in the mediterranean. J2-M172 made up 33% of the Y chromosome signatures on the island and was non-randomly distributed occurring at higher frequencies in the eastern areas of the island. This distinction was evident in the subclades, M67 and M92, which have previously been linked to Greek and proto-greek colonization. Both M67 and M92 were twice as frequent on the eastern portion of Sicily which displays more archaelogical traces from the Greek classic era. Even the paragroup of undistinguished J2 haplotypes (M172) was more than twice as frequent in Eastern Sicily."
M172 Blog - Y Chromosomes of Sicily, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/11/y-ch...of-sicily.html (http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/11/y-chromosomes-of-sicily.html)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/183188_532665996791560_1394287491_n.jpg

(Image: The geographical map of the nine Sicilian samples is shown. Their latitude (N), longitude (E) and sample size are: (1) Trapani (TP) 38°07′, 12°07′, 33; (2) Mazara del Vallo (MZ) 37°65′, 12°58′, 18; (3) Santa Ninfa (SN) 37°77′, 12°88′, 31; (4) Alcamo (AL) 37°97′, 12°97′, 24; (5) Caccamo (CA) 37°93′, 13°07′, 16; (6) Sciacca (SC) 37°05′, 13°07′, 28; (7) Piazza Armerina (PZ) 37°38′, 14°37′, 28; (8) Troina (TR) 37°78′, 14°60′, 30; (9) Ragusa (RG) 36°93′, 14°75′, 28. The histogram plots the frequencies of the main haplogroups in the eastern and the western sides of the island.)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=wWtDzafUxa4&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:03 PM
"Attempts to ascertain Sicilian "ethnic" origins should be undertaken with caution because haplogroups do not correspond precisely to medieval or modern conceptions of nationality. At best, they are approximate. For example, J2 is identified with Greeks but also with some Germans. Speaking very broadly, the most frequent Y haplogroups of the world's most conquered island may be correlated most probably (albeit imprecisely) to the following peoples: • J2 - Greeks, Romans, Jews, Spaniards,"
Best of Sicily - Genetics.
http://www.bestofsicily.com/genetics.htm

"Sicily is an island which had well-documented and not insignificant settlements by both Greeks and Phoenicians. Moreover, these settlements were geographically divided: Greeks in the East, Phoenicians in the West. It is in the East that J2 has its highest frequency, and not in the Phoenician West."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2008.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/10/phoenician-y-chromosomes.html (http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/10/phoenician-y-chromosomes.html)


https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/1235530_621418664582959_1325191331_n.jpg

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:04 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

Greco-Roman spheres of influence.

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/t1/1379310_623171751074317_1544350417_n.jpg
(Left: The geographic space over which Classical Greek and Latin served as a lingua franca in antiquity. Right: Y-DNA Haplogroup Frequency map of J2-M172.)

"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com, 2013.

"The propagation of J2b and E V-13 correspond roughly to the ancient Greek and Roman spheres of influence." Eupedia.com, 2013.

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian"
Eupedia.com, 2013.

"Di Giacomo stressed the role of post-Neolithic migratory phenomenon, specifically that of the Ancient Greeks, as also being important in the dispersal of haplogroup J-M172."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup J2-M172, 2013.

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:05 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/t1/58882_497199087004918_1278845090_n.jpg
Empire of Alexander the Great, 323 B.C.

"Both E-V13 and J-M12 have also been used in studies seeking to find evidence of a remaining Greek presence in Afghanistan and Pakistan, going back to the time of Alexander the Great."
Wikipedia.org - Haplogroup E V-68.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_E-V68_(Y-DNA)

"The Saluja’s have been a dynamic and mobile group of business people and professionals from North India. They hail from the region north of the river Jhelum, that divides the Jhelum & Gujrat districts, an area along the Salt mines (now in Pakistan). Historical records indicate that Alexander the Great of Macedonia came to India (326 B.C) crossing the Khyber Pass to Taxila near Rawalpindi. Alexander advanced to the northwest bank of the river Jhelum to the village of Haranpur, where allegedly the Macedonians set up their base camp prior to the battle with King Porus. It is quite conceivable that people from that area of North India particularly Haranpur, Jalalpur & surroundings to have Genes of people from Greece. In fact, DNA Analysis suggests that Saluja’s belong to the DNA Haplogroup J2b, which has its origin in Greece. J2b (M12, M314, M221, M102), and is mainly found in the Balkans, Greece, Italy, and India (possibly from Neolithic Greeks)*****J2b1 (M205) - formerly J2b1b. The Saluja family history can be traced directly to this historical melting pot."
Migration of Indians Across Continents spanning generations: A Case History of the Saluja Family.
http://www.amazon.com/Migration-Indians-Continents-spanning-generations/dp/0615469035 (http://www.amazon.com/Migration-Indians-Continents-spanning-generations/dp/0615469035)

"J2a is also present in Egypt which was conquered by Macedonian Greeks, as well as Iran, but drops to a small frequency in India, and is there limited to the upper castes. This may reflect its presence in the ancient Indo-Aryans and its survival in the Brahmin caste, or alternatively may be the result of intermarriage between the Bactrian Greek aristocracy and high-class Hindus"
Dienekes Anthropology Blog, 2005.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/...ginate-in.html (http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2005/12/did-haplogroup-j2a1-originate-in.html)

"In which country did Mr. J2b2 live? Did Mr. J2b2 live in the Balkans and then his descendants move to India. Or was was it that Mr. J2b2 lived in India and then his descendants moved to the Balkans. One of the theories is that Mr. J2b2's descendant were part of Alexander the Greats army which made itself all the way to India."
Barr-Kumarakulasinghe’s and other families.
http://barrkumar.com/dna/whats_j2b2.html (http://barrkumar.com/dna/whats_j2b2.html)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=x7fZHDTF9kE

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:05 PM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fx3TYjoCN5w&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:06 PM
Haplogroup J2 and the Spread of the Alphabet. (Greek and Phoenician)

The Abduction of Europa: mosaic, Byblos, 3rd century A.D . National Museum of Beirut Collection. According to the Greek legend Europa’s brother Cadmus went looking for his kidnapped sister who is depicted on the mosaic being whisked away on the back of Zeus disguised as a bull. The story goes that in his search for Europe Cadmos transmitted the Phoenician alphabet to the Hellenes.

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/577720_510383479019812_1389822478_n.jpg

"Cadmus or Kadmos (Ancient Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was a Phoenician prince, the son of king Agenor and queen Telephassa of Tyre and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix and Europa. He was originally sent by his royal parents to seek out and escort his sister Europa back to Tyre after she was abducted from the shores of Phoenicia by Zeus. Cadmus founded the Greek city of Thebes, the acropolis of which was originally named Cadmeia in his honour. Cadmus was credited by the ancient Greeks (Herodotus is an example) with introducing the original Alphabet or Phoenician alphabet -- phoinikeia grammata, "Phoenician letters"—to the Greeks, who adapted it to form their Greek alphabet."
Cadmus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmus

"The authors found a weak – but significant – genetic signature among their samples that could not be explained by chance. Many of the samples belonged to a very specific branch of haplogroup J2, which the authors believe points back to distinct migrations by Phoenician traders from the Middle East into Europe and North Africa more than 3,000 years ago."
Ripples in the Mediterranean: Tracing the Genetic Origins of the Phoenicians.
http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/rip...e-phoenicians/ (http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/ripples-in-the-mediterranean-tracing-the-genetic-origins-of-the-phoenicians/)

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origin...s_europe.shtml (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml)

"In 2004, two geneticists educated at Harvard University and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells, identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research."
Familypedia.com - Phoenicia.
http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Phoenicia

"Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794)

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2011.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash4/484321_510285402362953_1312221250_n.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_alphabet

"Phoenician became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it was assimilated by many other cultures and evolved."
Phoenician Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet

"The Greek alphabet was developed by a Greek with first-hand experience of contemporary Phoenician script and, almost as quickly as it was established in the Greek mainland was rapidly re-exported, eastwards to Phrygia, where a similar script was devised, and westwards with Euboean or West Greek traders, where the Etruscans adapted the Greek alphabet to their own language."
History of the Greek Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History...Greek_alphabet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Greek_alphabet)

"The Latin alphabet is the main writing system in use in the Western world and is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. It is the standard script of the English language and is often referred to simply as "the alphabet" in English. It is a true alphabet which originated in the 7th century BC in Italy and has changed continually over the last 2500 years. It has roots in the Semitic alphabet and its offshoot alphabets, the Phoenician, Greek, and Etruscan."
History of the Latin Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History...Latin_alphabet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Latin_alphabet)

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/156057_510305222360971_1621426644_n.jpg

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:07 PM
"One extraordinary group carried their traditions and their chromosomes into the Mediterranean frontier. Were they the Atlantis superheroes of science fiction? No. They do appear to have been more intellectually and artistically advanced than anyone around them in the same time period. Where they settled, they made an impact. Their descendants survived through the ages with aspects of their original ancient identity largely intact until time and assimilation finally absorbed them -- as Sea Peoples and Temple-Builders, later as Minoans and Etruscans, and still later in the great civilizations of Classical Greece and Rome. Original ancestral families of settlers who make up a bridge into civilization are the people we are identifying as The Mediterraneans."
http://www.ancientmed.org/TheMediterraneans.htm


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=iDaJLDfdd6Y

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:07 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

Contour map of the frequency and variance distribution in Greece of haplogroup J2a-M410.

https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn1/t1/1017083_556193377772155_1555854598_n.jpg

"Euboea (/juːˈbiːə/; Greek: Εύβοια, Evvia; Ancient Greek: Εὔβοια, Eúboia) is the second largest Greek island in area and population, after Crete. The narrow Euripus Strait separates it from Boeotia in mainland Greece. In general outline it is a long and narrow, seahorse-shaped island; it is about 150 kilometres (93 mi) long, and varies in breadth from 50 kilometres (31 mi) to 6 kilometres (3.7 mi). Its general direction is from northwest to southeast, and it is traversed throughout its length by a mountain range, which forms part of the chain that bounds Thessaly on the east, and is continued south of Euboea in the lofty islands of Andros, Tinos and Mykonos........Like most of the Greek islands, Euboea was originally known under other names in ancient times, such as Macris and Doliche from its shape, Ellopia and Abantis from the tribes inhabiting it."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Euboea

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/61/GR_Evia.png

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:08 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks. (Mycenaeans)

"The majority of the haplogroups (R1a-M17, G2a-P15, I2-M438, J1-M267 and J2b-M102) shows times since expansion which ranges from approximately 4,5Kya to 2,7Kya, compatible with Bronze Age and the development of the Helladic civilizations, more specifically with the spread of Mycenaean culture (Montjoy 1998)."
The Genetic Signature of Neolithic in Greece.
http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf (http://amsdottorato.cib.unibo.it/3628/1/Anagnostou_Paolo_tesi.pdf)

http://historyfacebook.wikispaces.com/file/view/map4gree.jpg/30582615/map4gree.jpg

"Mycenaean Greece was the last phase of the Bronze Age in Ancient Greece (ca. 1600–1100 BC). It takes its name from the archaeological site of Mycenae in Argolis, Peloponnese, southern Greece. Other major sites included Tiryns in Argolis, Pylos in Messenia, Athens in Attica, Thebes and Orchomenus in Boeotia, and Iolkos in Thessaly, while Crete and the site of Knossos also became a part of the Mycenaean world. Mycenaean settlement sites also appeared in Epirus, Macedonia, on islands in the Aegean Sea, on the coast of Asia Minor, the Levant, Cyprus, and Italy."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mycenaean_Greece

http://www.civilization.ca/cmc/exhibitions/civil/greece/images/gr0003b.jpg
Gold Mycenaean Death Mask


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n5VTmNK9o80&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:09 PM
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=04VPnTIQWNQ&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:09 PM
Haplogroup J2, Greeks and Phoenicians.

"In summary, our data are in agreement with a major discontinuity for the peopling of southern Europe. Here, haplogroup J constitutes not only the signature of a single wave-of-advance from the Levant but, to a greater extent, also of the expansion of the Greek world, with an accompanying novel quota of genetic variation produced during its demographic growth."
Y chromosomal haplogroup J as a signature of the post-neolithic colonization of Europe.
http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf (http://www.familytreedna.com/pdf/HaploJ.pdf)

"The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012). Later the Roman armies and auxiliaries played a role. Possibly even the Carthaginians under Hannibal (Battle of Cannae) played a role. Later still the Byzantine Empire, over a period of about 1000 years, very likely played a role in the movement of L24(M530) Y-chromosomes."
J2-L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012)
http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/ (http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/)

"Haplogroup J is mostly found in South-East Europe, especially in central and southern Italy, Greece and Romania. It is also common in France, and in the Middle East. It is related to the Ancient Romans, Greeks and Phoenicians (J2), as well as the Arabs and Jews (J1). Subclades J2a and J2a1b1 are found mostly in Greece, Anatolia and southern Italy, and are associated with the Ancient Greeks."
Romanian History and Culture.
http://romanianhistoryandculture.webs.com/modernromaniansydna.htm (http://romanianhistoryandculture.webs.com/modernromaniansydna.htm)

"J2 - This haplogroup originated during the Neolithic in Central Asia, and spread across the Mediterranean and the Middle East. It may have been brought to Britain by prehistoric farmers, Greek or Phoenician traders and Sephardic Jews among the Normans and the Flemish - as well as by Roman troops and settlers."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project.
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/ (http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/)

"J2 has been well studied and can be split into several clades but whose mode of individual distribution is not well understood. Many influences such as Greek and Roman would have played a part."
Wells Family DNA Project.
http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~we...plogroupJ.html (http://www.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~wellsfam/dnaproje/haplogroupJ.html)

"Haplogroup J2 is subdivided into two complementary sub-haplogroups: J2a, defined by the M410 genetic marker, and J2b, defined by the M12 genetic marker. A subclade of haplogroup J2a, defined by the M92 marker has been implicated in the ancient Greek colonization."
Leslie H. Kyle II.
http://kylehistory.x10.mx/dna.htm

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:11 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Phoenicians. (Carthage)

"J2 is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/Iran region and its spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550 BC- 300 BC)."
Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080293 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080293)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/t1/1511068_676313892426769_1020378620_n.jpg

"Previous Y-chromosome genetic studies of Phoenician colonization have demonstrated that haplogroup J2 frequency was amplified in regions containing the Phoenician colonies of Iberia and North Africa in comparison to areas not containing Phoenician colonies."
The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69 (http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2148/11/69)

"Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthagian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extend extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml)

"The Phoenicians, Greeks and Romans all contributed to the presence of J2a in Iberia. The particulary strong frequency of J2a and other Near Eastern haplogroups (J1, E1b1b, T) in the south of the Iberian peninsula, suggest that the Phoenicians and the Carthagians played a more decisive role than other peoples."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml)

"The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012). Later the Roman armies and auxiliaries played a role. Possibly even the Carthaginians under Hannibal (Battle of Cannae) played a role. Later still the Byzantine Empire, over a period of about 1000 years, very likely played a role in the movement of L24(M530) Y-chromosomes."
J2-L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012)
http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/ (http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/)

"Ancient Carthage (from Phoenician Qart-ḥadašt) was a Semitic civilization centered on the Phoenician city-state of Carthage, located in North Africa on the Gulf of Tunis, outside what is now Tunis, Tunisia. It was founded in 814 BC. Originally a dependency of the Phoenician state of Tyre, Carthage gained independence around 650 BC and established a hegemony over other Phoenician settlements throughout the Mediterranean, North Africa and what is now Spain which lasted until the end of the 3rd century BC. At the height of the city's prominence, it was a major hub of trade with political influence extending over most of the western Mediterranean. For much of its history, Carthage was in a constant state of struggle with the Greeks on Sicily and the Roman Republic, which led to a series of armed conflicts known as the Greek-Punic Wars and Punic Wars. The city also had to deal with the potentially hostile Berbers, the indigenous inhabitants of the entire area where Carthage was built. In 146 BC, after the third and final Punic War, Carthage was destroyed and then occupied by Roman forces. Nearly all of the other Phoenician city-states and former Carthaginian dependencies fell into Roman hands from then on."
Ancient Carthage.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carthaginian_Republic


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=HetYXwtCCho


"The Punics (from Latin pūnicus, pl. pūnici) were a group of western Semitic-speaking peoples from Carthage in North Africa who traced their origins to a group of Phoenician settlers, but also to North African Berbers. Unlike other Phoenicians, Punics had a landowning aristocracy who established a rule of the hinterland in Northern Africa and trans-Sahara traderoutes. In later times one of these clans conquered a Hellenistic-inspired empire in Iberia, possibly having a foothold in western Gaul."
Punics
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Punics

https://scontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash2/426378_502111203180373_646885852_n.jpg
Hannibal, son of Hamilcar Barca (247 – 183/182 BC) was a Punic
Carthaginian military commander, generally considered one of the
greatest military commanders in history.

"The unique colonization pattern of the Phoenicians and the isolation of some of their colonies (Ibiza, Sardinia, Malta) have made it easy to identify their genetic signature. The Phoenician population was already very mixed 3000... years ago : E-V22, J1, J2, J2a4b, J2a4b1, G2a, R1a and R1b1a. E-V22 and R1b1a are quite specific to Levantines (Syrians, Lebanese, Druzes, Jews, Palestinians)."
Eupedia.com - Y-DNA haplogroups of ancient civilizations.
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads...-civilizations (http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/25163-Y-DNA-haplogroups-of-ancient-civilizations)

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:12 PM
Haplogoup J2 and Maritime Civilisations. (Greeks and Phoenician)

"All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"When looking at the diffusion of Haplogroup J2a, M410, westward into Europe, one aspect of this westward spread becomes quite clear. M410+ ancestors used a maritime and coastal route to move west."
M172 Blog - Pronou...nced Westward Maritime Diffusion of J2a (M410), 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/pron...diffusion.html (http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/pronounced-westward-maritime-diffusion.html)

"The J2f-M67 clade is localized to Northwest Turkey. It is well known that during this period, Northwest Anatolia developed a complex society that engaged in widespread Aegean trade referred to as “Maritime Troia culture,” involving both the western Anatolian mainland and several of the large islands in the eastern Aegean, Chios, Lemnos and Lesbos (Korfmann 1996)."
Excavating Y-chromosome haplotype strata in Anatolia.
http://evolutsioon.ut.ee/publications/Cinnioglu2004.pdf

"J2 is very frequent in the Levant/Anatolia/Iran region and its spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550 BC- 300 BC)."
Genome-Wide and Paternal Diversity Reveal a Recent Origin of Human Populations in North Africa.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0080293 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080293)

"According to Di Giacomo’s (2004) study, the high diversity of haplogroup J2 in Turkish and southern European populations suggests that this branch of haplogroup J originated around the Aegean, not the Middle East. Additionally, it appears that much of J2 was confined to the coastal Mediterranean areas, indicating that maritime trade, rather than earlier Neolithic agricultural expansions, may have helped spread J2 throughout the Mediterranean world."
A reassessment of Jewish DNA Evidence.
http://www.jogg.info/11/coffman.htm

"The strong western (-0.82) but weak southern (-0.37) orientation of J2 is unexpected if J2 came to Germany from the Balkans, but is consistent with a maritime mode of propagation of this haplogroup."
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/04/...n-germans.html (http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/04/haplogroup-correlations-in-germans.html)

https://scontent-a-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc1/t31/886067_503008999757260_1680581313_o.jpg

"A trireme was an ancient vessel and a type of galley that was used by the ancient maritime civilizations of the Mediterranean, especially the Phoenicians, ancient Greeks and Romans."
Trireme
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trireme

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:12 PM
Geneticist Dr. Spencer Wells speaks of his project "Quest of the Phoenicians". Also, he speaks of his parter in the project, Lebanese Dr. Pierre Zalloua. They take DNA samples from the Phoenician home land "Lebanon" and their colonies.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d4V_tskDXAk&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:13 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

https://scontent-b-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/t1/934029_538689339522559_1077114592_n.jpg
http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Croa.../21674820.html (http://www.biomedsearch.com/nih/Croatian-genetic-heritage-Y-chromosome/21674820.html)

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:14 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

"Timur Serdar and Demircin Sema authored a recent study on the Y chromosomes of Antalya, which is located on the southern coast of Anatolia. Haplogroup J2 was most frequent in this study of 75 unrelated males found at a frequency of 26.6%. The J2 data was consistent with an earlier study by Cinnioglu et al which found 24% J2 in southern Anatolia. Haplogroup T (K* in the study) was next most frequent at 13.3% and this data differed from Cinnioglu's data which found only 3.3% Haplogroup K in southern Anatolia. The first record of Antalya was as Attalia, a greek city founded approximately 150BC by Attalos II, King of Pergamon."
M172 Blog - Haplogroup J2, M172 in Antalya, Turkish Republic, 2009.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/06/haplogroup-j2-m172-in-antalya-turkish.html (http://m172.blogspot.nl/2009/06/haplogroup-j2-m172-in-antalya-turkish.html)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d0/Attalos_II_Meret_%C3%96wazov_Antalya.jpg
Statue of Attalus II. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Attalus_II_Philadelphus

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:18 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Minoans. (Greek)

"The most frequent haplogroups among the current population on Crete were: R1b3-M269 (17%), G2-P15 (11%), J2a1-DYS413 (9.0%), and J2a1h-M319 (9.0%). They identified J2a parent haplogroup J2a-M410 (Crete: 25.9%) with the first ancient residents of Crete during the Neolithic (8500 BCE – 4300 BCE) suggesting Crete was founded by a Neolithic population expansion from ancient Turkey/Anatolia."
The Minoans, DNA and all.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wor...s-dna-and-all/ (http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/04/14/the-minoans-dna-and-all/)

"The Minoans and Ancient Greeks very likely played an early role in the frequency and high diversity of L24(M530) haplotypes we see today in Apulia, Italy as found by Grugni et al (2012)."
J2-L24 Blogspot - More Comments on Grugni et al (2012)
http://the-j2-l24-clade.blogspot.nl/

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/t1.0-9/17908_519923518065808_27970217_n.jpg
Sea-Traders from Crete. (Painting by John Duncan.)

"The world`s maximum concentrations of J2a is in Crete (32% of the population). The subclade J2a4d (M319) appears to be native to Crete."
Eupedia.com 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/t1.0-9/66939_500431706681656_1979083872_n.jpg
The Prince of the Lilies or the Lily prince, is a celebrated ancient Minoan fresco on the Greek island of Crete dated to circa 1550 BC (the new palace period between 1700 and 1450 BC).

"It has been proposed that haplogroup subclade J-M410 was linked to populations on ancient Crete by examining the relationship between Anatolian, Cretan, and Greek populations from around early Neolithic sites in Crete."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_J-M172_(Y-DNA)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ccftPtBhw1I&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:19 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Minoans. (Greek)

"Quite a few ancient Mediterranean and Middle Eastern civilisations flourished in territories where J2 lineages were preponderant. This is the case of the Hattians, the Hurrians, the Etruscans, the Minoans, the Greeks, the Phoenicians (and their Carthagian offshoot), the Israelites, and to a lower extend extent also the Romans, the Assyrians and the Persians. All great seafaring civilisations from the middle Bronze Age to the Iron Age were dominated by J2 men."
Eupedia.com - Haplogroup J2.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml)

"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/correlations-in-spread-of-viticulture.html (http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/correlations-in-spread-of-viticulture.html)

"Bull depictions are omnipresent in Minoan frescos and ceramics in Crete. Bull-masked terracotta figurines and bull-horned stone altars have been found in Cyprus (dating back as far as the Neolithic, the first presumed expansion of J2 from West Asia)."
The Sacred Bull.
http://aratta.wordpress.com/2012/12/02/the-sacred-bull/ (http://aratta.wordpress.com/2012/12/02/the-sacred-bull/)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/t31.0-8/830483_496342860423874_1076560344_o.jpg

"In addition to Hg J-M410, Hg G-P15 chromosomes, which are also common in Anatolia, have been implicated in the colonization and subsequent expansion of early farmers in Crete, the Aegean and Italy."
Y-chromosomal evidence of the cultural diffusion of agriculture in southeast Europe.
http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html (http://www.unipv.eu/on-line/Home/AreaStampa/documento2986.html)

"Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic, 2008.
http://www.atlascom.gr/HELLENIC_DNA_PAPER.PDF (http://www.atlascom.gr/HELLENIC_DNA_PAPER.PDF)

"An analysis of Y-chromosome haplogroups determined that the samples from the Greek Neolithic sites showed strong affinity to Balkan data, while Crete shows affinity with central/Mediterranean Anatolia. Haplogroup J2b-M12 was frequent in Thessaly and Greek Macedonia while haplogroup J2a-M410 was scarce. Alternatively, Crete, like Anatolia showed a high frequency of J2a-M410 and a low frequency of J2b-M12."
Differential Y-chromosome Anatolian Influences on the Greek and Cretan Neolithic.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2007.00414.x/full)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=oYS2DUr3C8g

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:35 PM
Nick Donofrio. (Confirmed)

http://tech.uchicago.edu/i/features/20100518_donofrio.jpg

Nick Donofrio - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nick_Donofrio

"Nick Donofrio joined IBM in 1967 and spent 41 years at the company before his retirement in October 2008. He spent the early part of his career in integrated circuit and chip development as a designer of logic and memory chips, and held numerous technical management positions before leading several of IBM’s product divisions—eventually becoming executive vice president of innovation and technology. Donofrio’s technical and management experience prepared him to oversee IBM’s efforts in the Genographic Project, which named him to the project’s Advisory Board. He is the holder of seven technology patents, and is a member of numerous technical and science honor societies. In 2002, Donofrio was recognized by Europe's Institution of Electrical Engineers with the Mensforth International Gold Medal for outstanding contributions to the advancement of manufacturing engineering. In 2008, IBM Chairman Sam Palmisano elected Donofrio IBM Fellow, the company's highest technical honor."
http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ib...humanity/team/ (http://www-03.ibm.com/ibm/history/ibm100/us/en/icons/mappinghumanity/team/)

"Like many Americans, Nick Donofrio, IBM Executive Vice President, Innovation and Technology, knew his ancestors came from somewhere else. In his case, his grandparents came from Southern Italy to New York City. What he didn't know was that their forebears had settled in remote mountains in the Middle East 10,000 to 20,000 years ago."I never would have imagined the results," Nick says. "They're really kind of amazing." Analysis of Nick's DNA found he belonged in the Haplogroup J2."
Nick Donofrio - IBM Executive Vice President, Innovation and Technology.
http://www.ibm.com/solutions/genogra...H01345R01.html

http://www.ibm.com/solutions/genogra...blic_part.html (http://www.ibm.com/solutions/genographic/us/en/public_part.html)

"Nick Donofrio, executive VP of innovation and technology at IBM, which is partnering with National Geographic on the Genographic Project, is a proud Italian. He was stunned when his Y test came back saying he was a member of haplogroup J2,... meaning his ancestors had lived in the Middle East some 10,000 to 20,000 years ago. "You could have pushed me over with a feather," he says. After Donofrio announced his results on IBM's Web site, his in box started filling up with J2 colleagues. "A lot of Armenians have been sending me e-mails saying 'J2 rocks!' "
http://www.newsweek.com/our-blood-113321

"Nick Donofrio belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...#Nick_Donofrio (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_haplogroups_of_notable_people#Nick_Donofri o)

"Nick Donofrio belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2."
http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famous_people#Nick_Donofrio (http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famous_people#Nick_Donofrio)

http://www.ibm.com/solutions/genographic/us/en/images/relatives1.jpg

http://www.ibm.com/solutions/genogra...relatives1.jpg (http://www.ibm.com/solutions/genographic/us/en/images/relatives1.jpg)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=flnjNIBpvLA

https://www.familytreedna.com/public/Donofrio/

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:36 PM
Mike Nichols. (Confirmed)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/9/9c/Still_portrait_Mike_Nichols.jpg/380px-Still_portrait_Mike_Nichols.jpg

Mike Nichols - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Nichols

"Mike Nichols (born Mikhail Igor Peschkowsky; November 6, 1931) is a German-born American television, stage and film director, writer, producer and comedian. He began his career in the 1950s with the improv troupe, the Compass Players, predecessor of the Second City in Chicago and as one half of the comedy duo Nichols and May, along with Elaine May. May was also in the Compass. In 1968 he won the Academy Award for Best Director for the film The Graduate. His other noteworthy films include Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf?, Carnal Knowledge, Silkwood, Working Girl, Closer and the TV mini-series Angels in America. He also staged the original theatrical productions of Barefoot in the Park, Luv, The Odd Couple and Spamalot. Nichols is one of a small group of people who have won an Emmy, Grammy, Oscar, and Tony Award. His other honors include the Lincoln Center Gala Tribute in 1999, the National Medal of Arts in 2001,[1] the Kennedy Center Honors in 2003 and the AFI Life Achievement Award in 2010."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mike_Nichols

"Mike Nichols belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2a1b."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...notable_people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_haplogroups_of_notable_people)

"Mike Nichols belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2a1b."
http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famo...e#Mike_Nichols (http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famous_people#Mike_Nichols)

"On his Fathers side, his Y-DNA falls into the haplogroup J2a1b."
Faces of America - Mike Nichols.
http://books.google.nl/books?id=meYb...s%20j2&f=false (http://books.google.nl/books?id=meYbj1E6Ki8C&pg=PA31&dq=faces+of+america+nichols+j2&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=o_IuU-6jHIa0yAPUz4DwDA&ved=0CDMQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=faces%20of%20america%20nichols%20j2&f=false)

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/facesofameri...ike-nichols/5/ (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/facesofamerica/profiles/mike-nichols/5/)

http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001566/


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=09NSBMgUwkg&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:37 PM
dr. Mehmet Oz. (Confirmed)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/a/a3/Mehmet_Oz_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2012.jpg/327px-Mehmet_Oz_-_World_Economic_Forum_Annual_Meeting_2012.jpg

dr. Mehmet Oz - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mehmet_Oz

Mehmet Cengiz Öz (Turkish: [mehˈmet dʒenˈɟiz řz]; born June 11, 1960), also known as Dr. Oz, is a Turkish-American cardiothoracic surgeon, author, and television personality. Oz first appeared on the The Oprah Winfrey Show in 2004, and later on Larry King Live and other TV programs. In 2009, The Dr. Oz Show, a daily television program focusing on medical issues and personal health was launched by Winfrey's Harpo Productions and Sony Pictures. .... Time magazine ranked Oz at 44th on its list of the "100 Most Influential People in 2008" and Esquire magazine placed him on its list of the "75 Most Influential People of the 21st Century". He was called a Global Leader of Tomorrow by the World Economic Forum and one of "The Harvard 100 Most Influential Alumni" by 02138 magazine. He won the Gross Surgical Research Scholarship. He was listed in "Doctors of the Year" by Hippocrates magazine and in "Healers of the Millennium" by Healthy Living magazine. Oz is annually listed in the Castle Connolly Guide of the top United States doctors, as well as other ranking groups noted below.

"Dr. Mehmet Oz belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2a1b."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...notable_people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_haplogroups_of_notable_people)

"Dr. Mehmet Oz belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2a1b."
http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famo...nown_as_Dr._Oz (http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famous_people#Dr._Mehmet_Cengis_Oz_also_known_ as_Dr._Oz)

"Turning to his Father`s Line, I told him that his paternal haplogroup is J2a1b, which is also referred to as J2a4b."
Faces of America - Mehmet Oz.
http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=m...merica&f=false (http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=meYbj1E6Ki8C&pg=PA125&lpg=PA125&dq=Mehmet+Oz+haplogroup+J2a1b+faces+of+america&source=bl&ots=rDlkGdTFR5&sig=bhozLeqaNmbCCs9OmESNqYP_ZWA&hl=en&sa=X&ei=3d8wU62iMsiX7QbEnoHoBQ&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=Mehmet%20Oz%20haplogroup%20J2a1b%20faces%20of%20 america&f=false)

http://www.pbs.org/wnet/facesofameri...r-mehmet-oz/4/ (http://www.pbs.org/wnet/facesofamerica/profiles/dr-mehmet-oz/4/)


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tqUvNYBAXqw&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:38 PM
John Lorimer Worden. (Confirmed)

http://fc04.deviantart.net/fs70/i/2013/070/6/4/john_lorimer_worden_by_zuzahin-d5xoqon.jpg

John Lorimer Worden - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Lorimer_Worden

John Lorimer Worden (March 12, 1818 – October 19, 1897) was a U.S. rear admiral who served in the American Civil War. He commanded Monitor against the Confederate vessel Virginia (originally named Merrimack) in first battle of ironclad ships in 1862. Fort Worden, located in Port Townsend, Washington and four United States Navy ships have been named USS Worden for him. The parade field at the United States Naval Academy is named in his honor.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/4/4c/USS_Worden_CG-18_San_Francisco.jpg/320px-USS_Worden_CG-18_San_Francisco.jpg
USS Worden

"John Lorimer Worden of the U.S. Navy, commanding officer of U.S.S. Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads, first historical confrontation between iron made ships, as member of main lineage of Worden family, is supposed to belong to Y-DNA haplogroup J2b2."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...notable_people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_haplogroups_of_notable_people)

"John Lorimer Worden of the U.S. Navy, commanding officer of U.S.S. Monitor in the Battle of Hampton Roads, first historical confrontation between iron made ships, as member of main lineage of Worden family, is supposed to belong to Y-DNA haplogroup J2b2."
http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famo...John_L._Worden (http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famous_people#John_L._Worden)

http://wordenfamilyassoc.org/John_Lorimer_Worden.htm

https://www.familytreedna.com/public/worden


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=u2oub-PkUDY

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:39 PM
The Rothschilds.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/5f/Mayer_Amschel_Rothschild.jpg

The Rothschilds - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rothschild_family

Mayer Amschel Rothschild (23 February 1744 – 19 September 1812) was a German banker and the founder of the Rothschild banking dynasty, which is believed to have become the wealthiest family in human history. Referred to as the "founding father of international finance," Rothschild was ranked seventh on the Forbes magazine list of "The Twenty Most Influential Businessmen of All Time" in 2005.

The Rothschild family /ˈrɒθs.tʃaɪld/, also known as the Rothschilds, is a family descending from Mayer Amschel Rothschild, who established his banking business in the 1760s, in the Free City of Frankfurt. Rothschild established an international banking dynasty through his five sons, that came even to surpass the most powerful families of the era such as the Barings and the Berenbergs. Five lines of the Austrian branch of the family have been elevated to Austrian nobility, being given five hereditary titles of Barons of the Habsburg Empire by Emperor Francis II in 1816. Another line, of the British branch of the family, was elevated to British nobility at the request of Queen Victoria, being given the two hereditary titles of Baronet (1847) and Baron (1885).

"The Rothschilds belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...notable_people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_haplogroups_of_notable_people)
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml
http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famo...he_Rothschilds (http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famous_people#The_Rothschilds)

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:40 PM
John J. Curtin. (Confirmed)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/6/62/JohnCurtin.jpg/220px-JohnCurtin.jpg

John J. Curtin - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/John_Curtin

John Joseph Curtin (8 January 1885 – 5 July 1945) was an Australian politician who was the 14th Prime Minister of Australia from 1941 to 1945 and the Leader of the Labor Party from 1935 to 1945. Having first formed a minority government in 1941, Curtin went on to lead Labor to its greatest ever election victory in 1943, winning two thirds of seats in the House of Representatives and over 58% of the two-party preferred vote. Curtin successfully led Australia through the period when the nation was directly threatened by the Japanese advance in World War II, and is today widely regarded as one of the country's greatest ever Prime Ministers. With the end of the war in sight, Curtin died in office on 5 July 1945 and was succeeded briefly by Frank Forde and then by Ben Chifley

"Thus we find that our two famous political Curtin/MacCurtain men are from two different haplogroups. Thomas MacCurtain, Lord Mayor of Cork, was in the R1b1 group, while John Curtin, Prime Minister of Australia, was from a Feale Valley J2 group."
Curtin Clan - Curtin, Origin and History of the Name.
https://sites.google.com/site/curtinclan/origin-crest


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7X0aHaGvvzM&feature=player_embedded

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:40 PM
Matt Lauer. (Confirmed)

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/3/34/Matt_Lauer_2012_Shankbone_2.JPG/384px-Matt_Lauer_2012_Shankbone_2.JPG

Matthew Todd "Matt" Lauer (born December 30, 1957) is an American television journalist best known as the host of NBC's The Today Show since 1996. He is also a contributor for NBC's Dateline NBC. He was previously a news anchor for The Today Show and for WNBC in New York City and a local talk-show host in Boston, Philadelphia, Providence and Richmond. He was also host of PM Magazine (or "Evening Magazine" 1980–86) and worked for ESPN in the 1980s as a sideline reporter. In the early 1990s, Lauer hosted segments of HBO Entertainment News.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/63/Vladimir_Putin_with_Matt_Lauder.jpg

November 2005 Family Tree DNA was featured on the Today Show because of their partnership with National Geographic's Genographic Project. On the show Matt Lauer, Al Roker, Katie Couric and Ann Curry had their haplogroups tested and explained by Genographic Project director Spencer Wells.

Matt Lauer - http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matt_Lauer

"Matt Lauer belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of...notable_people (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_haplogroups_of_notable_people)

"Matt Lauer belongs to Y-DNA haplogroup J2."
http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famo...ple#Matt_Lauer (http://www.isogg.org/wiki/Y-DNA_famous_people#Matt_Lauer)

"So, will Wolfgang Amadeus join the ranks of the famous past and present whose patrilineal or matrilineal haplogroup is recorded? So far we have Genghis Khan [Y: C*(xC3c)], Somerled [Y: R1a1], Thomas Jefferson [Y: K2], the Manchu dynast Nurhachi [Y: C3c] (*), the founder of the Uí Néill dynasty [Y: R1b], the Tyrolean Ice Man [K], Cheddar Man [mt: U5a], Tsar Nicolas [mt: T], Spencer Wells [Y: R1b], and of course none others than Matt Lauer [Y: J2]."
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2006/01/...of-famous.html (http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2006/01/mozarts-skull-and-dna-of-famous.html)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/t1.0-9/1958275_717342298323928_1313687495_n.jpg

"Dr. Spencer Wells talks to the “Today” show’s Katie Couric, Matt Lauer, Ann Curry and Al Roker about a 5-year project launched by National Geographic and IBM to help people trace genetic lineage."
http://www.today.com/id/10095659#.Uy9nyXZgXIU

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:42 PM
Dr. Jagdish Kumar Saluja, Dr. 'Jack' Saluja. (Confirmed)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/t1.0-9/1525190_717951278263030_843632924_n.jpg

Dr. Jagdish Kumar Saluja (born January 14th, 1934 in Abdulapur, Jhelum Province, during the British Raj), known simply as Dr. ‘Jack’ Saluja, is one of the earliest members of the Saluja family to leave India’s shores and settle abroad. After completing his B.Sc. in Physics from St. Xavier College of Bombay, Dr. Saluja left for London by the boat named ‘Stratheden’ on December 18, 1955. From London he voyaged to New York on the ‘Queen Mary’ to arrive in the United States on January14, 1956. Dr. Saluja has degrees from the University of Michigan in Mathematics and Nuclear Engineering, as well as a PHD in Nuclear Engineering from the University of Florida in 1966. He has a variety of career achievements including being on the design team of the Juggernaut Research Nuclear Reactor at Argonne National Laboratory, designing the controls for the NERVA nuclear rocket engine during the Nixon administration, and being the Founder and President of Viking Systems International, a high-tech multi-disciplinary consulting firm addressing energy and engineering needs on a truly global basis (from 1977-1997).

"In fact, DNA Analysis suggests that Saluja’s belong to the DNA Haplogroup J2b, which has its origin in Greece. J2b (M12, M314, M221, M102), and is mainly found in the Balkans, Greece, Italy, and India (possibly from Neolithic Greeks)*****J2b1 (M205) - formerly J2b1b."
http://www.amazon.com/Migration-Indi.../dp/0615469035 (http://www.amazon.com/Migration-Indians-Continents-spanning-generations/dp/0615469035)

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:42 PM
Russian Nobility

Tatar Princes Bekhanids - J2b
Lithuanian Tatar Nobility - J2a (prince Chazbej Juszenski, b.ca.1440)
J2a Nobility - prince Vasiliy Asanov (Asanmurzin) 1552 Russia

Russian Nobility DNA.
http://www.familytreedna.com/public/RussianNobilityDNA

------------------------------------------------------------------------------
Habsburg & Plantagenet

"Results are also contradicted by tests on a family that believes they descend from Emperor Franz Josef. They belong to haplogroup J2. These results are also confidential."
Habsburg Family DNA Project.
http://www.geni.com/projects/Habsbur...A-Project/3775 (http://www.geni.com/projects/Habsburg-Family-DNA-Project/3775)

"The Plantagenets are a bit more difficult to predict as some speculate that they are related to the Carpetian kings of France and descended from Roman citizens in the haplogroup J2 or G2."
Y-DNA of the British Monarchy.
http://www.surnamedna.com/?articles=...itish-monarchy (http://www.surnamedna.com/?articles=y-dna-of-the-british-monarchy)

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:43 PM
Paul Fronczak (Confirmed)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-g-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/t1.0-9/1476217_10200723216829171_1195844487_n.jpg

The I-Team has an update tonight at 5 on the story about a mystery man named Paul Fronczak, who recently discovered through a DNA test that he is NOT the person he thought he was. It started with the sensational kidnapping of a one-day old baby back in 1964 and a heart-breaking "reunion" two years later. Our stories about Fronczak's efforts to find his true identity have generated media interest all over the world. Now, some new developments. We have some additional leads based on new DNA tests, and some surprising news about someone else who has joined the investigation.

The FBI's Chicago bureau has announced it is reopening their investigation into the Fronczak case after locating significant information dating to the baby's original kidnapping from a Chicago hospital. "It was deemed appropriate to take a fresh look at the evidence that we have and possibly re-interview sources that are still around," FBI spokesperson Joan Hyde told the Chicago Tribune. Paul Fronczak, today a grown Nevada man who was found abandoned as a baby at a Newark store, may still not know where he came from but he does feel closer to knowing. After taking a DNA test earlier this year revealing that he is not his Fronczaks' biological son he's uncovered a few additional clues of his own with the help of Ancestry.com, the world's largest genealogy company.

"Paul's Y chromosome haplogroup is J2 (paternal lineage)"
Ancestry Twitter.
https://twitter.com/ancestry/status/396471242666303489

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:43 PM
Roman Nobility

Bruttius, Bretius, Bretz.

"Sometime prior to that a Bretz ancestor must have come into Germany from the south, from Italy or Greece. Some researchers have suggested a family connection to Fabius Bretius, a Roman General, who came from the districts of Capua and Taranto in southern Italy to the town Trier, Germany around 224. Whether this connection is genuine or not, and it is impossible to know for sure, perhaps Roman conquests did bring Bretz DNA north 1,800 years ago as they did with so many other things. For some additional thoughts on the possible Latin origins of the family, also read the Genealogia Bretius."
Bretz Family, Haplogroup J2.
http://www.bretz.ca/GenWeb/html/dna/Y-bretz/

"Although the Bretz surname is clearly Germanic in its modern form, there are clues that its origin might extend back to antiquity. References from history, literature, and surname research have offered possible connections to a beginning in Italia. What is most exciting about these ideas are that they are now supported by the Bretz Y-DNA testing, which exposes a Mediterranean nature for the family....... And what of the proper name Bretius, is there anything to be learned of it? The account of Fabius Bretius indicates that he came from the south of Italy near Capua, where there was in fact a Roman family clan of the Imperial period which had a very similar name. The clan was called Bruttius, also spelled Brittius, Brettius, etc. (Greek: Βρύττιος), and it was particularly widespread in the south, including around Capua. Given the name's similarity to Bretius or Britius, and it's location, it is certainly concievable that Fabius could have belonged to this clan. The timing is also correct as no records of the Roman clan name are found prior to the Imperial period, and individuals of this name date between 100-300, the time of Fabius in Trier."
Genealogica Bretius.
http://www.bretz.ca/GenWeb/html/bretz/narratives/6/

RHAS
04-20-2014, 08:44 PM
Early German Nobility.

http://www.info-zuendorf.de/Ortsvereine/1000jahrezuendorf/images/wappen_weiss.jpg
http://www.info-zuendorf.de/Ortsvereine/1000jahrezuendorf/wappen.htm

Richwin von Zudendorp, b.1140 Köln-Zündorf, Germany Germany J2
https://www.familytreedna.com/public...ction=yresults (https://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2-M172/default.aspx?section=yresults)

http://d-nb.info/1024184196/04

http://wir-in-zuendorf.de/chronik.htm

RHAS
05-09-2014, 12:59 AM
"By the collapse of the Late Bronze Age societies (approximately 3200 YBP), the Mediterranean Basin underwent different waves of invasion, particularly by the Greeks of the Aegean Sea and, to a lower extent, by Levantine (Phoenicians) groups. Both of them established a set of different colonies along the Mediterranean coasts of Southern Europe and North Africa. The Phoenician colony of Carthage (present-day Tunisia), given its geographic proximity to Sicily, may have played an important role in the colonization of this region. Previous Y-chromosome genetic studies on the Phoenician colonization demonstrated that haplogroup J2 in general, and six haplotypes in particular (PCS1+ through PCS6+), may potentially have represented lineages linked with the spread of the Phoenicians (“Phoenician Colonization Signal”) into the Mediterranean. At this respect, it is worth noting the presence of 4 PCS+ haplotypes (namely PCS1+, PCS2+, PCS4+, PCS5+; [51]) in 9 samples of our Sicilian and Southern Italian dataset, particularly belonging to haplogroups J1-M267 (n = 2), J2-M410* (n = 1), J2-M67 (n = 5), and J2-M12 (n = 2). However, sub-lineages of haplogroup J2 have been also associated with the Neolithic colonization of mainland Greece, Crete and Southern Italy, and our TMRCA estimates for J2-subhaplogroups (ranging from 3271±1157 YBP to 3767±1332 YBP) cannot exclude an earlier arrival of at least some of the J2 chromosomes in Sicily and Southern-Italy during Neolithic times."
An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...e-0096074-t001

"The results regarding my paternal genetics were identified as belonging to Haplogroup J2 (M172). This genetic marker dates back to roughly 15 000 yrs ago and is found predominately in the Fertile Crescent. Most prevalent in Southern Italy, Turkey, Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus and several other countries around the Mediterranean and Caucasus region, some sources claim that these are the genes of the ancient Phoenicians who may have settled in the Roman Empire long ago."
Livelearngrow.ca - My Roots.
http://livelearngrow.ca/category/my-roots/

"The Tree 11 MITCHELMORE belongs to Haplogroup J2 or J-M172. This group migrated westward from the Middle East about 25,000 years ago, travelling along the north and south Mediterranean coastlines. One hypothesis is that this haplogroup was introduced into the British Isles by Roman soldiers; certainly Italy is one of the European countries with the highest frequency of haplogroup J2 today."
M*CH*MORE one name study - DNA Results
http://www.mitchelmore.info/join/dna-results.htm

RHAS
05-09-2014, 01:04 AM
Etruscans and cattle (Bulls).

"Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794)

"Nice, France: The long-running controversy about the origins of the Etruscan people appears to be very close to being settled once and for all, a geneticist will tell the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics today (Sunday June 17). Professor Alberto Piazza, from the University of Turin, Italy, will say that there is overwhelming evidence that the Etruscans, whose brilliant civilisation flourished 3000 years ago in what is now Tuscany, were settlers from old Anatolia (now in southern Turkey)."
European Society of Human Genetics - Ancient Etruscans were immigrants from Anatolia (now Turkey) - geneticists find the final piece in the puzzle
https://secure.medacad.org/eshg.org/13.0.html

The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA.
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.o.../1175.abstract


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNbhVFdC_Qc

Subtitled version:
http://dotsub.com/view/5978f5f8-ba84...f-84d06e261684

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2011.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

http://www.maravot.com/Etruscan_mural_bull.gif
Etruscan mural depiction of a Bull, from the Tomb of the Bulls in Tarquinia.

RHAS
05-09-2014, 01:10 AM
Haplogroup J2 & Phoenicians (Carthage).

"By the collapse of the Late Bronze Age societies (approximately 3200 YBP), the Mediterranean Basin underwent different waves of invasion, particularly by the Greeks of the Aegean Sea and, to a lower extent, by Levantine (Phoenicians) groups. Both of them established a set of different colonies along the Mediterranean coasts of Southern Europe and North Africa. The Phoenician colony of Carthage (present-day Tunisia), given its geographic proximity to Sicily, may have played an important role in the colonization of this region. Previous Y-chromosome genetic studies on the Phoenician colonization demonstrated that haplogroup J2 in general, and six haplotypes in particular (PCS1+ through PCS6+), may potentially have represented lineages linked with the spread of the Phoenicians (“Phoenician Colonization Signal”) into the Mediterranean. At this respect, it is worth noting the presence of 4 PCS+ haplotypes (namely PCS1+, PCS2+, PCS4+, PCS5+; [51]) in 9 samples of our Sicilian and Southern Italian dataset, particularly belonging to haplogroups J1-M267 (n = 2), J2-M410* (n = 1), J2-M67 (n = 5), and J2-M12 (n = 2). However, sub-lineages of haplogroup J2 have been also associated with the Neolithic colonization of mainland Greece, Crete and Southern Italy, and our TMRCA estimates for J2-subhaplogroups (ranging from 3271±1157 YBP to 3767±1332 YBP) cannot exclude an earlier arrival of at least some of the J2 chromosomes in Sicily and Southern-Italy during Neolithic times."
An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi/10.1371/journal.pone.0096074#pone-0096074-t001

http://2.bp.blogspot.com/-y1RKh1-RnPk/UneriLQexZI/AAAAAAAAG8s/GqL7evhRhV4/s1600/colonies.png

"The results regarding my paternal genetics were identified as belonging to Haplogroup J2 (M172). This genetic marker dates back to roughly 15 000 yrs ago and is found predominately in the Fertile Crescent. Most prevalent in Southern Italy, Turkey, Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus and several other countries around the Mediterranean and Caucasus region, some sources claim that these are the genes of the ancient Phoenicians who may have settled in the Roman Empire long ago."
Livelearngrow.ca - My Roots.
http://livelearngrow.ca/category/my-roots/

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Gu%C3%A9rin_%C3%89n%C3%A9e_racontant_%C3%A0_Didon_ les_malheurs_de_la_ville_de_Troie_Louvre_5184.jpg
Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido, a painting by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. This scene is taken from Virgil's Aeneid, where Dido falls in love with, only to be left by, the Trojan hero Aeneas.

"Dido (/ˈdaɪdoʊ/ DY-doh) was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia). She is best known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid. ...... The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily (c. 356–260 BC)."
Wikipedia.org - Dido (Queen of Carthage)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dido_(Queen_of_Carthage)

RHAS
05-09-2014, 02:40 AM
North Mediterranean, J-M172 and Romans.

"The first axis accounted for 43.71% of the haplogroup frequency variation and clearly separated east European populations from north Mediterranean groups. The second PC encompassed 34.60% of the observed variance and separated most of the north Balkan samples from the rest of European samples. Vector analysis demonstrates that the north Mediterranean cluster is most associated with haplogroups J-M172, E-v13 and R-M269."
Paleo-Balkan and Slavic Contributions to the Genetic Pool of Moldavians: Insights from the Y Chromosome.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0053731

"7.2 North Mediterranean. Overview. From Spain to Greece, the North Mediterranean cluster defines an arc from Gibraltar to Bosphorus. Ancient and robust, this group is dominant in Southern Europe. Its strongest source is from the first farmers to migrate out of Western Eurasia. They absorbed those who were there before, holdovers from the Ice Age. A long history of traveling merchants and seafarers shaped this cluster. The great empires of Rome and Greece carried it away to distant lands. They also brought a second wave of Western Eurasian influence into the cluster. Its modern geography speaks to the history of those who moved, either willingly or in chains, under the Roman Empire. Because of this, the cluster’s signature is strongest in the western part of the Mediterranean. It is particularly strong on the isolated island of Sardinia. It reaches also upwards to the British Islands as well as east into modern Turkey. The politics of empire and of a later Rome may explain why the cluster is part of many Southern European and non-European Jewish Diaspora populations."
FamilytreeDNA - MyOrigins Methodology.
https://www.familytreedna.com/learn/...s-methodology/

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:37 PM
"A Lebanese genetic scientist who has been following in 2007 the genetic footprint of the ancient Phoenician civilisation across the Mediterranean has found that close to one-third of modern-day Maltese share a genetic link with the ancient Phoenicians. Thirty per cent of DNA samples taken from Malta have been found to share a common and ancient genetic marker, known as the J2 haplogroup, with the Phoenician civilisation, which had colonised Malta for much of the first millennium BC."
Blog dei Fenici - One third of Maltese found to have ancient Phoenician DNA.
http://www.blogdeifenici.it/2014/612/one-third-of-maltese-found-to-have-ancient-phoenician-dna/

"Haplogroup J2, in contrast, was present at its highest frequency in the Lebanese population (29.4%) and was significantly more frequent there, than in the remaining Levantine regions (p < 0.05) (Table 1). .... Haplogroup J is believed to have split into J1 and J2 about 18 Kya (Semino et al., 2004). These two sister clades showed distinct histories and geographical localizations with a coastal range that is predominantly J2 and an inland range that is predominantly J1. Chiaroni, King and Underhill, report the same inland vs. coastal divergence pattern of J1 and J2, and correlate the expansion during the rise of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent to the patterns of rainfall distribution (Chiaroni et al., 2008). They suggest that the J2 haplogroup marked agricultural populations that followed the coasts, whereas the J1 haplogroup appears to have fixed in herdsmen populations that remained inland (Chiaroni et al., 2008). The diversified J2 reduced-median network and high coastal frequency suggest a sustained and non-interrupted presence of this haplogroup along the Eastern coast of the Mediterranean."
Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x/pdf

"Consistent with previous analyses, coastal Levantine regions were well represented in the J2 network."
Geographical Structure of the Y-chromosomal Genetic Landscape of the Levant: A coastal-inland contrast.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2009.00538.x/pdf

"As for haplogroup J, most Greeks (22.8% Greeks/14.3% Macedonian Greeks) belong to J-M172 and its subclades which is associated with Neolithic population movements."
Mathildas Anthropology Blog - Greek Y chromosomes by Dienekes.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/06/10/greek-y-chromosomes-by-dienekes/

"Interestingly, y-DNA haplogroup J (common in the Caucasus, ancestral to both J2a1h and J2a1b1), along with haplogroup I (common where Germanic languages are spoken) are believed to correspond with the early Cro-Magnon settlement of Europe, while haplogroup R1a is commonly associated with the Indo-European expansion. Hopefully, further deciphering of the Minoan language inscriptions will shed light on the apparent divergence between the genetic and linguistic conclusions reached regarding the Minoan people."
Kevin Borland - Classification of Minoan language.
http://kevinborland.blogspot.nl/2011/11/classification-of-minoan-language.html

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:38 PM
"The same marker was found in unusually high proportions on other parts of the Mediterranean coast where the Phoenicians are known to have established colonies, such as Carthage in today's Tunisia. It's abundantly present in the Iberian peninsula, Zalloua added. In Malta, the ancient DNA type was found in an extremely high 30 percent of samples, he said. We are seeing a pattern of expansion out of the Levant area along the maritime routes the Phoenicians used he said. The J2 haplogroup has been dated using a calculation based on the rate at which DNA mutates."
Reuters - In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/...59096520070910 (http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/10/us-phoenicians-dna-idUSL0559096520070910)

"The excess of J2 (Figure 1B), PCS1+ (Figures 1C and 1D), PCS2+ (Figure 1E), and PCS3+ (Figure 1F) in coastal Tunisia, the site of Carthage, compared with inland Tunisia is particularly salient, because these lineages are considerably more rare in North Africa than in Southern Europe. It also suggests that the Roman destruction of Carthage did not eliminate the Carthaginian gene pool."
Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean
http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

"King et Al noted a strong correlation in precipitation levels and associated levels of J2a (M172+ M410+) within the Middle East, stating:The genetic memory retained in the extant distributions of Y-chromosome haplogroups J1-M267 and J2a-M410 within the FertileCrescent significantly correlates with regional levels of annual precipitation in a reciprocal manner. The statistically significant correlations of Y-chromosome haplogroups, precipitation levels and domestic lifestyle are pronounced. The spatial frequency distribution of haplogroup J2a coincides closely with regions characterised by >400mm of annual precipitation capable of supporting settled agriculture, while haplogroup J1-M267 distributions correlate inversely with semi-arid regions characteristically used by pastoralists. Thus, King et al have established that M410's spread seems to correlate with rainfall. It would then make sense that viticulture would likely mirror this spread since about 400 mm is also the level of annual precipiation required to support the farming of Wine Grapes (General Viticulture, Albert Julius Winkler p 395). And this is what we see; that viticulture mirrors the proposed spread of M172, M410 through the Near east during the bronze age."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/correlations-in-spread-of-viticulture.html

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:40 PM
Taurus (constellation), Bull worship & Farming

http://img.bhs4.com/CE/B/CEBD18723DC2CBFA8F45B1D16EF2AAC9CE0D4B2E_large.jpg

"Taurus is one of the constellations of the zodiac, which means it is crossed by the plane of the ecliptic. Its name is a Latin word meaning "bull", and its astrological symbol is a stylized bull's head: Taurus.svg (Unicode ♉). Taurus is a large and prominent constellation in the northern hemisphere's winter sky. It is one of the oldest constellations, dating back to at least the Early Bronze Age when it marked the location of the Sun during the spring equinox. Taurus came to symbolize the bull in the mythologies of Ancient Babylon, Egypt and Greece. .... Taurus marked the point of vernal (spring) equinox in the Chalcolithic and the Early Bronze Age, from about 4000 BC to 1700 BC, after which it moved into the neighboring constellation Aries"
Taurus (constellation).
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taurus_(constellation)

Farmers Almanac - Here comes the spring equinox.
http://www.farmersalmanac.com/astronomy/2012/03/19/here-comes-the-spring-equinox/

"23andMe has a Y chromosome marker on its custom chip, rs34126399, which captures the spread of agriculture from the Near East to Europe. The G state at rs34126399 is found in most individuals carrying paternal haplogroup J2a, whose origin can ultimately be traced to Turkey 15,000 to 20,000 years ago."
The Origin of Farming in Europe: A View from the Y Chromosome.
http://blog.23andme.com/23andme-and-you/genetics-101/the-origin-of-farming-in-europe-a-view-from-the-y-chromosome/

"Although the overall age of J2a Y-microsatellite variation exceeds the appearance of agriculture in the Indus Valley (~6 KYA), the current lack of informative subdivision within HG J2a in southwestern Asia prevents analysis of such potential layers, which are currently more evident in Anatolia, southeastern Europe, and the Mediterranean. In these regions, HGs J2a1b-M67(xM92) and J2a1b1-M92 have spatial and temporal characteristics consistent with the spread of early farmers and Bronze Age cultures (Di Giacomo et al. 2004)."
Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
http://repository.ias.ac.in/21283/1/308.pdf

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:45 PM
Haplogroup J2, Phoenicians and Malta.


"One extraordinary group carried their traditions and their chromosomes into the Mediterranean frontier. Were they the Atlantis superheroes of science fiction? No. They do appear to have been more intellectually and artistically advanced than anyone around them in the same time period. Where they settled, they made an impact. Their descendants survived through the ages with aspects of their original ancient identity largely intact until time and assimilation finally absorbed them -- as Sea Peoples and Temple-Builders, later as Minoans and Etruscans, and still later in the great civilizations of Classical Greece and Rome. Original ancestral families of settlers who make up a bridge into civilization are the people we are identifying as The Mediterraneans."
http://www.ancientmed.org/TheMediterraneans.htm


http://www.youtube.com/watch?feature=player_embedded&v=iDaJLDfdd6Y

"A Lebanese genetic scientist who has been following in 2007 the genetic footprint of the ancient Phoenician civilisation across the Mediterranean has found that close to one-third of modern-day Maltese share a genetic link with the ancient Phoenicians. Thirty per cent of DNA samples taken from Malta have been found to share a common and ancient genetic marker, known as the J2 haplogroup, with the Phoenician civilisation, which had colonised Malta for much of the first millennium BC."
Blog dei Fenici - One third of Maltese found to have ancient Phoenician DNA.
http://www.blogdeifenici.it/2014/612...hoenician-dna/

"As DNA samples continue to be analyzed, more revelations are surfacing. "We've just received data that more than half of the Y chromosome lineages that we see in today's Maltese population could have come in with the Phoenicians," Wells says. "That's a significant genetic impact. But why?" At this point he can only speculate. "Perhaps the population on Malta wasn't as dense. Perhaps when the Phoenicians settled, they killed off the existing population, and their own descendants became today's Maltese. Maybe the islands never had that many people, and shiploads of Phoenicians literally moved in and swamped the local population. We don't know for sure, but the results are consistent with a settlement of people from the Levant within the past 2,000 years, and that points to the Phoenicians."
National Geographic - In the Wake of the Phoenicians: DNA study reveals a Phoenician-Maltese link
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0410/feature2/online_extra.html

"One of the biggest surprises discovered till now is the genetic relationship between the people of Malta and the people of the Lebanese coast. Genetic similarities between the two groups are so high that they are a cause of amazement and surprise. What this has proven, so far, is the validity of the accounts of Phoenician history, on one hand, against the results of genetic studies in geographical areas of Phoenician colonies, on the other. Genetic studies underway will clear the mystery of the Phoenicians, and perhaps, embarrass many others. It is going to address a struggle over the history and ancestry of Lebanon which used to be thought of as a struggle over myths."
Phoenicia.org - Genetics.
http://phoenicia.org/genetics.html

"Since the swanky London gathering to celebrate the publication of his book The Journey of Man, Wells has been promoted to the august position of "explorer-in-residence" at the National Geographic Society. He isn`t resident much. Eternally wandering, like any good explorer, which is a joint undertaking between the society and IBM. More than anything, this enterprise appears to be a genetic search for our collective identoty as a species. As Wells himself puts it, "In this future-obsessed era, it is important to seize a snapshot of our past before it is lost forever, in order better to understand ourselves and were we are headed." In his view, this snapshot is procured by collecting and comparing DNA from hundreds of thousends of individuals, who represen t all the ethnic and tribal peoples of the world. The project`s ambition is to map in detail how different groups and peoples are related to each other and how they have moved aroud and mixed over the millennia. As reported in the American Journal of Human Genetics, the propject`s geneticists have uncovered that the past`s great sailors, the Phoenicians, are the ancestors of the modern Maltese."
My Beautiful Genome: Discovering Our Genetic Future, One Quirk at a Time.
http://books.google.nl/books?id=Rpa_iQUoSP8C&pg=PT38&dq=phoenician+malta+dna&hl=nl&sa=X&ei=3ip1U6a6F4KLOMHIgdAG&ved=0CEUQ6AEwAQ#v=onepage&q=phoenician%20malta%20dna&f=false

"They looked at the genetic signatures carried on the Y chromosomes of men from former Phoenician colonies across the Mediterranean. The sites included coastal Lebanon, Cyprus, Crete, Malta, eastern Sicily, southern Sardinia, Ibiza, southern Spain, coastal Tunisia and the city of Tingris in Morocco."
BBC News - DNA legacy of ancient seafarers.
http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/sci/tech/7700356.stm

"The same marker was found in unusually high proportions on other parts of the Mediterranean coast where the Phoenicians are known to have established colonies, such as Carthage in today's Tunisia. It's abundantly present in the Iberian peninsula, Zalloua added. In Malta, the ancient DNA type was found in an extremely high 30 percent of samples, he said. We are seeing a pattern of expansion out of the Levant area along the maritime routes the Phoenicians used he said. The J2 haplogroup has been dated using a calculation based on the rate at which DNA mutates."
Reuters - In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts.
http://www.reuters.com/article/2007/09/10/us-phoenicians-dna-idUSL0559096520070910

http://www.centralbankmalta.org/site/imgs/phoenicians_silver.jpg

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:48 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Greeks.

"As for haplogroup J, most Greeks (22.8% Greeks/14.3% Macedonian Greeks) belong to J-M172 and its subclades which is associated with Neolithic population movements."
Mathildas Anthropology Blog - Greek Y chromosomes by Dienekes.
http://mathildasanthropologyblog.wordpress.com/2008/06/10/greek-y-chromosomes-by-dienekes/

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash4/t1.0-9/10297965_748495698541921_3025538494405698234_n.jpg

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:49 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Phoenicians.

"LAU scientist Dr. Pierre Zalloua, who discovered a genetic signature unique to the lost Phoenician civilization and used it to trace its descendants, appeared on the international television news channel CNN earlier this month to present his latest findings. Zalloua, assistant dean for Research at LAU’s School of Medicine, attracted media attention from around the world when he discovered that one in 17 men living in the Mediterranean carried Phoenician genes, indicating that the descendants of the “lost” civilization were alive and well."
Lebanese American University - LAU geneticist’s quest for the Phoenicians makes headlines.
http://www.lau.edu.lb/news-events/news/archive/lau_geneticists_quest_for_the/


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=rvlIrWk9utI

"The Neolithic control section shows nonsignificant results across all haplogroups, except for a significant J2 result in one test. The Phoenician-colony test results highlight only one haplogroup, J2, which consistently scores significantly in all three tests across the range of colonization sites. However, this haplogroup also scores significantly in Greek tests (as do some additional haplogroup...s), suggesting that the same haplogroup could have been spread by several expansions, which is unsurprising considering its frequency in the Eastern Mediterranean but implies that higher phylogenetic resolution is required for identification of Phoenician-specific signals."
Identifying Genetic Traces of Historical Expansions: Phoenician Footprints in the Mediterranean.
http://www.cell.com/AJHG/fulltext/S0002-9297(08)00547-8

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/t1.0-9/10153836_749476141777210_4503470036132160382_n.jpg

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:50 PM
Haplogroup J2, Phoenicians and Malta.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZjF5IfuML0

Video Part.3 - The Phoenician Imprint.
By Spencer Wells, geneticist and an Explorer-in-Residence at the National Geographic Society, Professor at Cornell University, leader of The Genographic Project.
"Surprisingly, more then 50% Malta's Y-Chromosome (male DNA) came from the Phoenicians. According to history, archeology and DNA, all points to the "Phoenicians" were the first to inhabit Malta."
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-ZjF5IfuML0

"We reconstructed the genetic structure of the Levantines and found that a pre-Islamic expansion Levant was more genetically similar to Europeans than to Middle Easterners."
Genome-Wide Diversity in the Levant Reveals Recent Structuring by Culture.
http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1003316

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:52 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Phoenicians.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=l_z6b_xwS9M

In "Quest for the Phoenicians," three renowned scientists, National Geographic Explorer-in-Residence and oceanographer Robert Ballard, geneticist Spencer Wells and archaeologist Paco Giles, search for clues about the Phoenicians in the sea, in the earth and in the blood of their modern-day descendents... Ballard looks at ancient shipwrecks along Skerki Bank off the island of Sicily... Paco Giles excavates a cave at the bottom of the rock of Gibraltar... Spencer Wells collects DNA from a 2,500-year-old Phoenician mummy's tooth, to extract its unique genetic code and compare it with DNA samples collected from men and women from Lebanon to Tunisia.

http://www.hushigi.com/turkey/istanbul2/P1080369m.jpg
Sarcofagus, Sidonian King Tabnit

It was reported in the PBS description of the National Geographic TV Special on this study entitled "Quest for the Phoenicians" that ancient DNA was included in this study as extracted from the tooth of a 2500 year-old Phoenician mummy.

http://www.insecula.com/PhotosNew/00/00/08/11/ME0000081153_3.JPG
King Tabnit remains.

"Recent DNA (Y chromosome) studies conducted by the National Geographic Magazine on the bones of ancient Phoenicians and living people from Syria, Lebanon and elsewhere in the Mediterranean have shown that the modern peoples carry the same ancient Phoenician genetic material. Further, the Phoenician bloodline has been proven to come from an ancient Mediterranean sub-stratum."
New World Encyclopedia - Phoenician Civilization.
http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Phoenician_Civilization

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:53 PM
Haplogroup J2, Phoenicians and Malta.

http://www.phoenicia.org.uk/documents/Malta-Times.jpg
Malta Times - Phoenician replica vessel sails around Africa.
http://www.phoenicia.org.uk/documents/Malta-Times.jpg

"The Phoenicia, a replica 600 BC Phoenician merchant ship, sailed gracefully into Marsamxett harbour today on one of the final legs of an expedition covering 17,000 miles around Africa. The 20m long vessel, built using traditional methods, arrived from Carthage. It is recreating the first circumnavigation of Africa achieved some 2,600 years ago. Malta was an important trading outpost of the Phoenician people, who at the time were regarded as 'rulers of the sea'. They occupied what is now Lebanon and the coastal parts of Syria and Palestine.The Phoenician sphere of influence spread throughout the Mediterranean and their trading activities reached as far as Cornwall for tin, and Indian and China for spices and precious goods."
Times of Malta - History recreated as 'Phoenicia' sails in.
http://www.timesofmalta.com/articles/view/20100922/local/history-recreated-as-phoenicia-sails-in.328023

RHAS
05-18-2014, 08:57 PM
Haplogroup J2, Phoenicians and the spread of the Alphabet.


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xkoo5ge_bQA

"Phoenicians themselves reportedly had a rich literature, it was totally lost in antiquity. That's ironic, because the Phoenicians actually developed the modern alphabet and spread it through trade to their ports of call. Acting as cultural middlemen, the Phoenicians disseminated ideas, myths, and knowledge from the powerful Assyrian and Babylonian worlds in what is now Syria and Iraq to their contacts in the Aegean. Those ideas helped spark a cultural revival in Greece, one which led to the Greeks' Golden Age and hence the birth of Western civilization. The Phoenicians imported so much papyrus from Egypt that the Greeks used their name for the first great Phoenician port, Byblos, to refer to the ancient paper. The name Bible, or "the book," also derives from Byblos. Today, Spencer Wells says, "Phoenicians have become ghosts, a vanished civilization." Now he and Zalloua hope to use a different alphabet, the molecular letters of DNA, to exhume these ghosts."
National Geographic - Who were the Phoenicians?
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/ngm/0410/feature2/?fs=www3.nationalgeographic.com


Haplogroup J2 and the Spread of the Alphabet. (Greek and Phoenician)

The Abduction of Europa: mosaic, Byblos, 3rd century A.D . National Museum of Beirut Collection. According to the Greek legend Europa’s brother Cadmus went looking for his kidnapped sister who is depicted on the mosaic being whisked away on the back of Zeus disguised as a bull. The story goes that in his search for Europe Cadmos transmitted the Phoenician alphabet to the Hellenes.

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash3/577720_510383479019812_1389822478_n.jpg

"Cadmus or Kadmos (Ancient Greek: Κάδμος), in Greek mythology, was a Phoenician prince, the son of king Agenor and queen Telephassa of Tyre and the brother of Phoenix, Cilix and Europa. He was originally sent by his royal parents to seek out and escort his sister Europa back to Tyre after she was abducted from the shores of Phoenicia by Zeus. Cadmus founded the Greek city of Thebes, the acropolis of which was originally named Cadmeia in his honour. Cadmus was credited by the ancient Greeks (Herodotus is an example) with introducing the original Alphabet or Phoenician alphabet -- phoinikeia grammata, "Phoenician letters"—to the Greeks, who adapted it to form their Greek alphabet."
Cadmus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cadmus

"The authors found a weak – but significant – genetic signature among their samples that could not be explained by chance. Many of the samples belonged to a very specific branch of haplogroup J2, which the authors believe points back to distinct migrations by Phoenician traders from the Middle East into Europe and North Africa more than 3,000 years ago."
Ripples in the Mediterranean: Tracing the Genetic Origins of the Phoenicians.
http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/rip...e-phoenicians/ (http://blog.23andme.com/ancestry/ripples-in-the-mediterranean-tracing-the-genetic-origins-of-the-phoenicians/)

"The ancient Greeks and Phoenicians were the main driving forces behind the spread of J2 around the western and southern Mediterranian."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origin...s_europe.shtml (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/origins_haplogroups_europe.shtml)

"In 2004, two geneticists educated at Harvard University and leading scientists of the National Geographic Genographic Project, Dr. Pierre Zalloua and Dr. Spencer Wells, identified "the haplogroup of the Phoenicians" as haplogroup J2, with avenues open for future research."
Familypedia.com - Phoenicia.
http://familypedia.wikia.com/wiki/Phoenicia

"Occurrence of J2-M172 Y-chromosomes in Tuscany has been related to the Etruscan heritage of the region."
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info:...l.pone.0050794 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0050794)

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2011.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash4/484321_510285402362953_1312221250_n.jpg

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_alphabet

"Phoenician became one of the most widely used writing systems, spread by Phoenician merchants across the Mediterranean world, where it was assimilated by many other cultures and evolved."
Phoenician Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phoenician_alphabet

"The Greek alphabet was developed by a Greek with first-hand experience of contemporary Phoenician script and, almost as quickly as it was established in the Greek mainland was rapidly re-exported, eastwards to Phrygia, where a similar script was devised, and westwards with Euboean or West Greek traders, where the Etruscans adapted the Greek alphabet to their own language."
History of the Greek Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History...Greek_alphabet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Greek_alphabet)

"The Latin alphabet is the main writing system in use in the Western world and is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world. It is the standard script of the English language and is often referred to simply as "the alphabet" in English. It is a true alphabet which originated in the 7th century BC in Italy and has changed continually over the last 2500 years. It has roots in the Semitic alphabet and its offshoot alphabets, the Phoenician, Greek, and Etruscan."
History of the Latin Alphabet.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History...Latin_alphabet (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_Latin_alphabet)

https://sphotos-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/156057_510305222360971_1621426644_n.jpg

https://fbcdn-sphotos-b-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/t1.0-9/10382817_749046828486808_4817964669708753458_n.jpg

RHAS
05-18-2014, 09:03 PM
http://i253.photobucket.com/albums/hh72/gundalilama/RomulusEtRemus.jpg

"An earlier tradition that gave Romulus a distant ancestor in the semi-divine Trojan prince Aeneas was further embellished, and Romulus was made the direct ancestor of Rome's first Imperial dynasty. Possible historical bases for the broad mythological narrative remain unclear and disputed. The image of the she-wolf suckling the divinely fathered twins became an iconic representation of the city and its founding legend, making Romulus and Remus preeminent among the feral children of ancient mythography."
Romulus and Remus.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romulus_and_Remus

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/f/f7/Aeneas'_Flight_from_Troy_by_Federico_Barocci.jpg
Aeneas Flight from Troy by Federico Barocci.

"In Greco-Roman mythology, Aeneas (/ɪˈniːəs/; Greek: Αἰνείας, Aineías, possibly derived from Greek αἰνή meaning "praise") was a Trojan hero, the son of the prince Anchises and the goddess Aphrodite. His father was the second cousin of King Priam of Troy, making Aeneas Priam's second cousin, once removed. He is a character in Greek mythology and is mentioned in Homer's Iliad, and receives full treatment in Roman mythology as the legendary founder of what would become Ancient Rome, most extensively in Virgil's Aeneid."
Aeneas.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aeneas

http://www.bergbook.com/images/17715-01.jpg
Map Aeneae Troiani Navigatio

http://www.daviddarling.info/images/journeys_of_Aeneas.jpg
Travels of Aeneas



"J2a-M92 is a well-defined J2a-M67 sub-lineage, with a distribution restricted to Asia Minor, the Balkans and the north-eastern Mediterranean coasts. Frequency and variance maps make plausible an origin in north-western Turkey, where the highest variance is registered, and a subsequent migration to the Balkans and then to the Italian Peninsula."
Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...e-0041252-g002 (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0041252#pone-0041252-g002)

https://sphotos-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn1/539802_497512770306883_1591683737_n.jpg

"Working with linguistic evidence and etymogical "method" Georgiev asserts that the Etruscans were none other then the Trojans, the legendary founders of Rome." (Philip Baldi, The foundations of Latin, Walter de Gruyter, 2002. p. 111)"
Etruscans - Ancient Mediterranean Türks of Eurasia (proto-Hungarian - proto-Türkic)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SKFCs5m19pQ

"Genetic research made public at the weekend appears to put the matter beyond doubt, however. It shows the Etruscans came from the area which is now Turkey - and that the nearest genetic relatives of many of today's Tuscans and Umbrians are to be found, not in Italy, but around Izmir......The latest findings confirm what was said about the matter almost 2,500 years ago, by the Greek historian Herodotus. The first traces of Etruscan civilisation in Italy date from about 1200 BC.......But the latest conclusions may add weight to a rival, apparently more fanciful, theory that links their name to Troy, the "city of towers" and a part of the Lydian empire. The most likely date for the fall of Troy, as described by Homer, is between 1250 and 1200 BC. The Etruscans' contribution to Roman civilisation is still debated. They provided Rome with some of its early kings, and maybe even its name."
The Guardian - The enigma of Italy's ancient Etruscans is finally unravelled DNA tests on their Italian descendants show the 'tuscii' came from Turkey.
http://www.theguardian.com/world/2007/jun/18/italy.johnhooper

"Nice, France: The long-running controversy about the origins of the Etruscan people appears to be very close to being settled once and for all, a geneticist will tell the annual conference of the European Society of Human Genetics today (Sunday June 17). Professor Alberto Piazza, from the University of Turin, Italy, will say that there is overwhelming evidence that the Etruscans, whose brilliant civilisation flourished 3000 years ago in what is now Tuscany, were settlers from old Anatolia (now in southern Turkey)."
European Society of Human Genetics - Ancient Etruscans were immigrants from Anatolia (now Turkey) - geneticists find the final piece in the puzzle
https://secure.medacad.org/eshg.org/13.0.html

The mystery of Etruscan origins: novel clues from Bos taurus mitochondrial DNA
http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/274/1614/1175.abstract


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dNbhVFdC_Qc

Subtitled version:
http://dotsub.com/view/5978f5f8-ba84-401b-af6f-84d06e261684

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2011.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

http://www.maravot.com/Etruscan_mural_bull.gif
Etruscan mural depiction of a Bull, from the Tomb of the Bulls in Tarquinia.

"Another fresco is situated horizontally between the two doorways, in the center of the wall. It portrays the ambush of Troilus by Achilles, which is described in the Cypria. The event precedes the pursuit and slaying of Troilus by Achilles at the altar of Apollo. .... He identifies the rider as Troilus because he wears a Phrygian cap and has a large knot of hair."
Wikipedia - Tomb of the Bulls.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tomb_of_the_Bulls

RHAS
05-18-2014, 09:04 PM
Haplogroup J2 Romans. (Aeneas, Trojans, Phoenicians, Carthage, Rome)

"The results regarding my paternal genetics were identified as belonging to Haplogroup J2 (M172). This genetic marker dates back to roughly 15 000 yrs ago and is found predominately in the Fertile Crescent. Most prevalent in Southern Italy, Turkey, Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus and several other countries around the Mediterranean and Caucasus region, some sources claim that these are the genes of the ancient Phoenicians who may have settled in the Roman Empire long ago."
Livelearngrow.ca - My Roots.
http://livelearngrow.ca/category/my-roots/

"The excess of haplogroup J2, and PC1+ to PS3+ in coastal Tunisia, the site of Carthage, compared to inland Tunisian populations is exceptionally significant, and suggests that the Roman destruction of Carthage did not eliminate the Carthaginian gene pool."
Anthropology.net - The Y-Chromosomal Footprint Of Phoenicians Throughout The Mediterranean.
http://anthropology.net/2008/10/30/the-y-chromosomal-footprint-of-phoenicians-throughout-the-mediterranean/

"By a.d. 193 Rome had an emperor from North Africa, Septimius Severus, and he spoke with a strong Phoenician accent. That was the revenge of Carthage. The Phoenicians also persisted genetically."
National Geographic - Who were the Phoenicians?
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/features/world/asia/lebanon/phoenicians-text/5

"Carthage also became a centre of early Christianity."
Wikipedia - Carthage.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carthage

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Gu%C3%A9rin_%C3%89n%C3%A9e_racontant_%C3%A0_Didon_ les_malheurs_de_la_ville_de_Troie_Louvre_5184.jpg
Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido, a painting by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. This scene is taken from Virgil's Aeneid, where Dido falls in love with, only to be left by, the Trojan hero Aeneas.

"Dido (/ˈdaɪdoʊ/ DY-doh) was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia). She is best known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid. ...... The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily (c. 356–260 BC)."
Wikipedia.org - Dido (Queen of Carthage)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dido_(Queen_of_Carthage)

RHAS
05-18-2014, 09:06 PM
Haplogroup J2, Romans, Britain & Viticulture.

"The Tree 11 MITCHELMORE belongs to Haplogroup J2 or J-M172. This group migrated westward from the Middle East about 25,000 years ago, travelling along the north and south Mediterranean coastlines. One hypothesis is that this haplogroup was introduced into the British Isles by Roman soldiers; certainly Italy is one of the European countries with the highest frequency of haplogroup J2 today."
M*CH*MORE one name study - DNA Results
http://www.mitchelmore.info/join/dna-results.htm


Haplogroup J2, Romans & Britain.https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-prn2/1403681_622703424454483_2047931370_o.jpg

"The findings so far indicate that the imperial Italians of the early first millennium AD did not introduce their British subjects only to legionaries, villas and togas, but to the delights of cheap plonk as well."
The Independent - Veni Vidi Viticulture.
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/science/veni-vidi-viticulture--remains-of-roman-vineyards-found-in-uk-738723.html


Haplogroup J2, Britain, Romans and Viticulture.https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/1403555_622024857855673_177574294_o.jpg

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/t1.0-9/10363492_748230801901744_8152338352413016755_n.jpg

'In Vino Veritas'

RHAS
05-18-2014, 09:14 PM
Haplogroup J2 and Romans (Netherlands/United Kingdom).

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-prn2/t1.0-9/10268700_749968678394623_6319617964394007202_n.jpg

Fragment taken from the book 'Zonen van Adam', regarding Hg J2-M172.
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Zonen_van_Adam

NL "Een opvallende, oud cluster is te vinden noord-oostelijk Branbant. Hier stuiten we wellicht op een erfenis van de in en nabij Nijmegen gelegerde Romeinse troepen, waarin veel huurlingen uit het Midden-0osten te vinden waren. Een soortgelijke verklaring wordt gegeven voor een cluster J2 bij de muur van Hadrianus in Groot Brittanie."

UK "A remarkable old cluster can be found in North east Brabant (Netherlands). Here we see a possible heritage from the Roman soldiers who were stationed in and around Nijmegen (Noviomagus) among which were many mercenaries from the middle east. The same explanation is given for a cluster of J2 near Hadrians wall in Great Britain."


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=EQHmbN5-914

RHAS
05-22-2014, 02:55 AM
"Vlad III The Impaler, also known as Dracula, descended from the dynasty of Basarab, the first rulers of independent Wallachia, in present Romania. Whether this dynasty is of Cuman (an admixed Turkic people that reached Wallachia from the E...ast in the 11th century) or of local Romanian (Vlach) origin is debated among historians. Earlier studies have demonstrated the value of investigating the Y chromosome of men bearing a historical name, in order to identify their genetic origin. ...... The Basarab sample clusters into 11 lineages (Table 2), with six main lineages comprising 82.8% of the samples. Some lineages such as J-M241 and E-V13 are over-represented in the Basarab compared to the general Romanians."
Y-Chromosome Analysis in Individuals Bearing the Basarab Name of the First Dynasty of Wallachian Kings.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404992/

Phokaia was a larger Ionic city-state (50 hectares), containing an estimated 6000 individuals including its surrounding chora, its agricultural territory [3,16]. Smyrna, on the other hand, being a smaller polis, may show evidence of indigenous Anatolian admixture likely from neighbouring Lydia with higher frequencies of J2a-Page55 derived chromosomes. The frequency of J2a-DYS445 = 6 in Phokaia (6.5%) is comparable to that of central Anatolia (5.5%).
The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3068964/

The Y-chromosomal haplogroup distribution in Lebanon, a small Eastern Mediterranean coastal country, shows a coastal-to-inland contrast likely marking post-glacial maximum expansions <20 thousand years ago, and significant historical influences. Historical expansions include the Phoenicians leaving a genetic footprint throughout the Mediterranean still detectable today.
Influences of history, geography, and religion on genetic structure: the Maronites in Lebanon.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3062011/

"In addition, J2a is also common, attaining a frequency of 9.7% in Phokaia and 15.5% in Smyrna."
The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3068964/

"Ancient Persian people were firstly characterized by the Zoroastrianism. ... The majority of the M410 chromosomes are J2a-Page55 and mainly represented by its main sub-clades M530, M47 and M67. In particular, the recently described J2a-M530 shows high frequencies in the Zoroastrians of Yazd (17.6%) and Tehran (15.4%), and in the Persians of Yazd (17.0%)."
Ancient Migratory Events in the Middle East: New Clues from the Y-Chromosome Variation of Modern Iranians.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3399854/

"Also found in Provence is haplogroup E-V13 (3.9%) and J2a-DYS445=6 (7.8%)."
The coming of the Greeks to Provence and Corsica: Y-chromosome models of archaic Greek colonization of the western Mediterranean
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3068964/

"The West Eurasian component, represented by haplogroups E, G, and J, shows a higher incidence among Tharus (15.9%) than among Indians (7.7%). With the exception of three E3-M35* Eastern Tharus and two G-M201 (one in New Delhi and the other in Andhra Pradesh), the main part of this component is accounted for by haplogroup J (Tharus 14.0%, Indians 5.8%), present only as J2, namely J2-M410* and J2-M241*. Whereas the latter haplogroup is shared by all Indian and Tharu samples, the J2-M410* was found in all Tharus but in only one Hindu of New Delhi, where one sample of its derivative J2-M68 was also present."
Mitochondrial and Y-chromosome diversity of the Tharus (Nepal): a reservoir of genetic variation.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2720951/

RHAS
05-22-2014, 02:57 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Thracians.

"Cruciani et al.’s E-V13 and J2-M12 coalescence times bear a striking similarity to carbon-14-based date calculations for certain archaeological sites in the Maritsa river valley and its tributaries, near the city of Nova Zagora, Bulgaria (Nilolova, 2002). These sites are associated directly with the proto-Thracian culture of the southern Balkans that came to dominate the region during the first millennium BCE. Sites surveyed included Ezero, Yunatsite, Dubene-Sarovka and Plovdiv-Nebet Tepe, all of which had deep associations with the developing EBA proto-Thracian culture of the region."
Haplogroup E3b1a2 as a Possible Indicator of Settlement in Roman Britain by Soldiers of Balkan Origin.
http://www.jogg.info/32/bird.htm

http://artfrombooks.com/bmz_cache/b/bb2863e1974ab4ab570e27227d715fab.image.387x400.jpg
Thracian Peltast.

"Of course, there are more ways for J2b2 members to have spread to the areas highlighted on the J2b2 heatmap as being suggested in this paper, it is interesting however to see how easily all these regions are connected through Greek, Macedonian and/or Thracian mythology, history and migrations."
Analysis of the J2b2 M241 Geno 2.0 Heatmap. Comparing historical data with heatmap hotspots.
https://www.facebook.com/download/467207646662545/Analysis%20of%20the%20J2b2%20M241%20Geno%202.0%20H eatmap.docx

"Research conducted by the administrators of the Border Reivers DNA Project has identified numerous haplotypes in persons of British descent that show Haplotype 35 markers. Moreover, most of these haplotypes appear to originate from areas of Britain near the Antonine Wall, Hadrian's Wall and other places of Roman fortification or settlement. These areas include Galloway, Dumfries, Ayrshire and The Borders in Scotland, and Cumbria, Yorkshire, Lancashire, Shropshire and Staffordshire in England. Many of the Roman troops stationed in these areas came from Southeastern Europe or Western Asia. They included Sarmatians, Dacians, Goths, Syrians, Mesopotamians, Thracians and Anatolians."
Elliot (And border receivers) DNA Project (Haplogroup J2) - Haplogroup R1b (Haplotype 35).
http://freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~gallgaedhil/haplo_r1b_ht35_analysis.htm

http://www.imninalu.net/Myths_files/Balkan1stCce.jpg

"Bulgarian DNA profile is congruent with those described for most European populations. Almost the entire Bulgarian mtDNA pool is made up of West Eurasian lineages, with just 0.9% of Eastern Asian lineages. It is a similar picture from Y-chromosome haplogroups. About 80% of the total genetic variation in Bulgarians falls within haplogroups E-M35, I-M170, J-M172, R-M17 and R-M269, all found elsewhere in Europe."
Wikipedia.org - Bulgarians.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bulgarians

"Leaving aside Apulians, Indians and Nepalese, the highest ages, compatible with a Neolithic expansion, are obtained in regions around the Black Sea, namely Anatolia (9.1±2 kya) and Bulgaria, in particular its central part (7.8±3 kya). Consequently, in this region, haplogroup J-M241 can be considered as a genetic signal of the expansion of farmers towards Southeast Europe possibly enhanced by the breaching of the Bosphorus Sill and the flood of the Pontic Lake with marine water."
Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0056779

"Interesting results from the lineage analysis can be summarized as follows: (i) R-L23*, the eastern branch of haplogroup R-M269, is present in Eastern Bulgaria since the post glacial period; (ii) haplogroup E-V13, which probably originated in Western Asia, has a Mesolithic age in Bulgaria from where it expanded after the spread of farming marked by haplogroup G-P15, J-M410 representatives; (iii) haplogroup J-M241 probably reflects the Neolithic westward expansion of farmers from the earliest sites along the Black Sea."
Y-Chromosome Diversity in Modern Bulgarians: New Clues about Their Ancestry.
http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0056779


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QgAROA7ckkk

RHAS
05-22-2014, 02:58 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Phrygians.

"Several authors have proposed that the Indo-European language presently spoken by Armenians arose during the Bronze Age, when Indo-European speaking tribes from the Balkans and Greece invaded Anatolia and Transcaucasia, leading to the subsequent spread of their culture and language. In this study, we have detected a number of lineages that are prominent in the Balkans (I2*, I2b*, J2b1 and J2b2) at low levels throughout Ararat Valley, Gardman and Lake Van, the latter of which also contains haplogroups commonly associated with Bronze Age Greece (ie, J2a8-M319 (4.9%), and E1b1b1-M78 and its sublineages (3.9%)). While this may suggest genetic input from early Greek or Phrygian tribes, it is also possible that these low levels of Balkan lineages arrived in Armenia at a later time, such as during one of the many incursions into the area during the reign of the Macedonian, Roman and Byzantine empires."
Neolithic patrilineal signals indicate that the Armenian plateau was repopulated by agriculturalists.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n3/full/ejhg2011192a.html

"I-P37 and J-M12 are dated to 1,100BC and 1,200BC, at around the time that e.g. the Phrygians from the Balkans are believed to have migrated to Asia Minor. I-P37 and J-M12 reach their maxima in areas north of Greece where the Phrygians are said to have originated."
How Y-STR variance accumulates: a comment on Zhivotovsky, Underhill and Feldman (2006).
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2008/07/how-y-str-variance-accumulates-comment.html

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/996635_628107213914104_1173937926_n.jpg
http://www.eupedia.com/forum/threads/29229-Phylogeographical-Analysis-of-the-J2b2-M241-Geno-2-0-Heatmap

"The Phrygians (Phruges or Phryges) were an ancient Indo-European people, initially dwelling in the southern Balkans; according to Herodotus, under the name of Bryges (Briges), changing it to Phruges after their final migration to Anatolia, via the Hellespont. From tribal and village beginnings, the state of Phrygia arose in the 8th century BC with its capital at Gordium."
Wikipedia - Phrygians.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phrygians


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=fYdP5ywMcxk

RHAS
05-22-2014, 02:59 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Illyrians.

"Paternal genetic heritage was studied on DNA from 1,141 individuals analyzed for Y chromosome markers (data from the Institute for Anthropological Research, Zagreb, Croatia and from the published sources) (Barač et al., 2003; Rootsi et al., 2004; Peričić et al., 2005a, 2005b). The individuals were from the continental parts of the Balkan peninsula, the north-west Adriatic and the south-east Alpine areas as well as from the Eastern Adriatic islands, i.e. the areas where the different Illyrian trybes settled during the Iron Age period (Fig.1). The sample was analyzed for Y chromosomal haplogroup frequencies in 9 populations and classified as I1a, I1b*-P37, R1a-SRY1532, R1b-M173, E3b1-M78 and J2e1 haplogroups."
Language Bounderies and Microevolutionary processes in South-Eastern Europe.
http://www.anthroinsula.org/resources/Iliri-english%20text%20version.pdf

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/t1.0-9/1235459_621542541237238_1828340827_n.png

"The two haplogroups most strongly associated with Albanian people (E-V13 and J2b) are often considered to have arrived in Europe from the Near East with the Neolithic revolution or late Mesolithic, early in the Holocene epoch. From here in the Balkans, it is thought, they spread to the rest of Europe."
Origin of the Albanians.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_the_Albanians

"The origin of the Albanians has been for some time a matter of dispute among historians. Most historians conclude that the Albanians are descendants of populations of the prehistoric Balkans, such as the Illyrians, Dacians or Thracians. Little is known about these peoples, and they blended into one another in Thraco-Illyrian and Daco-Thracian contact zones even in antiquity."
Origin of the Albanians.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Origin_of_the_Albanians

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-ash3/t1.0-9/537320_522180941173399_1618020486_n.jpg

"Haplogroup J (J2-M172): The frequency peak is found in Dardanians (15.02%) and Taulanti (14.30%), decreasing in Liburni (10.90%), Veneti (9.60%) and Japodes (6.67%), reaching rather low values in Delmatae (2.09%) and Autariates (1.40%). It is absent in Noricum and the area of Histri."
Language Bounderies and Microevolutionary processes in South-Eastern Europe.
http://www.anthroinsula.org/resources/Iliri-english%20text%20version.pdf

"Taulantii (Greek: Ταυλάντιοι) was the name of a cluster of Illyrian tribes. According to Greek mythology Taulas (Tαύλας), one of the six sons of Illyrius, was the eponymous ancestor of the Taulanti. They lived on the Adriatic coast of Illyria (modern Albania), between to the vicinity of the city of Epidamnus (modern Durrës). This tribe played an important role in Illyrian history of the 4th-3rd centuries BC,when King Glaukias (335 BC- 302 BC) ruled over them. This tribe had become bilingual being under the effects of an early Hellenisation."
Taulanti
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taulantii

"The Dardani (/ˈdɑrdənaɪ/; Ancient Greek: Δαρδάνιοι, Δάρδανοι, Δαρδανίωνες; Latin: Dardani) (or Dardanians) was a tribe that occupied the region of Dardania. Located at the Thraco-Illyrian contact zone, their identification as either an Illyrian or Thracian tribe is uncertain."
Dardani
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dardanians_(Balkans)

"The Liburnians (or Liburni, Greek: Λιβυρνοί) were an ancient tribe, possibly Illyrian, inhabiting the district called Liburnia, a coastal region of the northeastern Adriatic between the rivers Arsia (Raša) and Titius (Krka) in what is now Croatia."
Liburni
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Liburni

RHAS
05-22-2014, 02:59 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Vlachs/Aromuns

"One fourth of the Vlach people (isolated communities of Romance language speaking peoples in the Balkans) belong to J2, which, combined to the fact that they speak a language descended from latin, suggests that they could have had a greater part of Roman (italian) ancestry than other ethnic groups in the Balkans."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml)

https://scontent-a-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-ash2/t1.0-9/538353_496329590425201_123760727_n.jpg

"Two clusters could be distinguished in the J2-M172 network, probably reflecting the STR differentiation between any of its subclades and/or its unresolved paragroup J2-M172. While the non-Aromun populations did not appear to display differences in distribution among these two clusters, the Y STR differentiation of J2-M172 chromosomes between Albanian Aromuns and the Aromun population from the Stip region in Macedonia was significant."
Paternal and maternal lineages in the Balkans show a homogeneous landscape over linguistic barriers, except for the isolated Aromuns.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2005.00251.x/pdf


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZYODJLc76bM

"Vlach (English pronunciation: /ˈvlɑːk/ or /ˈvlćk/) is a blanket term covering several modern Latin peoples descending from the Latinized population in the present-day territory of Romania and Moldova, as well as the southern part of the Balkan Peninsula and south and west of the Danube River. English variations of the name include Wallachians, Walla, Wlachs, Wallachs, Vlahs, Olahs or Ulahs. Groups that have historically been called Vlachs include modern-day Romanians, Aromanians, Morlachs, Megleno-Romanians and Istro-Romanians. Since the creation of the Romanian state, the term in English has mostly been used for those living outside Romania. The Vlachs did not become easily identifiable before the 11th century when they were described by George Kedrenos, and their prehistory during the Migration period is considered by some historians a matter of scholarly speculation. According to some linguists and scholars, the existence of the present Eastern Romance languages proves the survival of the Thraco-Romans in the Lower Danube basin during the Age of Migrations, while populations from the western Balkans historically referred to as "Vlachs" (e.g. speakers of the extinct Dalmatian language) could have also had Romanized Illyrian origins."
Wikipedia - Vlachs.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vlachs

"Aromanians, or Vlachs (Aromanian: Armânji, Rrâmânji, Makidonji), are a Greek people with Latin as their language, native throughout the southern Balkans, especially in northern and central Greece, southern Albania, the Republic of Macedonia, south-western Bulgaria, and, as an emigrant community, in Serbia and Romania (Dobrudja). They are a native people in the regions of Epirus, Thessalia and Macedonia. An older term used for them is Macedo-Romanians. Especially in Greece, the term Vlachs (Vlahoi) is widespread; this term is sometimes used outside Greece to encompass all Latin-descended peoples of the Balkans, including the modern-day Romanians."
Wikipedia - Aromanians.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aromanians

RHAS
05-22-2014, 03:00 AM
Haplogroup J2 and Szeklers.

"Among these J2-M172 subclades, J2e1-M102 is more frequent in Szeklers (7.2%) than in Hungarians (4.0%), while the undifferentiated J2-M172* Y chromosomes are slightly more common in Hungarian population (8% vs. 3.1%). The overall frequency of J2-M172 in the two populations (Hungarian: 13%; Szekler: 11.3%) is in the same order of magnitude as reported for Czechs and Slovaks (Semino et al., 2000), Romanians, Bulgarians (Di Giacomo et al. 2004) and Ukrainians (Semino et al. 2004)."
Y-Chromosome Analysis of Ancient Hungarian and Two Modern Hungarian-Speaking Populations from the Carpathian Basin.
http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1469-1809.2008.00440.x/full

"The Székelys derive their name from a Hungarian expression meaning "frontier guards". The origin of the Székelys has been much debated. It is now generally accepted that they are descendants of Hungarians (or of Magyarized Turkic peoples) transplanted to the eastern Carpathians to guard the frontier, their name meaning simply "frontier guards". The Székelys have historically claimed descent from Attila's Huns (repeated in Procopius's De bello Gothico), and believed they played a special role in shaping Hungary. Ancient legends recount that a contingent of Huns remained in Transylvania, later allying with the main Hungarian army that conquered the Carpathian Basin in the 9th century. The thirteenth-century chronicler Simon of Kéza also claimed that the Székely people descended from Huns who lived in mountainous lands prior to the Hungarian conquest. After the theory of Hunnic descent lost scholarly currency in the 20th century two substantial ideas emerged about Székely ancestry: Some scholars suggested that the Székelys were simply Magyars, like other Hungarians, transplanted in the Middle Ages to guard the frontiers. Researches could not prove that Szeklers spoke a different language. In this case, their strong cultural differences from other Hungarians stem from centuries of relative isolation in the mountains. Others suggested Turkic origin as Avar, Kabar or Esegel-Bulgar ancestries."
Wikipedia - Székelys
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sz%C3%A9kelys

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/t31.0-8/1071112_569302446461248_1748364243_o.png
(Image: Local autonomies in the kingdom of Hungary, showing Szekler/Szekelys territory in green).

RHAS
05-22-2014, 03:00 AM
Haplogroup J2 and the Basarab Dynasty.

"Vlad III The Impaler, also known as Dracula, descended from the dynasty of Basarab, the first rulers of independent Wallachia, in present Romania. Whether this dynasty is of Cuman (an admixed Turkic people that reached Wallachia from the East in the 11th century) or of local Romanian (Vlach) origin is debated among historians. Earlier studies have demonstrated the value of investigating the Y chromosome of men bearing a historical name, in order to identify their genetic origin. ...... The Basarab sample clusters into 11 lineages (Table 2), with six main lineages comprising 82.8% of the samples. Some lineages such as J-M241 and E-V13 are over-represented in the Basarab compared to the general Romanians."
Y-Chromosome Analysis in Individuals Bearing the Basarab Name of the First Dynasty of Wallachian Kings.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3404992/

Lineage 6. J2b2 M241.

Lineage 9. J2a2 M67.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/af/Vlad_Tepes_002.jpg

RHAS
05-22-2014, 03:01 AM
Haplogroup J2 and the Kalash.

"A genetic study published led by Firasat (2007) on Kalash individuals found high and diverse frequencies of :Haplogroup L3a (22.7%), H1* (20.5%), R1a (18.2%), G (18.2%), J2 (9.1%), R* (6.8%), R1* (2.3%), and L* (2.3%). Haplogroup L, Haplogroup H, and Haplogroup R1a are thought to have originated from prehistoric South Asia."
Wikipedia.org - Kalash People.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kalash_people

"The sister clade to J2a-M410 is J2b-M12. In India and Pakistan, all J2b members comprise the J2b2-M241 derivative HG."
Polarity and Temporality of High-Resolution Y-Chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1380230/

"In another example, the DNA of the Kalash people, a population isolated in a remote valley in Pakistan, showed evidence of input from Europe or the Middle East (the researchers could not pin down a precise geographic location) between 990 and 210 bc — a period that overlaps with that of Alexander the Great. Local Kalash tradition holds that they are descended from Alexander the Great's army, although there is no historical record of such a mixture."
Nature.com - Modern Genes yield atlas of ancient inter ethnic sex.
http://www.nature.com/news/modern-genes-yield-atlas-of-ancient-inter-ethnic-sex-1.14718

"Another mixing event is the injection of European-type DNA into the Kalash, a people of Pakistan, at some time between 990 and 210 B.C. This could reflect the invasion of India by Alexander the Great in 326 B.C. The Kalash claim to be descended from Alexander’s soldiers, as do several other groups in the region."
New York Times - Tracing ancestry team produces genetic atlas of human mixing events.
http://www.nytimes.com/2014/02/14/science/tracing-ancestry-team-produces-genetic-atlas-of-human-mixing-events.html?_r=0

RHAS
05-22-2014, 03:02 AM
"The likely deep ancestry source of Haplogroup J2 as found along the Anglo-Scottish border is probably to be found with members of the Roman Legions which were stationed along Hadrian's wall."
Border receivers - DNA Report Nov 2005.
http://www.borderreivers.co.uk/DNA%20Report%207%20Nov%2005.htm

"Moffat said his colleagues had also discovered DNA originating from Roman-period Illyria, the area occupied by modern Croatia, which may relate to Roman occupation of lowland Scotland."
The Guardian - Scotland DNA Study Project.
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/aug/15/scotland-dna-study-project (http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/aug/15/scotland-dna-study-project)


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UNoa9hwbW9M

RHAS
05-22-2014, 03:03 AM
Haplogroup J2 Romans. (Aeneas, Trojans, Phoenicians, Carthage, Rome)

"The results regarding my paternal genetics were identified as belonging to Haplogroup J2 (M172). This genetic marker dates back to roughly 15 000 yrs ago and is found predominately in the Fertile Crescent. Most prevalent in Southern Italy, Turkey, Greece, Lebanon, Cyprus and several other countries around the Mediterranean and Caucasus region, some sources claim that these are the genes of the ancient Phoenicians who may have settled in the Roman Empire long ago."
Livelearngrow.ca - My Roots.
http://livelearngrow.ca/category/my-roots/

"The excess of haplogroup J2, and PC1+ to PS3+ in coastal Tunisia, the site of Carthage, compared to inland Tunisian populations is exceptionally significant, and suggests that the Roman destruction of Carthage did not eliminate the Carthaginian gene pool."
Anthropology.net - The Y-Chromosomal Footprint Of Phoenicians Throughout The Mediterranean.
http://anthropology.net/2008/10/30/the-y-chromosomal-footprint-of-phoenicians-throughout-the-mediterranean/

"By a.d. 193 Rome had an emperor from North Africa, Septimius Severus, and he spoke with a strong Phoenician accent. That was the revenge of Carthage. The Phoenicians also persisted genetically."
National Geographic - Who were the Phoenicians?
http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/features/world/asia/lebanon/phoenicians-text/5

"Carthage also became a centre of early Christianity."
Wikipedia - Carthage.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carthage

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/e0/Gu%C3%A9rin_%C3%89n%C3%A9e_racontant_%C3%A0_Didon_ les_malheurs_de_la_ville_de_Troie_Louvre_5184.jpg
Aeneas recounting the Trojan War to Dido, a painting by Pierre-Narcisse Guérin. This scene is taken from Virgil's Aeneid, where Dido falls in love with, only to be left by, the Trojan hero Aeneas.

"Dido (/ˈdaɪdoʊ/ DY-doh) was, according to ancient Greek and Roman sources, the founder and first Queen of Carthage (in modern-day Tunisia). She is best known from the account given by the Roman poet Virgil in his Aeneid. ...... The person of Dido can be traced to references by Roman historians to lost writings of Timaeus of Tauromenium in Sicily (c. 356–260 BC)."
Wikipedia.org - Dido (Queen of Carthage)
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dido_(Queen_of_Carthage)


http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3c/R%C3%B6merhalle%2C_Bad_Kreuznach_-_Tiberius_Iulius_Abdes_Pantera_tombstone.JPG
The Roman tombstone in Bingerbrück, Germany

Tib(erius) Iul(ius) Abdes Pantera Sidonia ann(orum) LXII stipen(diorum) XXXX miles exs(ignifer?)coh(orte) I sagittariorumh(ic) s(itus) e(st)

Tiberius Iulius Abdes Pantera from Sidon, aged 62 years served 40 years, former standard bearer(?) of the first cohort of archers lies here.

"It was one of the most important Phoenician cities, and may have been the oldest."
Wikipedia - Sidon.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sidon

"The YDNA Haplogroup of the ancient Phoenicians is J2, also identified as the signature of human migration via the Mediterranean in the Neolithic or New Stone Age around 6,000 BC, from the Levant into Europe."
Ancientmed.org - The Mediterraneans.
http://www.ancientmed.org/TheMediterraneans.htm

"Was im ersten Moment exotisch erscheint, ist auf den zweiten Blick gar nicht so aussergewöhnlich. Rund jeder achte Europäer stammt aus der Linie J2."
Tages Anzeiger - Für 300 Franken auf den Spuren der eigenen Vorfahren. (German)
http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/leben/ge...story/28960496 (http://www.tagesanzeiger.ch/leben/gesellschaft/Fuer-300-Franken-auf-den-Spuren-der-eigenen-Vorfahren/story/28960496)

"J2 Orientalide West. Ihr Verbreitungsgebiet ist der europäische Mittelmeerraum."
Die Haplogruppen des Y-Adams nach Ländern Europas verteilt. (German)
http://www.manfred-hiebl.com/Y-Adam-...ung_Europa.pdf (http://www.manfred-hiebl.com/Y-Adam-Verteilung_Europa.pdf)

RHAS
05-22-2014, 03:04 AM
Haplogroup J2 and viticulture.

"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the pho...enicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/correlations-in-spread-of-viticulture.html

"King et Al noted a strong correlation in precipitation levels and associated levels of J2a (M172+ M410+) within the Middle East, stating:The genetic memory retained in the extant distributions of Y-chromosome haplogroups J1-M267 and J2a-M410 within the FertileCrescent significantly correlates with regional levels of annual precipitation in a reciprocal manner. The statistically significant correlations of Y-chromosome haplogroups, precipitation levels and domestic lifestyle are pronounced. The spatial frequency distribution of haplogroup J2a coincides closely with regions characterised by >400mm of annual precipitation capable of supporting settled agriculture, while haplogroup J1-M267 distributions correlate inversely with semi-arid regions characteristically used by pastoralists. Thus, King et al have established that M410's spread seems to correlate with rainfall. It would then make sense that viticulture would likely mirror this spread since about 400 mm is also the level of annual precipiation required to support the farming of Wine Grapes (General Viticulture, Albert Julius Winkler p 395). And this is what we see; that viticulture mirrors the proposed spread of M172, M410 through the Near east during the bronze age."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/correlations-in-spread-of-viticulture.html

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/t1.0-9/10330406_751855728205918_5751958829207471782_n.jpg

https://scontent-b-ams.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/t1.0-9/10363492_748230801901744_8152338352413016755_n.jpg

AJL
05-22-2014, 03:29 AM
"The likely deep ancestry source of Haplogroup J2 as found along the Anglo-Scottish border is probably to be found with members of the Roman Legions which were stationed along Hadrian's wall."

Most of the troops there were from what is now Belgium, France, and Hungary, but there certainly were Syrian and Cappodocian auxiliaries who could account for some J2, just as there were Dacians, Thracians, and Dalmatians who could account for some E-V13.

Also, we have traces of two very unexpected Caucasus/Volga-type R1a-Z93 close by (F1345 and Y57, both under Z2122 and seemingly Sarmatian-like). These SNPs are not common anywhere, and are perhaps connected to the less-numerous auxiliaries from the Caucasus, in the area that is now Georgia, Adygeia, and Abkhazia. Y57 is also found in Karachay-Balkar.

At the same time, I must ask you not to keep bumping your own posts/thread. If there's no give-and-take for a while, give it a rest.

vettor
05-22-2014, 06:08 AM
Most of the troops there were from what is now Belgium, France, and Hungary, but there certainly were Syrian and Cappodocian auxiliaries who could account for some J2, just as there were Dacians, Thracians, and Dalmatians who could account for some E-V13.

Also, we have traces of two very unexpected Caucasus/Volga-type R1a-Z93 close by (F1345 and Y57, both under Z2122 and seemingly Sarmatian-like). These SNPs are not common anywhere, and are perhaps connected to the less-numerous auxiliaries from the Caucasus, in the area that is now Georgia, Adygeia, and Abkhazia. Y57 is also found in Karachay-Balkar.

At the same time, I must ask you not to keep bumping your own posts/thread. If there's no give-and-take for a while, give it a rest.

IIRC, he is part of the J ftdna project team..........I am not saying I support what he is doing

then again.....but I could be thinking of someone else

AJL
05-22-2014, 05:18 PM
IIRC, he is part of the J ftdna project team..........I am not saying I support what he is doing

then again.....but I could be thinking of someone else

Thanks for pointing that out, vettor. It is not the intention of the rule to stifle postings, but to streamline things a bit, we will create a single pinned thread for RHAS's news.

RHAS
05-21-2015, 05:01 PM
"The Toba population has a higher prevalence of haplogroup Q1a3a-M3 lineages when compared with the Colla population (86% vs. 34%) but exhibits a much lower frequency of chromosomes belonging to the haplogroups J2 (2% vs. 14%) and R1b1 (4% vs. 41%) than does the Colla population. ... Two other haplogroups, J2-M172 and T-M70, that are usually present in Western European populations, have also been found in the two Amerindian samples (Rosser et al., 2000; Brio´n et al., 2004; Beleza et al., 2006). ... The presence of European male lineages pervades most Native American populations, although with a very different degree of admixture (Salas et al., 2009). Taken together, European ancestry contributes to 62% of the paternal lineages existing in the contemporary Colla community, represented by haplogroups J2, R1b1, and T, and to 10% of the current Toba community, represented by haplogroups E1b1b1b, J2, and R1b1."
Male Lineages in South American Native Groups: Evidence of M19 Traveling South
http://www.researchgate.net/publication/51557006_Male_Lineages_in_South_American_Native_Gr oups_Evidence_of_M19_Traveling_South

"About 94% of all samples were either of European or Native American ancestry (Figure 76). That is, 65.4% were of European origin comprising R1b1-P25 (including R1b1b2-M269), I-M170 (including I2a2-M26), G-M201, and J-M304 (including J1a-M62 and J2-M172) and 28.3% of Native American origin like P and Q (including Q1a3a-M3)."
Genetic Ancestry of the Bolivian Population.
dspace.usc.es/bitstream/10347/13313/1/rep_837.pdf

"On the other hand, haplogroups with a comparatively higher European presence such as M172, M201 and M173 (comprising SRY1532 and M17) were only detected in the historical sample, therefore, they most probably reached the islands after the European conquest."
La evolución genetica de las poblaciones humanas canarias: determinación mediante marcadores autosómicos y uniparentales.
ftp://tesis.bbtk.ull.es/ccppytec/cp330.pdf

"The Guambiano-speaking group shows both the Q1a3a1a*-M3 (0.483) and the Q1a3*-M346 (0.310) lineages at similar proportions, and the remaining 0.207 of the Y chromosomes belong to the European haplogroups R1b1-P25 and J2-M172. In the Chibcha-speaking group the Native American lineage Q1a3*-M346 is absent, and only four individuals present the M3 derived lineage Q1a3a1a* (0.333), while the non-Native American linages are present at a higher frequency (0.667) and represented by haplogroups R1b1-P25, G-M201, J2-M172, E1b1b1a1-M78 and E1b1b1c-M123 (0.500) that are typical in Europeans, and by two samples from the sub-Saharan African E1b1a1*-M2 haplogroup (0.167). Despite its small sample size, Sub-Saharan haplogroups were detected only in the Chibcha group, similarly to the results obtained for mtDNA."
Admixture and Genetic Diversity Distribution Patterns of Non-Recombining Lineages of Native American Ancestry in Colombian Populations.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0120155

"The presence of other Y-chromosomal haplogroups: E-V13, E-M81, E-M34, J1-M267, J2-M172, I1-M253, I2-P215 and G2a-P15 would be interpreted as a consequence of the genetic history linked to the Iberian Peninsula, especially, to Andalusia, with a long, prevailing contacts with the Mediterranean world. ... By contrast, the J2-M172 seems to be related to Greek and Phoenicians colonies that were well stablished at least from the first millennium BC in the Peninsula, particularly in littoral Andalusia."
Surnames and Y-Chromosomal Markers Reveal Low Relationships in Southern Spain.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0123098

"We found only four haplogroups in the Malana population, Haplogroup J2a1h accounted for 60% of all Y chromosomes. Other haplogroups were R1a (about 27%), H (10%), and L (3%). The Bayesian probability was greater than 62% in all the samples. ... Malana, a remote plateau in the upper reaches (altitude 2,633 m) of Parvati valley in Kullu District of Himachal Pradesh, India, is the home of a mysterious group of people commonly known as Malanis (Figure 1). Rosser (1955) described Malana as a hermit village with an aspect of cohesiveness and intense group loyalty that sustains a virulent and suspicious community attitude toward outsiders. Formidable mountain barriers on three sides—namely, Chandrakhani (3,677 m), Deo-Tibba (3,732 m), and Rashol Jot (3,238 m)—coupled with the curious efforts of the people to retain their cultural and social uniqueness have ensured virtual biological isolation of the village from the surrounding societies."
The Most Ancient Democracy in the World is a Genetic Isolate: An Autosomal and Y-Chromosome Study of the Hermit Village of Malana (Himachal Pradesh, India)
http://www.bioone.org/doi/10.3378/027.082.0201?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub%3Dpubmed&

"Haplogroup J (samples 763–921) (Figure 7), a cluster of lineages with putative south-west Asian origin and diffusion and with a significant presence in the Mediterranean area, was observed here with its main subgroups represented, J1c-M267 and J2-M172. The two sister clades, J1 and J2, have a dissimilar distribution, possibly reflecting different settlement pathways. J1-M267 has peaks in the Levant and in Northern Africa, while clade J2-M172 has higher frequencies in Anatolia and Mesopotamia, and decreases westwards."
Detection of phylogenetically informative polymorphisms in the entire euchromatic portion of human Y chromosome from a Sardinian sample.
http://www.biomedcentral.com/1756-0500/8/174?fmt_view=classic

"We used multivariate statistical methods to see if linguistics, climate, and landscape accounted for geographical diffferences in frequencies of the Y-DNA haplogroups G2, R1a, R1b, J1, and J2. The analysis showed significant associations of (1) G2 with wellforested mountains, (2) J2 with warm areas or poorly forested mountains, and (3) J1 with poorly forested mountains. R1b showed no association with environment. Haplogroups J1 and R1a were significantly associated with Daghestanian and Kipchak speakers, respectively, but the other haplogroups showed no such simple associations with languages."
Human paternal lineages, languages, and environment in the Caucasus.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25397702

"De allerhoogste genetische diversiteit vonden de onderzoekers in Tongeren. En dat heeft toch met Romeinse roots te maken, zij het meer praktisch: “Dankzij de goede wegen, de Romeinse heirbanen, had Tongeren veel contact met het Rijnland, Maastricht en Keulen."
Katholieke Universiteit Leuven - Middeleeuwse Vlaming bleef niet onder de kerktoren.
http://nieuws.kuleuven.be/node/14793?utm_source=Niet-onder-de-kerktoren&utm_medium=CKmail&utm_campaign=CKFeb-alumni

"Het grafveld aan de Pasestraat te Borgharen is aangelegd op de locatie van een (hoofd?) gebouw van een Romeinse villa. De keuze voor een dergelijke locatie mag als betekenisvol worden beschouwd, bijvoorbeeld binnen een strategie voor het verwoorden van claims op het landschap via een claim op de woonplaats van vorige bewoners, die als voorouders kunnen zijn beschouwd. ... Daarnaast is voor alle (mogelijk) mannelijke individuen, ook van het voorgaande onderzoek, getracht de Y haplogroep te typeren. Dit was alleen mogelijk voor de individuen 15 en 20, aan wie haplogroep J2 toegekend kon worden. Met onze methode kan J2 niet verder opgesplitst worden. Voor individu 15 is tijdens het vorige onderzoek op basis van het Y-STR-profiel de haplogroep J2a1 voorspeld. Inmiddels kan dit verfijnd worden tot J2a1b (99% waarschijnlijkheid). Voor individu 20 is op basis van het Y-STR profiel de haplogroep J2b voorspeld (100% waarschijnlijkheid). In beide gevallen bevestigen de voorspelde haplogroepen de getypeerde haplogroepen. Y-haplogroep J2 komt bij 2,7% van de Nederlandse mannen voor en is nu dus relatief zeldzaam in Nederland."
Rijksdienst voor het Cultureel Erfgoed - Merovingers in een Villa 2, Romeinse villa en Merovingisch grafveld Borgharen.
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/sites/default/files/publications/lauwerier_2014_ram_222_merovingers_in_een_villa_2. pdf

"De plus, dans ces études, des comparaisons d’haplotypes entre des sites phéniciens et des sites non‐phéniciens ont permis de déterminer des haplogroupes avec une signature phénicienne : Haplogroupe J2 et particuličrement six short sequence repeat du chromosome Y."
Universite de Portiers - Multiples conséquences physiopathologiques de mutations et d'allčles complexes du gčne CFTR.
http://nuxeo.edel.univ-poitiers.fr/nuxeo/site/esupversions/b265c8e1-bead-4b9d-900e-4656d5674715

"The PCA also illustrate the genetic affinity of Levantine populations to Europeans especially Italians. In fact, both groups present relatively high frequencies of J-M172 and share some other lineages in particular I-M170 and T-M70. ... Sousse, particularly, possesses a relatively high frequency of haplogroup J-M172 (~9%) that is absent in all of the remaining Tunisian populations with the exception of Andalusians (~3%). Haplogroup J-M172 has been associated with population movements in the Fertile Crescent during the Neolithic Agricultural revolution. Today, it is very frequent in the Levant, Anatolia and Iran and its recent spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550–300 BC). According to Zalloua and collaborators43 evidence of Phoenician influence in Tunisian is apparent by the presence of the J-M172 Y-chromosome haplogroup in coastal regions considered as areas of Phoenician contact (versus inland). ... The J-M172 haplogroup associated with the Phoenician expansion is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin and Asia. It is thought that the Phoenicians originated in what is today coastal Lebanon and subsequently founded and settled several city-states in the Mediterranean including in North Africa. In Tunisia, their population number was estimated, at the end of their dominion, to be 100 000 compared with 500 000 Berbers. It is important to note that although the most famous city founded by the Phoenicians was Carthage, they also established the settlements of Utique and Sousse. Interestingly, Sousse is the only Phoenician town in Tunisia that has been continuously inhabited since its foundation and it is the only population where the J-M172 Phoenician paternal marker is detected. ... A more recent potential Middle Eastern genetic contribution to the North Africa gene pool may be associated with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. Sousse also may have been specifically impacted by the Turkish occupation of North Africa. Yet, the unique presence of J-M172 in Sousse and its absence from other Tunisian regions that were under Ottoman influence argues for J-M172 in Sousse as a Phoenician signal."
Sousse: extreme genetic heterogeneity in North Africa.
http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v60/n1/full/jhg201499a.html

"The main haplogroups responsible for the Central/Inner Asian admixture among Hungarians are J2*-M172 (xM47, M67, M12), J2-L24, R1a-Z93; Q-M242 and E-M78."
Testing Central and Inner Asian admixture among contemporary Hungarians.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25468443

"European genetic signatures (i.e., haplogroups E1b1b1a1b-V13, G2a-P15, I-M258, J2-M172 and R1-M173), on the other hand, were also detected in both groups, but at varying frequencies. The divergent European genetic signals in each collection are likely the result of differential gene flow and/or admixture with the European host populations but may also be attributed to dissimilar endogamous practices following the initial founder effect. Our data also support the notion that a number of haplogroups including G2a-P15, J2a3b-M67(xM92), I-M258 and E1b1b1-M35 were incorporated into the proto-Romani paternal lineages as migrants moved from northern India through Southwestern Asia, the Middle East and/or Anatolia into the Balkans."
Ancestral modal Y-STR haplotype shared among Romani and South Indian populations.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22609956

"Our results indicate that approximately 58% of Serbian Y-chromosomes (I1-M253, I2a-P37.2 and R1a1a-M198) belong to lineages believed to be pre-Neolithic. On the other hand, the signature of putative Near Eastern Neolithic lineages, including E1b1b1a1-M78, G2a-P15, J1-M267, J2-M172 and R1b1a2-M269 accounts for 39% of the Y-chromosome."
High levels of Paleolithic Y-chromosome lineages characterize Serbia.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22310393

"Lessinia shows different, if not opposite, features. The average genetic distances from other populations (Fst=0.097; see Table S6) is less than one third compared to Luserna, while HD is close to the highest values of our dataset (0.978±0.019; Table S6). The prevalent haplogroup, R1b-M269*, accounts for only one third of the total, the rest represented by different lineages (G-M201, I1-M253, M410-J2A and K-M9), which are associated with twenty-three different surnames."
Demographic Histories, Isolation and Social Factors as Determinants of the Genetic Structure of Alpine Linguistic Groups
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3847036/

"Il principale ricercatore del progetto Genographic della National Geographic Society, il Dr. Pierre Zalloua, ha trovato J2 in alta proporzione tra i libanesi, palestinesi e siriani. "L’Aplogruppo YDNA degli antichi Fenici č J2, anche identificato come la firma della migrazione umana attraverso il Mediterraneo nel Neolitico o nuova Etŕ della pietra intorno al 6000 a.C., dal Levante in Europa"."
Liutprand.it - I Primi Popoli Mediterranei.
http://www.liutprand.it/articoliMondo.asp?id=358

"Similarly to E-M81, the frequencies of E-M78 and J-M267 decrease in the historical and present-day Canary populations, again highlighting the strong demic impact of the European colonists before the 17th–18th centuries. On the other hand, haplogroups with a comparatively higher European presence such as M172, M201 and M173 (comprising SRY1532 and M17) were only detected in the historical sample, therefore, they most probably reached the islands after the European conquest."
Demographic history of Canary Islands male gene-pool: replacement of native lineages by European
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2728732/

"Il restante 20% della popolazione porta gli aplogruppi del Neolitico provenienti dalle popolazioni del Medio-oriente che circa 8000 anni fa cominciarono a migrare verso l’Europa, in ondate successive, lasciando in ereditŕ i loro aplogruppi (E3b, F, J2, G2) alle popolazioni che vivono sulle coste del Mediterraneo."
Zanichelli.it - Migrazioni genomica.
http://online.scuola.zanichelli.it/s...i_genomica.pdf

"Haplogroups G, E and J have been associated with the contribution of Neolithic farmers to the European gene pool.41,45 Decreasing frequencies of haplogroup G from the Middle-East to Europe have been observed with the highest frequency noticed in Georgia. Its frequency in the investigated Croatian population is low with the exception of the most southern and the most distant investigated island Korc caronula (10%), suggesting that the Neolithic spread may have come by sea rather than by land. Haplogroup J was found at low frequencies (0–4%) over all Croatia except of Krk where 11% of the lineages had an insertion at 12f2 locus. This low frequency of J is similar to Croatian northern neighbors Slovenians,33 but it is sharply in contrast to high frequencies of the cluster, often associated with M172,45 in other Mediterranean populations where >20% frequencies are common."
Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v.../5200992a.html

"J2: essenzialmente č un aplogruppo originario della Mesopotamia. E’ l’aplogruppo principale delle societŕ che hanno dominato il Mediterraneo. Esso si divide a sua volta in due ramificazioni principali J2A e J2B. La prima ramificazione si č diffusa nel mediterraneo grazie all’espansione dei Greci, dei Romani, dei Fenici, degli Ebrei e degli Etruschi. Ed č quello presente anche come aplogruppo maggioritario in regioni come l’Inguscezia e la Cecenia. L’aplogruppo J2B č meno diffuso, ed č comune nei balcani, soprattutto tra l’Albania, la Macedonia e nel nord dell’India. Quindi probabilmente, l’aplogruppo J2B puň al pari di alcune ramificazioni dell’aplogruppo G, far parte delle tribů indoeuropee ariane che invasero l’India. Alcuni ipotesi dicono come questo aplogruppo sia quello degli antichi macedoni di Alessandro Magno, dato che si ritrova nel percorso di conquista nella truppe macedoni."
Hescaton.com - L’Europa genetica.
http://www.hescaton.com/wordpress/leuropa-genetica/

"All Totonacs and 17 Bolivians (61%) had pre-Columbian Y-chromosomes (Q1a3a1). Consistent with historical accounts of male European admixture, 11 Bolivians (39%) carried Y-chromosome lineages that are common in Europe (R1b, J2, G) (Figure1)."
Genetic analysis of ancestry, admixture and selection in Bolivian and Totonac populations of the New World
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3432609/

"Haplogroups G-P15 (12.3%), E-V13 and J-M410* (both 9.5%), together with R-M269* (7.4%) represent the most frequent lineages found in Sicily and Southern Italy (SSI)."
An Ancient Mediterranean Melting Pot: Investigating the Uniparental Genetic Structure and Population History of Sicily and Southern Italy
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4005757/

"Only 11 different haplogroups were found with 18 SNPs analyses, and E1b1b1 and R1 haplogroups seem representative of two different meta-populations, Albanians/North Africans and Italians/Indo-Pakistanis; in fact, R1 was the most frequent haplogroup both in Italians (60.80%) and Indo-Pakistanis (38.60%), while E1b1b1 was the most frequent haplogroup both in Albanians (32.50%) and North Africans (57.10%). J2 haplogroup was almost equally represented in each population (ranging from 6.54%, in Italians to 16.87% in Albanians). Other haplogroups were not significantly represented in the data set. Meta-populations described above are concordant with already described European populations (19,20)."
Y-chromosome polymorphisms and ethnic group – a combined STR and SNP approach in a population sample from northern Italy
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3692336/

"Yeah, it`s just that J2 isn`t really found in the modern Irish population," says Adam. "it is found in very small percentages in England, mostly areas that used to have a large Roman presence during the Roman conquest of Britain."
Silver Alert - A Florida Story.
http://books.google.nl/books?id=-qLxAwAAQBAJ

"Ten paternal lineages were observed: E1b1b1-M35, E1b1b1a-M78, G-M201, I-M170, J1-M267, J1e1-M367/M368, J2-M172, L-M22, R1a1a-M17, R1b1-P25. The most widespread haplogroup in the sample is haplogroup J1 (68.6%), in particular, J1x(J1a, J1b, J1c, J1e1, J1e2) and J1e1 (65 and 4%, respectively) followed by J2 (9.5%), R1b1 (5%), G, I and R1a1a (4%)."
The key role of patrilineal inheritance in shaping the genetic variation of Dagestan highlanders
http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v5...hg200994a.html

"Roman Empire (150 BC – 400 CE): very likely this era imported most of the modern European J2a, especially to Northwestern Europe. Probably also J2b expanded out of the Balkan to Western Europe mainly in this period. The migration was probably driven by commerce, trade, military movements and (re)settling of free land."
J2-M172 Haplogroup research - Cultural History
http://j2-m172.info/links/cultural-history/

"J2 has been well-studied and can be split into several subgroups, although the modes of individual distribution for those subgroups are not well understood. Many influences, such as Greek and Roman societies, would have played a part."
Gerardi/Gelardi Family History.
http://gelardifamily.net/gerardigelardi_dna

"Il DNA greco/etrusco. L'aplogruppo J2, presente in tutta Europa, č di chiara origine neolitica e mediorientale. Fenici, Etruschi, Grecie da ultimo Romani (e, a nostro parere, anche i Bizantini), contribuirono a diffonderlo in Europa, fermo restando il fondo derivante dall'invasione neolitica. I confini della maggior diffusione di J2 presentano una notevole somiglianza con quelli dell'Impero romano, in accordo con quanto detto in precedenza. Tuttavia, per quanto riguarda la Padania, la sua presenza č piuttosto messa inrelazione con l'influenza etrusca. Un esame della distribuzione di J2 mostra come tale aplogruppo, in Padania, abbia una consistenza relativamente alta solo in una ristretta fascia attorno alla costa adriatica. Nel resto della Padania le percentuali sono paragonabili a quelle dell'area centro europea (ad est) ed iberica (ad ovest). Il pensiero, a nostro parere, non puň non andare alle colonie greco-etrusche di Adria eSpina ed anche all'influenza bizantina a Venezia. Ricordiamo che giŕ gli studi di Cavalli Sforza avevano messo in luce una (minoritaria) influenza greca nelle zone considerate. Ci sembra quindi che J2, in Padania, derivi principalmente dal fondo neolitico e, sulla costa adriatica, dal ben noto contributo greco ed etrusco (e bizantino)."
DNA barbarico (e non) in Padania.
http://www.academia.edu/7391890/DNA_...non_in_Padania

"Lo si riscontra nella metŕ della popolazione europea e lo si puň considerare un carattere comune», ha detto Capocasa, illustrando anche l'aplogruppo K, originato in Asia occidentale fra 32 e 40mila anni fa nella zona caucasica, lo stesso a cui appartiene Ötzi, la mummia di 5.300 anni fa trovata con il suo corredo sul ghiacciaio del Similaun e custodita a Bolzano. Nella popolazione di Sappada questo aplogruppo ha una frequenza del 50 per cento. Per l'aplogruppo del cromosoma Y, trasmesso solo dal padre ai figli, la prevalenza č di J2 (24 per cento) e R1b (31)."
L'Arena.it - Il Dna racconta la vicinanza dei cimbri.
http://www.larena.it/stories/Home/41...za_dei_cimbri/

"En 1996, Ornella Semino fut la premičre ŕ identifier des marqueurs spécifiques du chromosome Y présentant une répartition similaire aux gradients de Cavalli-Sforza. Les haplogroupes J2 et E1b1b furent ainsi décrits comme les premiers marqueurs moléculaires de la néolithisation de l’Europe ŕ partir du Proche Orient (Rosser et al. 2000; Semino et al. 2000; Underhill et al. 2000)."
Universite de Toulouse - La Néolithisation du bassin méditerranéen:Apports de l’ADN ancien.
http://thesesups.ups-tlse.fr/1392/1/2011TOU30177.pdf

"Durante il Neolitico i migranti introducono le varianti E3B1 e J2, il 27% delle variazioni genetiche totali, basate sull'analisi dei polimorfismi indicano un chiaro gradiente di distribuzione della popolazione italiana sull'asse nord-sud della penisola. Le variazioni introdotte nel Neolitico non sembrano essere dovute a flussi migratori provenienti dalla Spagna, ma si configurano come migrazioni provenienti dall'Asia o dall'Anatolia attraverso l'attuale area Balcanica: le migrazioni degli indoeuropei."
Antichi Liguri: dai Primordi ai Megaliti.
http://sanremomediterranea.blogspot....-megaliti.html

"- J: la presenza di un suo sottogruppo, J2, nelle colonie greche del sud Italia sembra sia indicatrice di antenati ellenici."
Genealogia del DNA di Gianni Cordola nato a Condove (Torino - Italia) nel 1947.
http://www.cordola.it/wp-content/upl...-risultati.pdf

"Un mot de l'haplogroupe J , cousin du proche orient dont la branche J2 a justement été l'une des diffusions néolithiques avec un peuplement significatif en Italie du sud, d'oů les romains l'on diffusé dans leur empire."
Agora Vox - Une Europe encore floue.
http://www.agoravox.fr/actualites/eu...re-floue-11258

"A J2-M172 alcsoportot legnagyobb gyakorisággal a „Termékeny Félhold”, Kaukázus, Anatólia, Balkán, Olaszország, a „Mediterrán medence”, az Iráni plató, Közép-Ázsia és Dél-Ázsia területén lehet megtalálni, korát kb. 18 500 + 3 500 évre becsülik (Nasidze és mtsai, 2003; Semino és mtsai, 2004). Mediterrán területeken való fő elterjedési hulláma a feltételezések szerint egybeesett a mezőgazdaság a neolitikumi elterjedésével (Semino és mtsai, 2004). ...... A fő haplocsoportok magyar populációban történt meghatározása után a markerválsztás úgy történt, hogy a nagy gyakorisággal előforduló fő haplocsoportokon belül vizsgálható legyen azoknak az alhaplocsoportoknak a jelenléte, melyeknek feltételezhető az előfordulása a magyar populációban: E1b1b1-M35; E1b1b1a-M78; E1b1b1b-M81; E1b1b1c-M123, G1a-P20; G2a-P15, I1-M253; I2a-P37.2; I2b-M223, J1a-M62; J2-M172; J2a1-M47; J2a2-M67; J2a3-M68; J2a4-M137; J2a5-M158; J2b-M12 (M102), R1-M173; R1a-SRY10831.2; R1a1-M198; R1b1-P25."
Magyar populáció genetikai elemzése nemi kromoszómális.
http://teo.elte.hu/minosites/ertekez...go-zalan_a.pdf

"Genetska skupina J se je razvila pred 30000 leti na Bližnjem Vzhodu.Iz nje se je pred 15000-22000 leti, verjetno na severu Mezopotamije, razvila J2, ki je značilna tudi za Evropo. To skupino tudi povezujejo z neolitsko ekspanzijo iz severne Mezopotamije oz. pogorja Zagros, ki pa je, morda bolj kot s poljedelstvom, povezana z živinorejo (koze, govedo). Drugi večji val, ki bi lahko v Evropo zanesel J2 skupino, je bil morda metalurški (baker), iz severne Mezopotamije, centralne Anatolije in spodnjega toka Donave. Skupina J2 je povezana tudi s Hetiti, Etruščani, Minojci, Grki, Feničani, Kartažani, Izraeli in z vsemi velikimi pomorskimi ljudstvi bronaste in železne dobe, v manjšem odstotku tudi z Rimljani, Asirci in Perzijci. V Evropi je največ te skupine na Kreti, v Grčiji, Turčiji, južni Italiji, še posebej na vzhodu Sicilije, med evropskimi Judi in Vlahi na Balkanu ter v Albaniji (20-34%). Skupina J2 se deli na dve glavni skupini: J2a (M410) in J2b (M102). Imata precej različno zgodovino. Prvo povezujejo z Etruščani, z grškimi, feničanskimi in rimljanskimi kolonizacijami in migracijami v času Bizantinskega imperija, drugo pa z neolitsko JV Evropo, Balkanom, kasneje z bakrenodobnimi kulturami na Balkanu, v centralni Evropi in Italiji) pa tudi z Indoevropejci, čeprav v zelo majhnem deležu. V Evropi je največ prve na Kreti in v Kalabriji, druge pa v Albaniji, Črni Gori, na Kosovu in v SZ Grčiji."
Slovensko Rodoslovno Drustvo - Slovenski DNK bazen znotraj Balkana in Evrope.
http://rodoslovje.si/index.php/sl/do...kana-in-evrope

"Ród J2 powstał około 18000 lat temu na Bliskim Wschodzie, a największe jego zagęszczenie znajduje się w rejonie Libanu i Syrii – około 25%. Ludność ta rozwijała się w rejonie tzw. Żyznego Półksiężyca – pasa ziemi idącego łukiem od Dolnej Mezopotamii, poprzez podgórze irańskiego Zagrosu, Syrię i Liban ku delcie Nilu. Tam wziął swój początek upraw zbożowych i hodowli bydła. Na terenie Syrii ludność ta stworzyła najstarszą kulturę ceramiczną, tzw. ceramikę impresso lub „cardium pottery” (ceramika kardialna): pierwsze garnki z wypalanej gliny ozdabiano odciskami muszli skorupiaków morskich, zwanych po łacinie cardium (stąd nazwa cardium pottery). Na przełomie mezolitu i neolitu, około 5500 przed Chrystusem, pod wpływem napierających innych plemion ze Wschodu, ludność kultury impresso ruszyła na Zachód, osiedlając się na wyspach Morza Śródziemnego i na południowych nadmorskich krańcach Europy, od Grecji po Hiszpanię, dając im pierwsze zaczątki neolitu z ceramiką i rolnictwem. W Polsce ludności haplogrupy J2 jest ponad 5%."
Almanach Muszyny - Genetyka odsłania tajemnice pochodzenia ludności w dorzeczu Dunajca i jego sąsiedztwie.
http://www.almanachmuszyny.pl/spisy/...20odslania.pdf

RHAS
05-21-2015, 05:37 PM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Zhzh2wIiC18

RHAS
05-21-2015, 05:38 PM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-py2wG40_Jc&list=PLSdTHABvRazDZG3zXn71VPg-cMmmVPY2Y

RHAS
05-21-2015, 05:41 PM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0Ixy2_3ZIRE&list=PLSdTHABvRazDmdfT0zf_chbqqoUJ5wJX1

RHAS
05-21-2015, 05:44 PM
"De plus, dans ces études, des comparaisons d’haplotypes entre des sites phéniciens et des sites non‐phéniciens ont permis de déterminer des haplogroupes avec une signature phénicienne : Haplogroupe J2 et particuličrement six short sequence repeat du chromosome Y."
Universite de Portiers - Multiples conséquences physiopathologiques de mutations et d'allčles complexes du gčne CFTR.
http://nuxeo.edel.univ-poitiers.fr/n...e-4656d5674715

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/v/t1.0-9/557924_496350167089810_1350945969_n.jpg?oh=d830c05 04f6904e2a52f0c1384d691c7&oe=55CE1DDF&__gda__=1442411307_e8cb3da122b2296682c6bb96dfbb406 f

"The presence of other Y-chromosomal haplogroups: E-V13, E-M81, E-M34, J1-M267, J2-M172, I1-M253, I2-P215 and G2a-P15 would be interpreted as a consequence of the genetic history linked to the Iberian Peninsula, especially, to Andalusia, with a long, prevailing contacts with the Mediterranean world. ... By contrast, the J2-M172 seems to be related to Greek and Phoenicians colonies that were well stablished at least from the first millennium BC in the Peninsula, particularly in littoral Andalusia."
Surnames and Y-Chromosomal Markers Reveal Low Relationships in Southern Spain.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0123098

https://scontent-fra3-1.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xap1/v/t1.0-9/11209732_935197806538375_2646926243166443729_n.jpg ?oh=afced91e2de6869837b4e279b2142540&oe=55FCCE06

"The PCA also illustrate the genetic affinity of Levantine populations to Europeans especially Italians. In fact, both groups present relatively high frequencies of J-M172 and share some other lineages in particular I-M170 and T-M70. ... Sousse, particularly, possesses a relatively high frequency of haplogroup J-M172 (~9%) that is absent in all of the remaining Tunisian populations with the exception of Andalusians (~3%). Haplogroup J-M172 has been associated with population movements in the Fertile Crescent during the Neolithic Agricultural revolution. Today, it is very frequent in the Levant, Anatolia and Iran and its recent spread in the Mediterranean is believed to have been facilitated by the maritime trading culture of the Phoenicians (1550–300 BC). According to Zalloua and collaborators evidence of Phoenician influence in Tunisian is apparent by the presence of the J-M172 Y-chromosome haplogroup in coastal regions considered as areas of Phoenician contact (versus inland). ... The J-M172 haplogroup associated with the Phoenician expansion is distributed throughout the Mediterranean basin and Asia. It is thought that the Phoenicians originated in what is today coastal Lebanon and subsequently founded and settled several city-states in the Mediterranean including in North Africa. In Tunisia, their population number was estimated, at the end of their dominion, to be 100 000 compared with 500 000 Berbers. It is important to note that although the most famous city founded by the Phoenicians was Carthage, they also established the settlements of Utique and Sousse. Interestingly, Sousse is the only Phoenician town in Tunisia that has been continuously inhabited since its foundation and it is the only population where the J-M172 Phoenician paternal marker is detected. ... A more recent potential Middle Eastern genetic contribution to the North Africa gene pool may be associated with the expansion of the Ottoman Empire. Sousse also may have been specifically impacted by the Turkish occupation of North Africa. Yet, the unique presence of J-M172 in Sousse and its absence from other Tunisian regions that were under Ottoman influence argues for J-M172 in Sousse as a Phoenician signal."
Sousse: extreme genetic heterogeneity in North Africa.
http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v6...hg201499a.html

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/9/90/GiorcesBardo42.jpg/800px-GiorcesBardo42.jpg
The great Latin poet, Virgil, holding a volume on which is written the Aenid. On either side stand the two muses: "Clio" (history) and "Melpomene" (tragedy). The mosaic, which dates from the 3rd Century A.D., was discovered in the Hadrumetum in Sousse, Tunisia and is now on display in the Bardo Museum in Tunis, Tunisia.

"Hadrume(n)tum (sometimes called Adrametum or Adrametus) was a Phoenician colony that pre-dated Carthage and stood on the site of modern-day Sousse, Tunisia. Greek writers referred to Hadrumentum by the names Ἀδρούμητος, Ἀδρύμης and Ἀδραμητός. ... In the 9th century BC, the Phoenicians, astute Levantine maritime traders who would later be supplanted in Northern Africa by their major colony Carthage, sensed the possibilities of a port city south of present-day Tunis and founded Hadrumetum on what is now the Gulf of Hammamet in the Mediterranean Sea. Hadrumetum was one of the most important communities within the Roman territory in northern Africa because of its strategic location on the sea in the heart of the fertile Sahel region. The city allied itself with Rome during the Punic Wars, thereby escaping damage or ruin and entered a relatively peaceful 700-year stint under Pax Romana, although Hannibal made use of it as a military base in his campaign against Scipio Africanus at the close of the Second Punic War. Many records have been found that say the Romans sent a garrison of 5000 soldiers to protect it. They were led by General Septus Loriinus. At some point during this period, the community's name was slightly altered (by the addition of an N) to become Hadrumentum. Under the Roman Empire, Hadrumetum became very prosperous; Trajan gave it the rank of a colonia: "Colonia Concordia Ulpia Trajana Augusta Frugifera Hadrumetina". A breathtaking legacy of intricate Roman mosaics survives from this era, together with many early Christian objects from the catacombs"
Wikipedia - Hadrumentum.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hadrumetum

RHAS
05-21-2015, 05:49 PM
Haplogroup J2, Romans, Christianity and Viticulture. (Italic Tribes)

https://fbcdn-sphotos-d-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xpa1/v/t1.0-9/1236259_591804834211009_98755787_n.jpg?oh=943b5310 97c74b4976771304af2b552d&oe=55FE7BF7&__gda__=1439552283_84f12c94011895bc3e2c6a705e1ae09 9
Haplogroup J2 - Roman Republic.

"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

https://scontent-fra3-1.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xaf1/v/t1.0-9/10330406_751855728205918_5751958829207471782_n.jpg ?oh=4180e7daeb3c34bbeff924e8b868470d&oe=55C57666

"Wine making spread to Crete during the Minoan period and then later to Italy with the Etruscans and to Iberia with the Phoenicians. It was an integral component of the economy and social culture of the proto-greek civilizations and the phoenicians who both went on to settle other mediterranean coastal regions. And tracing the spread of Viticulture from its origins to its spread before the Roman period, we can see te highest levels of Haplogroup J2 today correlate with the geographical centres of all these civilizations. While viticulture may not represent the first wave of M172 migrants to Europe, M172 certainly played a strong role in bringing Viticulture to Europe with such civilizations as the Minoans, Greeks and Phoenicians."
M172 Blog - Correlations in the spread of Viticulture and Haplogroup J2, 2008.
http://m172.blogspot.nl/2008/10/corr...ticulture.html

Latini, Piceni, Grecani.

Latini 22.8%, Piceni 36.9%, Grecani 25.5% J2.

https://scontent-fra3-1.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xtf1/v/t1.0-9/10924729_874315835959906_9133444519127414701_n.png ?oh=c44367d0f437ffd502938025faf0a328&oe=55CC0C80

"The Latins (Latin: Latini) were an Italic tribe which included the early inhabitants of the city of Rome. From about 1000 BC, the Latins inhabited the small region known to the Romans as Old Latium (Latium Vetus), that is, the area between the river Tiber and the promontory of Mount Circeo 100 kilometres (62 mi) SE of Rome. The Latins were an Indo-European people who probably migrated into the Italian peninsula during the late Bronze Age (1200–900 BC). ... The Latins belonged to a group of Indo-European ("IE") tribes, conventionally known as the Italic tribes, that populated central and southern Italy during the Italian Iron Age (which began around 900 BC). The most common hypothesis is that the Italic peoples migrated into the Italian peninsula some time during the Italian Bronze Age (1800–900 BC). The most likely migration route was from the Balkan peninsula along the Adriatic coast"
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latins_(Italic_tribe)

"The Picentes or Picentini (Ancient Greek: Πίκεντες, Πικεντῖνοι) were an Italic tribe who lived in Picenum in the northern Adriatic coastal plain of ancient Italy. The endonym, if any, and its language are not known for certain."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Picentes

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xap1/v/t1.0-9/10933932_874261305965359_6491772734791198150_n.jpg ?oh=a070fadc8494c03f0e5cdd44799e6ce5&oe=55D11AA0
Uniparental Markers of Contemporary Italian Population Reveals Details on Its Pre-Roman Heritage.http://www.plosone.org/article/info%...l.pone.0050794

"Gascony, at the opposite end of France, has unsurprisingly the lowest percentage of haplogroups associated with Greco-Danubian Neolithic farmers. Only J2 is present in relatively high number there, and the near absence of E, G and T suggest an early colonization from southern Greece (Crete?), or possibly by Romans from Central Italy."
Eupedia.com - Ancient Ancestry Project: Benelux & France.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/benelu..._project.shtml

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xfp1/v/t1.0-9/1910113_814943031897187_5769182610102820682_n.jpg? oh=97a8f0e60c34f5467502fc3ecf60d516&oe=55CC0EB7
Source: Tipologie europidi ©

"Under the ever-growing influence of the Italiote Greeks, the Romans acquired their own national origin-legend sometime during the early Republican era (500-300 BC). It was centred around the figure of Aeneas, a supposed Trojan survivor of the destruction of Troy by the Achaean Greeks, as related in the poet Homer's epic the Iliad (composed c. 800 BC)."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Latins_(Italic_tribe)

RHAS
05-22-2015, 09:57 AM
J2b and J2a1 Found in Roman Villa and Merovingian Graves Research.

"In addition, we attempted to characterize the Y haplogroupfor all (possible) male individuals, including the previous study. This was only possible for individuals 15 and 20, for who haplogroup J2 could be granted. With our method J2 can not be further subdivided. For individual 15 haplogroup J2a1 is predicted in the previous investigation on the basis of the Y-STR profile. Meanwhile, it can be refined to J2a1b (99% probability). For individual 20, based on the Y-STRprofiel haplogroup J2b is predicted (100% probability). In both cases the predicted haplogroups confirm typed haplogroups. Y-haplogroup J2 is carried by 2.7% of Dutch men and is relatively rare in the Netherlands."
Cultureel Erfgoed - Merovingers in een Villa 2.
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-2

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xft1/v/t1.0-9/1800276_920774417980714_3022873764887341363_n.jpg? oh=5ac7af681defb45c53910eadd37b1175&oe=55C2AC5A
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-2

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xtp1/v/t1.0-9/11061681_10205108763251075_7903136601261774961_n.j pg?oh=688bd9a7483b865a06bb73a11c6e6907&oe=55D6494B&__gda__=1443511694_04c9ad9f955d081816cee2076a6e7df 0
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-2

Clues to their origins are the artifacts found in the graves. (late Roman early Merovngian pottery, Venus Aphrodite hangers, Avar like horse equipment that seems to be found in europe along the Danube and Rhine, allot of weaponry, Roman/Byzantine glass beads comparable tomodern day turkish ones, seashells from the mediteranean, red sea and indian ocean used for Apotropaeon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apotropaic_magic) The paper also mentiones one site at Daalderveld and the one at Pasestraat. The first one seems to be a site for foreigner and the latter one seems to be a site for locals. The J2`s are found in the local area. The paper mentiones that these people including individual 15 (j2a1b) come from an area geographically similar to Southern Limburg and that ultimatly their familyline may go back to outide europe. But at the time they were consdered locals. They also mention that these people were from areas in the Netherlands know as "dekzand gebieden". They also found non local horse remains who were given a warriors grave/ending with a sword stab throgh the hearth. The earliest found artifact from the site rare from 3400 B.C to 2500 B.C, on top of that a Roman Villa was build, in the rubblefield of the Roman Villa the grave field was created. (5th-6th A.D). There is evidence that the site was continualy inhabited from the Roman Villa era to the grave field construction. After the Merovingian period in the Karolingian period they stopped using the site.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XnwnCVt_oGg

The researchers state that the positioning of the burial field right on the main building of the Roman complex is meaningfull, for instance to make a claim of ownership on the land (considered to be from their ancestors) through a claim of ancestry of the previous inhabitants. (in this case romans) The villa was probably build in/around the 2nd century AD. it probably belonged to the Vicus of Maastricht (Mosa ad Trajectum)

http://maastrichtvestingstad.nl/images/artikelfotos/mosa_ad_trajectum.jpg
Mosa ad Trajectum


The Roman Research Project of Leuven University reported last month;

"De allerhoogste genetische diversiteit vonden de onderzoekers in Tongeren. En dat heeft toch met Romeinse roots te maken, zij het meer praktisch: “Dankzij de goede wegen, de Romeinse heirbanen, had Tongeren veel contact met het Rijnland, Maastricht en Keulen.”"

"The highest genetic diversity the researchers found was situated in Tongeren. And that has to do with the Roman Roots, the reason is practical: "Thanks to the good roads, the roman via`s, Tongeren had allot of contact with the Rhineland, Maastricht and Koln."
Catholic University Leuven.
http://nieuws.kuleuven.be/node/14793?utm_source=Niet-onder-de-kerktoren&utm_medium=CKmail&utm_campaign=CKFeb-alumni

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xpf1/v/t1.0-9/3394_473217516068948_508554809_n.jpg?oh=84c09865a2 04f4f18290ede65e603a37&oe=55C04520&__gda__=1443710057_a6828afdaf921d0920e25b3ba9b110a e


"J2b2a-L283 was discovered by Family Tree DNA through its "Walk Through The Y" program, and is predominantly Middle-Eastern, Mediterranean and European. The M12/M241 frequency peak in the Balkan Peninsula and Italy observed by Semino et al. [35] and Cruciani et al. [45], may instead belong to sub-clade L283. A recent Z631 sub-branch expansion from east to west through the heart of Europe to the UK along with presence in Italy and Spain might be associated with Roman expansion using mercenaries and slaves acquired in the Balkans."
Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using "next-generation" sequencing data.
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/e...802.1.full.pdf

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/v/t1.0-9/1150305_591299907594835_72728669_n.jpg?oh=1d4f6612 b33d48ae9970be7e7102ac78&oe=560476FD

"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The Frankish mythology that has survived in primary sources is comparable to that of the Aeneas and Romulus myths take in Roman mythology, but altered to suit Germanic tastes. Like many Germanic peoples, the Franks told a founding myth story to explain their connection with peoples of classical history. In the case of the Franks, these peoples were the Sicambri and the Trojans. An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called "Sicambria". In just two generations (Priam and his son Marcomer) from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. An earlier variation of this story can be read in Fredegar. In Fredegar's version an early king named Francio serves as namegiver for the Francs, just as Romulus has lent his name to Rome. .............. In contrast to many other Germanic tribes, no Merovingians claimed to be descended from Wodan. Instead, the sacred tradition of a cart pulled by bulls seems to be present from the early Merovingians on. The bulls that pulled the cart were taken as special animals, and according to Salian law the theft of those animals would impose a high sanction. In the grave of Childeric I (died 481) was found the head of a bull, craftily made out of gold.""
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankish_mythology

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/35/Quinotaur.jpg

Trojan Origin Myth.

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/v/t1.0-9/1003498_628020043922821_2086965139_n.jpg?oh=4b60c2 75745adeac13a62d541759d262&oe=55D004FD

"The Frankish mythology that has survived in primary sources is comparable to that of the Aeneas and Romulus myths take in Roman mythology, but altered to suit Germanic tastes. Like many Germanic peoples, the Franks told a founding myth story to explain their connection with peoples of classical history. In the case of the Franks, these peoples were the Sicambri and the Trojans. An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called "Sicambria". In just two generations (Priam and his son Marcomer) from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. An earlier variation of this story can be read in Fredegar. In Fredegar's version an early king named Francio serves as namegiver for the Francs, just as Romulus has lent his name to Rome."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankish_mythology

"Der niederrheinische Trojamythos schließt an die Schilderung Homers vom Ende des Trojanischen Krieges an. Das besagt, dass die von den Griechen besiegten Trojaner fliehen, und in mehreren Gruppen über Asien und Europa versprengt werden. Hier gründen sie neue Städte und werden zu Stammvätern neuer, ruhmreicher Völker. Die bis heute existente niederrheinische Variante des Trojamythos indes spiegelt die Gründungssage des Frankenreichs, die Origio francorum wider. Als Vorbild diente der römische Trojamythos, wie er in Vergils Aeneis überliefert ist."
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niederr...er_Trojamythos

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asciburgium

"The two earliest sources that describe the origin of the Franks are a 7th-century work known as the Chronicle of Fredegar and the anonymous Liber Historiae Francorum, written a century later. Neither of these works are accepted by historians as trustworthy, compared with Gregory of Tours's Historia Francorum, which was written in the 6th century. The author of the Chronicle of Fredegar claimed that the Franks came originally from Troy and quoted the works of Vergil and Hieronymous, but the Franks are not mentioned in those works, except in a general way by Hieronymous.[14] The chronicle describes Priam as a Frankish king whose people migrated to Macedonia after the fall of Troy. In Macedonia, the Franks then divided. The European Franks reached Francia under King Francio, just as Romulus went to Rome. Another branch, under King Turchot, became the Turks. Fredegar stated that Theudemer, named king of the Franks by Gregory, was descended from Priam, Friga and Francio. Another work, the Gesta, is nowadays acknowledged by serious scholars as a fantasy. Its author described how 12,000 Trojans, led by Priam and Antenor, sailed from Troy to the River Don in Russia and—with a total disregard of geography—to Pannonia, which is on the Danube, settling near the Sea of Azov. There they founded a city called Sicambria. The Trojans joined the Roman army in accomplishing the task of driving their enemies into the marshes of Mćotis, for which they received the name of Franks (meaning "savage"). A decade later the Romans killed Priam and drove away Marcomer and Sunno, the sons of Priam and Antenor, and the other Franks."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franks

"An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called Sicambria. In just 2 generations from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age 1550-1200 BC) they arrived in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. A variation of this story can also be read in Fredegar, and similar tales continue to crop up repeatedly throughout obscure, mediaeval-era European literature. ... In Roman and Merovingian times, it was a custom to declare panegyrics. These poetic declarations were held for fun or propaganda to entertain guests and please rulers. Those panegyrics played an important role in the transmission of culture. One of the ritual customs of these poetic declarations is the use of archaic names for contemporary things. Romans were often called Trojans, and Salian Franks were called Sicambri."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicambri

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xaf1/v/t1.0-9/1234612_587696551288504_1044586635_n.jpg?oh=dff352 e8eb92a30508fcf7f1a21a3de8&oe=560A8217

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xpf1/v/t1.0-9/10268700_749968678394623_6319617964394007202_n.jpg ?oh=22e3c877f0a3d1d279e85082fc080d51&oe=55CE9766

Frankish Burial Scene. (comparable to the ones found at Borgharen) (Video)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXLyrmd34WI&t=0m44s !!!!

An Item found in the merovingian graves in the Netherlands.

http://oud.cultureelerfgoed.nl/sites/default/files/imagecache/rechterkolom/Mantelspeld%20Borgharen.JPG
http://oud.cultureelerfgoed.nl/opgraven-merovingisch-grafveld-borgharen

Merovingers in een villa.
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-romeinse-villa-en-merovingisch-grafveld-borgharen-pasestraat

Merovingers in een villa 2.
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-2


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXLyrmd34WI

"Het terrein met de restanten van de Romeinse villa Borgharen-Pasestraat bevindt zich op een hoger gelegen grindrug ten westen van de voormalige Pasestraat ten noorden van de dorpskern van Borgharen. Enkele honderden meters ten westen van het villaterrein stroomt de rivier de Maas; aan de oostzijde, op 3 ŕ 4 km afstand, liep de Via Belgica, de belangrijke heirweg van Tongeren (Atuatuca Tungrorum) via Maastricht (Mosa Trajectum) naar Keulen (Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium). Bij de locatiekeuze zullen naast de aanwezigheid van vruchtbare löss- en rivierkleigronden, ook de ligging nabij een belangrijke doorgaande route en het ongetwijfeld fraaie uitzicht over de Maas een rol gespeeld hebben. In het Maasdal ten noorden van Maastricht zijn relatief weinig sporen van Romeinse villa's aangetroffen. Oostelijk van Borgharen liggen de dorpen Bunde en Meerssen, waar zich een drietal Romeinse villa's bevonden."
Wikipeda.org - Romeinse villa Borgharen Pasestraat.
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romeinse_villa_Borgharen-Pasestraat

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xta1/v/t1.0-9/11107743_897172743673421_8412696722894090720_n.jpg ?oh=639b4b454c6464abf0446aa55e6704ef&oe=55CE1C23
http://home.kpn.nl/hstoepker/symposium%20archeologie%20maaswerken/08%20romeinse%20tijd.pdf

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xpf1/v/t1.0-9/3394_473217516068948_508554809_n.jpg?oh=84c09865a2 04f4f18290ede65e603a37&oe=55C04520&__gda__=1443710057_a6828afdaf921d0920e25b3ba9b110a e

"25 human graves and two horse graves have been identified. There may still be a few more graves on the site, but there are no plans for further excavations for the time being.
- DNA research on the bone material has established that the human remains are related and belong to two families. Two skeletons for example correspond to a father and his daughter, two others to a mother and her son, and one the graves revealed the remains of a mother and two of her children.
- Many of the graves contained valuable accessories such as precious jewelry items, costly weapons and rare pieces of earthware, indicating that the people buried in them were wealthy and may have enjoyed a high social status.
- The discovery of cowry shells, originating from the Red Sea, further confirmed the prominent status of the deceased and showed that they were part of a well developed network of trade relations.
- In one of the graves, the archeologists unearthed the skeleton of a warrior who had been buried in full armour and was still holding a golden coin between his teeth. The coin was probably meant as an obol to help a safe passage into afterlife."
Love Maastricht Region - Merovingian Graves of Borgharen.
http://love.maastrichtregion.com/blog/the-merovingian-graves-of-borgharen.html

https://fbcdn-sphotos-h-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xpt1/v/t1.0-9/11235431_897813296942699_1678501542922732431_n.jpg ?oh=1d4e470cf5a32045a740b5b9b914b16d&oe=55C39FC5&__gda__=1438642369_d7ef889ee56a49c5b9836ef0bf0d67c f
Coin found between the teeth, in the graves at Borgharen.

Frankish Burial Scene (With coin betwen teeth)!!! (Video)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXLyrmd34WI&t=10m04s

RHAS
07-11-2015, 12:41 AM
"Three new haplogroups appeared at the turn of the Middle/ Late Neolithic in Transdanubia, the E1b1b1a1 (M78), the C (M216) and the J2 (M172). .... Haplogroup J2 (M172) has today its highest frequency in the Caucasus and Iraq (Mesopotamia), and in the geographic region of Levant. In early modern genetic studies, J2 (together with F and G) was claimed to be an indicator of the Neolithic expansion (Semino et al., 2000), based on the clinal pattern of its frequency among the modern European and Western Asian populations. The theory has been further specified since the early 2000ies, and frequency distribution plots and surface distribution maps have revealed the J2a (M410) (Sengupta et al., 2006) as a possible marker for early farmers’ eastward migration in Central Asia. Furthermore, the subgroup J2b (M12) has also been suggested as a marker for the European Neolithic expansion (King et al., 2008). Its less frequent occurrence in modern west Turkey (Cinnioğlu et al., 2004), but more frequent appearance in Greece has been even interpreted as an indication for a maritime route of Neolithic colonisation in South Europe (King et al., 2008). It is interesting, that J2 (M172) has not been detected in Neolithic context yet, and it is not present in the western Carpathian Early/Middle Neolithic dataset either. It might have come first with the people of the Late Neolithic cultures into Transdanubia, which means either that it is not the marker for the earliest dispersal of farmers, or that it halted in southeastern Europe for about millennium, before reaching the Carpathian Basin."
Molecular genetic investigation of the Neolithic population history in the western Carpathian Basin.
http://ubm.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte/2015/4075/pdf/doc.pdf

"A total of 1057 of the samples were used in an initial pilot genotyping project, which included cell lines from 99 Orcadian samples previously collected by the laboratory. The samples were genotyped with a number of markers that were chosen because they have been used to differentiate populations by many different studies over the years. Specifically, they were: HLA20, 21, 22 (typed at a low-medium resolution, Table 2, Supplementary Table 1), MC1R (R151C (rs1805007) and R160W (rs1805008), the minor alleles of which are associated with red hair23),24, 25 ABO26, 27 (rs7853989, the SNP that differentiates alleles A and B) and the Y chromosome (NRY). The six most common NRY halogroups2 were typed (Table 2) as defined by specific SNPs (R1a1 (rs3908), F(xI/J2/R1) (rs2032652), E (rs9306841), I (rs2032597), J2 (rs2032604) and R1(xR1a1) (rs2032624))."
People of the British Isles: preliminary analysis of genotypes and surnames in a UK-control population.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n2/full/ejhg2011127a.html

"According to most historians, Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy. However, based on some key facts in the discoverer's biography, as well as in the linguistic analysis of his texts, some historians and linguists believe that Columbus could have been of Catalan origin. A Ligurian Columbus would have carried the Colombo surname, whereas he would have been called Colom if he were Catalan. In order to test whether it would be possible to discriminate between a Ligurian or a Catalan origin were Columbus' Y-chromosome haplotype to be retrieved, we genotyped 17 Y-chromosome STRs in 238 Spanish (from Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands) and French Colom men, and 114 North Italian Colombo (from Liguria, Lombardy, and Piedmont). ... Each individual was allocated to a haplogroup using a Bayesian approach11 as implemented in Haplogroup Predictor (http://www.hprg.com/hapest5/), with the ‘Area Selection’ field set to ‘Equal priors’; haplotypes with a posterior probability <95% were left unclassified. J2a1 and its subgroups (J2a1b, and J2a1h) were pooled, as Haplogroup Predictor often failed to discriminate among them with the current 17-STR haplotypes. ... Haplogroups were inferred for each individual based on their STR haplotypes. A previous validation study (see Methods) showed that 302 out of 307 (98.4%) Catalan, Valencian, and Balearic Y-chromosome STR haplotypes could be allocated to a haplogroup, and only three haplogroup assignments (1%) were erroneous: R1b3*, J2, and K(xP) chromosomes were called as R1a, J1, and R1b, respectively. Haplogroup frequencies are shown in Table 1."
Surname and Y chromosome in Southern Europe: a case study with Colom/Colombo.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n2/full/ejhg2011162a.html

"The compositions and frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups identified by genotyping 23 biallelic loci of its nonrecombining region (YAP, 92R7, DYF155S2, 12f2, Tat, M9, M17, M25, M89, M124, M130, M170, M172, M174, M173, M178, M201, M207, M242, M269, P21, P25, and P37) have been determined in a sample of 68 Belarussians. Eleven haplogroups have been found in the Belarussian gene pool (E, F*, G, I, I1b, J2, N3a*, Q*, R1*, R1a1, and R1b3). Haplogroup R1a1 is the most frequent; it includes 46% of all Y chromosomes in this sample. The frequencies of haplogroups I1b and I are 17.6 and 7.3%, respectively. Haplogroup N3a* is the next in frequency. The frequencies of haplogroups E, J2, and R1b3 are 4.4% each; that of R1* is 3%; and those of F*, G, and Q* are 1.5% each."
Frequencies of Y chromosome binary haplogroups in Belarussians.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16161635

"Malana is considered to be one of the first democracies in the world.[citation needed] According to tradition, the residents of Malana are the descendant of Aryans[citation needed], and they acquired their independence during the Mughal reign when the Emperor Akbar walked to the village in order to cure an ailment that he was afflicted with[citation needed]; after having been successfully cured he put out an edict stating that all the inhabitants of the valley would never be required to pay tax. An alternative tradition suggests that Malana was founded by remnants of Alexander the Great's Army. ... There are various legends about their origin. According to one of them, it is believed that they are the descendants of Greek soldiers of Alexander's army. As the legend goes, some soldiers took refuge in this remote land after Alexander left the country and later settled there permanently. This myth is however disputed because there are those who claim that it is the valley of Kalash, in Pakistan that is actually the area in which Alexander the Great's soldiers took refuge. This legend is also inconsistent with the legendary descent of the local people from Indo-Aryans who would pre-date Alexander the Great's soldiers by approximately a thousand years. Recent genetic typing of the Malani population is more consistent with an Indo-Aryan origin with a large proportion of Y-DNA haplotypes J2 and R1a associated with Indo-Aryan influences in South Asia than with a Greek origin which would have a different characteristic mix of Y-DNA haplotypes."
Wikipedia - Malana Himachal Pradesh
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Malana,_Himachal_Pradesh

vettor
07-11-2015, 07:38 AM
"De plus, dans ces études, des comparaisons d’haplotypes entre des sites phéniciens et des sites non‐phéniciens ont permis de déterminer des haplogroupes avec une signature phénicienne : Haplogroupe J2 et particuličrement six short sequence repeat du chromosome Y."
Universite de Portiers - Multiples conséquences physiopathologiques de mutations et d'allčles complexes du gčne CFTR.
http://nuxeo.edel.univ-poitiers.fr/n...e-4656d5674715

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-frc3/v/t1.0-9/557924_496350167089810_1350945969_n.jpg?oh=d830c05 04f6904e2a52f0c1384d691c7&oe=55CE1DDF&__gda__=1442411307_e8cb3da122b2296682c6bb96dfbb406 f

"The presence of other Y-chromosomal haplogroups: E-V13, E-M81, E-M34, J1-M267, J2-M172, I1-M253, I2-P215 and G2a-P15 would be interpreted as a consequence of the genetic history linked to the Iberian Peninsula, especially, to Andalusia, with a long, prevailing contacts with the Mediterranean world. ... By contrast, the J2-M172 seems to be related to Greek and Phoenicians colonies that were well stablished at least from the first millennium BC in the Peninsula, particularly in littoral Andalusia."


Interesting, Dorians in modern Albania...........makes sense since they came from the north of Greece to invade greece

RHAS
07-14-2015, 07:36 PM
AJ Jacobs (Confirmed!)

AJ Jacobs was on today's "Dr Oz" show talking about genealogy and how it helps your health to know your family history. He shared that he and Dr. Oz are haplogroup J2.

https://scontent.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xfp1/v/t1.0-9/11695982_965297930195029_3010657890599240867_n.jpg ?oh=5aae095140e81f619bb10d7db14a5ff6&oe=56171956

"Hello all! I'm a writer of several non-fiction books (including 'The Year of Living Biblically' and 'Drop Dead Healthy.' My next book is about genealogy and tracing my roots. And for the finale of the book, I plan to throw the largest family reunion in history. You're invited! All seven billion members of the human family are welcome. ... AJ Jacobs's DNA has been tested for genealogical purposes. It may be possible to confirm family relationships by comparing test results with AJ or other carriers of his ancestors' Y-chromosome or mitochondrial DNA. Y-chromosome DNA test-takers in his direct paternal line on WikiTree: AJ Jacobs - Family Tree DNA yDNA 111 markers Haplogroup J-PF5456."
Wikitree - AJ Jacobs.
http://www.wikitree.com/wiki/Jacobs-2987

"Arnold Stephen "A. J." Jacobs, Jr. (born March 20, 1968) is an American journalist, author, and lecturer best known for writing about his lifestyle experiments. He is the editor at large for Esquire and has worked for the Antioch Daily Ledger and Entertainment Weekly."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/A._J._Jacobs

"A.J. is a journalist, lecturer, human guinea pig and author of four New York Times bestsellers."
http://ajjacobs.com/

https://tedconfblog.files.wordpress.com/2011/10/jacobs_tedmed_qa.jpg?w=900

https://www.ted.com/talks/aj_jacobs_the_world_s_largest_family_reunion_we_re _all_invited

http://www.ted.com/talks/a_j_jacobs_year_of_living_biblically


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2_lBiFZ85d0

RHAS
07-14-2015, 08:21 PM
Cristopher Columbus. Unconfirmed!

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/c/c2/Portrait_of_a_Man%2C_Said_to_be_Christopher_Columb us.jpg/800px-Portrait_of_a_Man%2C_Said_to_be_Christopher_Columb us.jpg

"According to most historians, Christopher Columbus was born in Genoa, Italy. However, based on some key facts in the discoverer's biography, as well as in the linguistic analysis of his texts, some historians and linguists believe that Columbus could have been of Catalan origin. A Ligurian Columbus would have carried the Colombo surname, whereas he would have been called Colom if he were Catalan. ...In order to test whether it would be possible to discriminate between a Ligurian or a Catalan origin were Columbus' Y-chromosome haplotype to be retrieved, we genotyped 17 Y-chromosome STRs in 238 Spanish (from Catalonia, Valencia, and the Balearic Islands) and French Colom men, and 114 North Italian Colombo (from Liguria, Lombardy, and Piedmont)."
Surname and Y chromosome in Southern Europe: a case study with Colom/Colombo
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v20/n2/full/ejhg2011162a.html

https://scontent.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xpt1/v/t1.0-9/11709836_961564117235077_8320025326000513144_n.jpg ?oh=5dcd307d35e8bf1738042f1efce126bb&oe=56178B40

RHAS
08-09-2015, 08:15 PM
6 Y-DNA J2 Found in Napoleons Army!

"The greatest similarities revealed by Y-haplogroup and haplotype distribution were to populations that live in what are now the Benelux countries or the Alsace, supporting the theory that the individuals indeed were part of Napoleonic troops."
Das Leben in der napoleonischen Armee – interdisziplinäre Untersuchung eines Massengrabs aus Kassel, Hessen
https://ediss.uni-goettingen.de/handle/11858/00-1735-0000-0001-BC00-A?locale-attribute=en

https://scontent-ams3-1.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xpf1/v/t1.0-9/11855644_976621185729370_3622687923769703677_n.jpg ?oh=de410131b355de5779d6828ad3a67787&oe=5642C31F

https://scontent-ams3-1.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xpt1/v/t1.0-9/11822451_939640756093286_2275441662774998895_n.jpg ?oh=90841059f9d013e5585e7a1d21ad945a&oe=56445179

https://scontent-ams3-1.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xpt1/v/t1.0-9/11214190_976618315729657_8680970794305851979_n.jpg ?oh=c8a4b4998ab1a018afad089f7426eb12&oe=564B2511


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XNPCiM84Xjo

"In the early 19th century, the Brothers Grimm lived in Kassel. They collected and wrote most of their fairy tales there. At that time, around 1803, the Landgravate was elevated to a Principality and its ruler to Prince-elector. Shortly after, it was annexed by Napoleon and in 1807 it became the capital of the short-lived Kingdom of Westphalia under Napoleon's brother Jérôme. The Electorate was restored in 1813."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kassel

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Napoleon

JacobMetz
12-02-2015, 05:23 AM
http://www.whowerethephoenicians.com

http://www.whowerethephoenicians.com/free-chapters/colonies-and-place-names/

RHAS
01-14-2016, 02:18 AM
"The haplogroups J2* and E3b* were on average about 1.5-times more frequent in Germany than in Poland (Table 2, Fig. 1) and haplogroup P*(xR1) was on average 4.3-times more frequent in Germany than in Poland (Table 2, Fig. 1); however, all those haplogroups were overall rather rare and the frequency differences between German and Polish groups were not statistically significant (P>0.05). The remaining haplogroups, DE*(xE3b), F*(xI,J2,K), and K*(xN3,P), are not necessarily representing monophyletic groups—given the selection of markers analysed here—and potentially contain a number of different haplogroups. Differences between Polish and German groups were statistically significant for F*(xI,J2,K) (Z=2.396, P=0.017), but not for DE*(xE3b), and K*(xN3,P) (P>0.05)."
Significant genetic differentiation between Poland and Germany follows present-day political borders, as revealed by Y-chromosome analysis.
http://www.zgms.cm.umk.pl/prace/428-443.pdf

"A markedly higher frequency of haplogroup J noted at the northern island Krk might be a consequence of the fact that the island was most exposed to the immigrations from the mainland. During the Ottoman invasions to the Balkans population groups from the Adriatic hinterland (Dinarides) and Western Balkan area sought refuge at the eastern Adriatic islands. These populations often referred to as 'Vlachs' or 'Morlachs' included a few families of Romanian origin (sometimes described as descendants of the Roman army veterans as well) who left numerous traces of their presence at Krk."
Y chromosomal heritage of Croatian population and its island isolates.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n7/full/5200992a.html

"The J2-M172 has been associated with different cultures and populations in history, such as Mediterranean/Aegan, Greco-Anatolian, Mesopotamian and Caucasian."
Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

"Worldwide spatial distribution of haplogroup (HG) J2a-M410 coincides with presence of archaeological records of painted pottery and ceramic figurine culture."
Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

"J2b-M102/M12 HG in India comprises largely of J2b2-M241 chromosomes with minor presence of J2b1-M205 in northwest (NW) region."
Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

"J2a-M410 can be seen along the northwest border of South Asia reaching up to South India. However, it shows a drastic decline towards East of India, consistent with our previous study. Unlike J2a-M410, J2b-M102 is concentrated in Eastern India (Fig. 1b)."
Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

"The spatial distribution of J2a-M410 throughout Middle East and Central Asia is overlapped by presence of Neolithic artifacts such as painted pottery and ceramic culture. The earliest precursor known of Indus Valley civilization, Mehrgarh (NW of Indian subcontinent, now in Pakistan), provides one of the oldest (~9KYA) evidences of origin of agriculture and plant domestication suited by early Holocene climate. Additionally, these Neolithic sites of Mehrgarh showed the earliest evidence of transformation of subsistence from hunting-gathering to settled agriculture owing to the idea that the first farmers from Indus were agro-pastoral, and semi-nomadic people. It is interesting to note that the concentration of J2a-M410 over the geography largely mimics the agricultural centres."
Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

"Genetic relatedness of NW Indians with population to West from NW border and remarkable presence of J2-M172 HGs in remote Indian tribes along with other social strata, may represent the early Holocene expansion in NW India (including the Indus Valley) diffusing towards Central Asia and spreading agriculture eastwards to the Gangetic plains during pre-Harappan times (6-7 KYA)."
Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

"J2a1b-M67 and J2a-M92 lineages have been well correlated temporally and spatially with the spread of earliest farmers and Bronze Age cultures in Anatolia, south-eastern Europe and Mediterranean."
Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157

"Though, the genealogical ages for Indian J2a-M410 and J2b-M102 are correlating with appearance of agriculture in Indus Valley (~6KYA) and Mehrgarh (~9KYA) and falling well within the Neolithic range, differential presence and distribution of J2-M172 sublineages and other associated HGs depict a complex picture."
Dissecting the influence of Neolithic demic diffusion on Indian Y-chromosome pool through J2-M172 haplogroup
http://www.nature.com/articles/srep19157//www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v11/n7/full/5200992a.html

RHAS
01-16-2016, 07:34 AM
"Außerdem ergab die DNAAnalyse, daß der Haplotypus dem Haplotypus J zuzuordnen ist, der durch die genetischen Marker (marqueurs génétiques) 12f2 charakterisiert ist. Dieser Haplotypus weist eine Untergruppe J2 auf, die durch die Marker M172 und M12 determiniert ist."
Union Civium Europae - Neues vom Turiner Grabtuch. (German)
http://www.nachrichten-lebensrecht.de/nachrichten/der13kpl/2007/der13kpl0702.pdf

"Haplogroup J has a wide distribution, straddling the northern and southern Mediterranean coastline, spreading into the Middle East and terminating in India. The most common variant of haplogroup J in Europe is the J2-M172 haplogroup."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"The J-M172 mutation attains low to moderate frequencies in Eastern Europe and the Balkans. It is found at moderate levels in the Mediterranean."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"Reports concerning haplogroup J2-M172 variation in Europe often attempt to find sub-haplogroups of J2a-M410 and J2b-M12/M102 to further explain local population histories. For example, Di Giacomo and others maintains that J2a2a-M92 represents a Bronze Age expansion in ancient Greece (2004: 367). In another example, King and others argue that J2a1h-M319 represents a Bronze Age expansion to Crete from mainland Greece (King et al. 2008: 210-211)."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"In Turkey, the purported source of J2 in Europe, J2a represents about 23% of the gene pool, and about 93% of J2 lineages. J2b, on the other hand, represents less than 2% of the gene pool, and about 7% of J2 lineages. However, in the Balkans, J2b represents 5.45% of the gene pool, and an astonishing 60% of all J2 lineages."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"Interestingly, J2a represents about 40% of the J2-M172 variation in the Balkans, and about 60% of the variation in Greece. J2b, on the other hand, represents 40% of the J2 variation in Greece. Arguably, based on these statistics, J2a and J2b are almost equally represented in Greece and in the Balkans. However, J2a is the overwhelming J2-M172 variant in Italy, as well as on the islands of Crete and Sicily."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"However, I believe the most significant conclusion that can be drawn from the data in Chapters Four and Five is the occasional correlation between the genetic and linguistic diversity. This correlation seems especially robust for Proto-Basque and the Scandinavian I-Group (cf Sections 4.2.1 and 5.7) Germanic languages and the Scandinavian I-Group (cf. Sections 4.2.1 and 5.12), the Western R-Group and Celtic (Sections 4.1.1 and 5.12), the Finno-Baltic N-Group and Uralic languages (Sections 4.3 and 5.6), the Near Eastern J-Group and Proto-Indo-European languages (Sections 4.5 and 5.4), and the European E-Group and Afroasiatic languages (Sections 4.4 and 5.3)."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"Among the migrations that traversed the Iranian corridor was one that carried the J-M172 from the Middle East to Pakistan and India (Regueiro et al 2006: 140). In my opinion, this migration from Anatolia may explain the source of Indo-European languages found in India."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"The Near Eastern J-Group, as well as the Western and Eastern R-Groups, represent potential contributors to the Danish gene pool during the Neolithic, and by extension, were potentially the first speakers of Indo-European languages in this area. About seven percent of Danes have the J-M172 mutation, the genetic signature of the Near Eastern J-Group and the initial spread of Indo-European language across Eurasia (Sections 4.5 and 5.4)."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"Based on the available genetic data for prehistoric population expansions, it appears that the roots of Germanic languages extend into the Mesolithic (cf. Section 4.2.1 for a discussion of the Scandinavian I-Group). Later population expansions into Scandinavia, the Western European R-Group (cf. Section 4.1.1) and Eastern R-Group (cf. Section 4.1.2), as well as the Near Eastern J-Group (cf. Section 4.5), also made a contribution to the evolution of Germanic."
Germanic Origins from the Perspective of the Y-Chromosome.
http://digitalassets.lib.berkeley.edu/etd/ucb/text/StClair_berkeley_0028E_12186.pdf

"Recent studies of the Y-chromosomal paternal haplogroups E (M78), J1 (M267) and J2 (M172) strongly suggest continuous Mesolithic, Neolithic and post-Neolithic gene flows within Southeast Europe, and between Europe and the Near East in both directions."
Facets of the past - The challenge of the Balkan Neo-Eneolithic.
http://www.cimec.ro/pdf/dl.asp?filename=Facets-of-the-Past-The-Challenge-of-the-Balkan-Neo-Eneolithic-2008.pdf

RHAS
01-20-2016, 09:25 PM
"The most common haplogroups in the Faroese sample ~ RIa, RIb, and 11 ~ constitute 42%, 25%, and 21%, of the data set, respectively. Rare haplogroups are also found in the sample at low frequencies. Haplogroup Jl constitutes 4%, Q 3%, Elblb 1%, and 12bl, 12b(xI2bl), 12a(xI2al), L, and N combined make up 5% of the total data set (one individual per haplogroup) (Table 3). Rare haplogroups found in source populations include G2a, J2b, J2alb, and 12al (data not shown). Of the rare haplogroups found in the Faroese, six were found in one or more source population."
Vikings, merchants, and pirates at the top of the world : Y-chromosomal signatures of recent and ancient migrations in the Faroe Islands.
http://ir.library.louisville.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1900&context=etd

"Tree branches of of J2 spread west along the Mediteranean. One of these (M102*), like I1b2 and E M78-alpha, appears to have taken the Balkan route (via Albania) to Italy (northern italy in this instance), ending up in Bearnais in south-west France without circuiting Spain. The other two (M67* & M92) can also be traced strongly to Italy, with a more southern centre of gravity."
The Origins of the British: The New Prehistory of Britain.
https://books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=1780337671

"The overall effect of J2 on Britain was largly similar to E3b and I2b2, in its size and wide southern British distribution, except that J2 is represented in Scotland with the highest frequency of 7,3% in the old Pictish town of Pitlochry and largly missed out on in Wales. Multiple J clusters show founding episodes dating to the Neolithic period in southern Britain."
The Origins of the British: The New Prehistory of Britain.
https://books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=1780337671

"In competition with the northern J1a gene group, there is geographical evidence that a second main J branch, J2, known as the 'Mediteranean-celtic branch', took the southern route along the coast of the Mediterranean from the Near East via Italy, Sardinia, Spain and portugal, bypassing the Basque Country to the French Atlantic coast. In its distribution thus far, J2 mirrors the spread of Cardial Ware moving west along the Mediterranean. After Brittany, however, J2 jumps across the Channel to the British Isles, where it is now found in particular association with Goidelic-celtic-speaking areas. J2 dates very approximatly to 7000 years in Europe, which within the margin of error, would fit the spread of Cardial Ware. In other word, J2 could be a population marker for the Early Neolithic spread of Cardial Ware pottery along the Mediteranean coast."
The Origins of the British: The New Prehistory of Britain
https://books.google.co.uk/books?isbn=1780337671

"As expected, the commonest haplogroup is R1b-M269 (43.1%), with highest frequency in the north-west, followed by I1-M253 (13.8%), I2-P215 (9.0%), R1a-M198 (7.5%) and J2-M172 (7.5%)."
Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing.
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150519/ncomms8152/full/ncomms8152.html

"Den andra av de tvĺ stora haplogrupperna som förknippas med invandrande personer österifrĺn och sambandet med jordbrukets spridning eller senare perioder, är haplogrupp J. Till skillnad frĺn E som härstammar frĺn norra Afrika, kommer J frĺn omrĺdet runt Levanten eller Palestina. De undergrupper som är betydande för Europa kommer främst frĺn Anatolien och de uppstod för ungefär 10000-25000 ĺr sedan, men även frĺn Balkan vars ĺlder pĺ undergrupp J2b1 är runt 8000 ĺr. J2b (mutation J-M12) har stark koppling till E1b1b1 och har en spridning med stora likheter. Den statistiska analysen ger en datering som innebär att den inte spreds frĺn sydöstra Europa till andra delar av södra Europa förrän omkring 2700 f.Kr. eller seklerna närmast därefter. Den saknas helt pĺ Irland och kom sannolikt till de brittiska öarna samtidigt med E1b1b, dels under romersk tid (ĺr 43-410) och dels under anglosaxisk tid (c:a 450-1066)."
Radio Falköping 90,8 Mhz - Megalitgravar i Europa. (Swedish)
http://www.fnf.nu/_filer/bagerfeldt/52%20MEGALITGRAVAR%20I%20EUROPA%20-%201%20M%C3%A4nniskor%20och%20Kulturer.pdf

"Here we report nine ancient genomes (~1 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman era York cemetery, bookended by earlier Iron-Age and later Anglo-Saxon burials. ... Strikingly, one Roman skeleton shows a clear signal of exogenous origin, with affinities pointing towards the Middle East, confirming the cosmopolitan character of the Empire, even at its northernmost fringes. ... Sample 3DRIF-26, on the other hand, despite belonging to the same burial context, presented a lineage consistent with haplogroup J2-L228, which has a modern distribution centred on the Middle East, but which is also present in the Caucasus region, the Balkans and Italy."
Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons.
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160119/ncomms10326/full/ncomms10326.html

"Sample 3DRIF26 is clearly an exception, both in terms of autosomal variation as in the Ychromosome lineage it presents (J2), common in the Middle East, Caucasus, Balkans and Italy and attributed to neolithic demic migrations or to seafaring Phoenicians."
Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons - Supplementary Figures.
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160119/ncomms10326/extref/ncomms10326-s1.pdf

RHAS
01-22-2016, 02:35 AM
"Here we report nine ancient genomes (~1 ×) of individuals from northern Britain: seven from a Roman era York cemetery, bookended by earlier Iron-Age and later Anglo-Saxon burials. ... Strikingly, one Roman skeleton shows a clear signal of exogenous origin, with affinities pointing towards the Middle East, confirming the cosmopolitan character of the Empire, even at its northernmost fringes. ... Sample 3DRIF-26, on the other hand, despite belonging to the same burial context, presented a lineage consistent with haplogroup J2-L228, which has a modern distribution centred on the Middle East, but which is also present in the Caucasus region, the Balkans and Italy."
Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons.
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2016/160119/ncomms10326/full/ncomms10326.html

"Scientists reveal that headless men believed to be gladiators have descendants in Wales – and one hailed from Middle East"
http://www.theguardian.com/uk-news/2016/jan/19/origins-of-yorks-decapitated-romans-traced-by-genome-technology

"The savagery of gladiatorial battles was depicted as Channel 4 investigated the discovery of 80 skeletons at a York archaeological dig. As reported in The Press, the 80 skeletons, the majority of large, powerfully-built men dating from Roman times, were found at a dig in Driffield Terrace, Holgate."
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_-LpbKyhBC4


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_-LpbKyhBC4

Full documentary: http://watchdocumentary.org/watch/gladiators-back-from-the-dead-video_13d4008d0.html

RHAS
02-12-2016, 11:17 PM
"Admixture analyses suggested that the majority of G2a-P15 and R1b-M269 components were contributed by Anatolia and Levant sources, respectively, while Greece Balkans supplied the majority of E-V13 and J2a-M67."
Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8/fulltext.html

"Like other populations in Anatolia and Lebanon, Cyprus exhibits a high level of haplogroup J2-M172 related diversity. J2a-M410 is the dominant Y-chromosome lineage, constituting 26.0 % of the overall Cypriot samples. J2b-M12/M102 splits into mainly J2b-M205 (5.9 %), frequent in Southern Levant, and J2b-M241 (0.6 %), most frequent in Greece and the Balkans."
Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8/fulltext.html

"Anatolia would have generated up to 83 % to the Cypriot G-P15 and up to a quarter (range, 22–25 %) of Cypriot J2a-M67, J2b-M12, and R1b-M269 related lineages. Danube Balkans would have provided most of the Cypriot J2b-M12 (67 %) and all Cypriot I2-M423 (99 %). Although, when using the entire set of Y-chromosome haplogroup frequencies, the composition of Cyprus can be explained by contributions from Anatolia, Balkans, and Levant, the actual Greek contribution stood out for the Cypriot E-V13 (87 %), J2a-M67 (74 %), R1b-M269 (48 %), and G-P15 (17 %) components. Lastly, Levant contributed up to 30 % of the Cypriot R1b-M269 and to a lesser extent regarding the Cypriot J lineages (3–8 %)."
Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8/fulltext.html

"It has been hypothesized that J2b-M12 may have been associated with the Neolithic immigration of farmers to Greece. Haplogroup J2b-M12 splits into J2b-M205 and J2b-M241."
Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8/fulltext.html

"Also J2b-M12 Td estimates coupled with the J2b-M205 distribution overlap significantly with the Pottery Neolithic to Early Bronze Age pattern of settlements in Nicosia, Pafos, Limassol, and Kyreneia."
Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8/fulltext.html

"J2a-M67, proposed to represent both the Neolithic of Central Anatolia and the expansion of the Troia Maritime Culture in Northwestern Anatolia (13.5 %), is also quite common in Cyprus (10.1 %)."
Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8/fulltext.html

"J2a-Z489, present in Pafos and Northwest/Central Anatolia, may reflect Bronze Age immigration from Western Anatolia, the Philia phase, or mirror the Jewish population on the island from the Hellenistic/Roman Eras."
Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8/fulltext.html

"The pre-Greek influence is most plausibly encapsulated by the following G2a haplogroups: U5*, PF3147*, L91, L293, P303*, and CTS342. Notably, most of these lineages occur in Anatolian ancient DNA specimens over 8200 years old. In addition, some J2a lineages such as M67, M319, and J2b-M205 may also have contributed to the pre-Greek strata."
Y-chromosome phylogeographic analysis of the Greek-Cypriot population reveals elements consistent with Neolithic and Bronze Age settlements.
http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13323-016-0032-8/fulltext.html

"A new finding is that the Bronze Age individual BR2 belonged to haplogroup J2a1."
Dienekes Anthropology Blog - Ancient DNA from prehistoric inhabitants of Hungary.
http://dienekes.blogspot.nl/2014/10/ancient-dna-from-prehistoric.html

"The Bronze Age genomes, Rathlin1 and BR2, both show further reductions of ROH, producing distributions similar to each other and to that of modern Europeans."
Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome.
http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2015/12/22/1518445113

"Our two Bronze Age samples, BR1 (1,980–2,190 cal BC) and BR2 (1,110–1,270 cal BC) fall among modern Central European genotypes."
Genome flux and stasis in a five millennium transect of European prehistory.
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2014/141021/ncomms6257/full/ncomms6257.html

"Sometime around 4,000 BC (BCE), ancient Sicilians began building Europe's oldest free-standing monumental structures, which are among the oldest such constructions in the world (the temple at Göbekli Tepe in Turkey is older). These megalithic temples, built by a neolithic people culturally similar to the society of the Stentinello culture near Syracuse, are known by such names as Zebbug, Ggantija, Mnajdra, Hagar Qim and Tarxien. These temples pre-date by millennia the Egyptian pyramids and such structures as Stonehenge and similar megalithic monuments in north-western Europe. We know little of these earliest Sicilians, though they were probably part of an influx of neolithic farmers who arrived in the central Mediterranean from the east sometime before 10,000 BC, identified genetically with Y Haplogroup J2 (M172), and some of their pottery has been dated to around 5,200 BC. One might speculate that these neolithic builders were the ancestors of the Proto-Sicanians. And where can you see these remarkable megalithic temples? In Malta. Yes, the earliest known inhabitants of Malta arrived from Sicily some time before 5,200 BC, and they quite literally laid the foundations of a culture which in many ways seems to have been far more sophisticated than anything else in Europe or the Mediterranean region at that time."
Maltese Diaspora E-Newsletter March 2014 - Sicilian Neolithic Temple Builders in Malta.
http://ozmalta.com/wp-content/uploads/NEWS33.pdf

"D’autres haplogroupes sont trčs minoritaires et ne passent la barre des 10% que dans certains pays ou régions. Ainsi G2 (d’origine Caucasienne )en Sardaigne, j2 (origine nord Mésopotamie ) en Italie et en Roumanie, E1b1 (derničre migration de l’Afrique de la préhistoire ) en Grčce et en Italie du sud."
L’ADN et la recherche de nos ancętres. (French)
http://www.cegfc.org/www/sections/paris/pages/ADN_et_genealogie.pdf

"On trouve beaucoup de J dans les pays européens voisins de la Méditerranée comme la Grčce (22% de la population) ou l’Italie (25%). Il est apparenté aux Romains, Grecs et Phéniciens pour le J2, aux Arabes et aux Juifs pour le J1."
Genealogie genetique ou l`arbre phylogenetique. (French)
http://defranceetdaieux.blogspot.nl/2014/11/genealogie-genetique-ou-larbre.html

"The pottery, known as LBK from the German words for “linear band ceramics,” was made in the Near East, the home of the Neolithic revolution, as well as in Greece, the Balkans and southern Italy. Two Stanford University researchers, Roy King and Peter Underhill, matched the geographical distribution of LBK pottery and figurines with that of the four Y chromosome lineages that entered Europe at the beginning of the Neolithic age. They found that one lineage in particular, marked by the mutation known as M172, was found in almost exactly the same locations as the LBK culture."
Nicolas Wade - Before the Dawn, recovering the lost history of our ancestors.
http://permaculteur.free.fr/ecoanarchisme/Before%20the%20Dawn.pdf

"Concerning J lineages, another marker of Eastern Mediterranean origins, we can add from looking at Adams et al. (2008) that they are also relatively frequent compared to the rest of Iberia in the Asturias and Extramadura."
Y Haplogroups, Archeological Cultures and Language Families: a review of the possibility of Multidisciplinary Comparisons Using the Case of E-M35.
http://www.jogg.info/51/files/Lancaster.pdf

"The genetic differentiation between the two Cimbri populations of Luserna and Lessinia deserves further discussion. Luserna is genetically very distant from all the other Alpine populations and shows a strikingly low intrapopulation diversity. Paternal lineages are represented mostly by the R1b M269* (frequency of 84%), with six different STR haplotypes associated with only one founder surname. Lessinia shows different, if not opposite, features. The average genetic distances from other populations is less than one third compared to Luserna, while HD is close to the highest values of our dataset. The prevalent haplogroup, R1b-M269*, accounts for only one third of the total, the rest represented by different lineages (G-M201, I1-M253, M410-J2A and K-M9), which are associated with twenty-three different surnames."
Cultural, geographic and genetic isolation in Italian ethno-linguistic minorities.
http://padis.uniroma1.it/bitstream/10805/2590/1/Marco_Capocasa_PhD_Dissertation.pdf

"El estudio de los linajes del cromosoma Y, permite evidenciar el componente genético del porte masculino e identificar la presencia de linajes aborígenes, europeos, asiáticos y africanos en las distintas poblaciones y analizar diversos factores históricos. Con el fin de tener una visión del estado de la diversidad de 124 linajes paternos de las poblaciones Belén y Santa María de la provincia de Catamarca, se caracterizaron las muestras para la mayoría de los haplogrupos encontrados en Argentina, R, R1, J2, Q, K, F(xJ2), mediante la tipificación de los SNPs (M173, M207, M172, M9 y M346). Los SNPs fueron amplificados mediante Multiplex de PCR-AFLPs y sus productos visualizados en geles de poliacrilamida al 10% teńidos con GelRed. Las frecuencias promedio para Q, R1, Y J2 fueron 0.220, 0.315 y 0.095, respectivamente. No se encontró diferenciación genética significativa (p=0.21622) entre estas dos poblaciones (FST=0.00717). Las frecuencias de los linajes paternos presentes en las poblaciones demuestran las tres fuentes principales que contribuyen al acervo genético: americano (haplogrupo Q), europeos (haplogrupo R1) y aunque con una frecuencia más baja también se evidencian la presencia de un origen de Medio Oriente (J2)."
Libro de Resúmenes de las Décimas Jornadas Nacionales de Antropología Biológica. (Spanish)
http://www.fcnym.unlp.edu.ar/aabra/Libro%20de%20resumenes.pdf

"Among European haplotypes, DYS455=8 is virtually exclusive to I1. Most males are 11 at this marker, and the deletion to 8 in Hg I1 is believed to have taken place about 10,000 years ago. Since then, about 2% of I1's have mutated to 7 or 9, but some 98% of I1's still remain 8 at DYS455. Only a small, Middle Eastern subclade of J2b1a is known to also be 8 at DYS455, however that deletion is believed to have taken place only about a thousand years ago."
Danish Demes - a Regional DNA Project for Danish Americans and Danes around the World.
http://danishdemes.org/YDNA-results-HgI1.html

"As expected, the commonest haplogroup is R1b-M269 (43.1%), with highest frequency in the north-west, followed by I1-M253 (13.8%), I2-P215 (9.0%), R1a-M198 (7.5%) and J2-M172 (7.5%). Some clades show geographically-restricted distributions, with hg N1c-M178 being most frequent in the Saami, and sub-lineages of haplogroups E, G and J prevalent in the Mediterranean area."
Large-scale recent expansion of European patrilineages shown by population resequencing.
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2015/150519/ncomms8152/full/ncomms8152.html

RHAS
02-13-2016, 07:19 PM
Holy Tunic of Argenteuil. (german article)

"Außerdem ergab die DNAAnalyse, daß der Haplotypus dem Haplotypus J zuzuordnen ist, der durch die genetischen Marker (marqueurs génétiques) 12f2 charakterisiert ist. Dieser Haplotypus weist eine Untergruppe J2 auf, die durch die Marker M172 und M12 determiniert ist."
Union Civium Europae - Neues vom Turiner Grabtuch.
http://www.nachrichten-lebensrecht.de/nachrichten/der13kpl/2007/der13kpl0702.pdf

https://aleteiaen.files.wordpress.com/2015/10/web-argenteuil-afp-photo-martine-archembault-2.jpg

RHAS
02-13-2016, 07:20 PM
Famiglia Imperato (Y-DNA J2 confirmed)

"Imperato or Imperati, historical Princely Family Napoletana: Imperial Councillors - Barons of Montecorvino - Feudal lords of Monteleone - Family members of Her Majesty the Queen Giovanna II of Anjou Durazzo of Naples - Patrizi Giovinazzo - Patricians of Amalfi, aggregates the nobility Civica de Majori, Nobili Neapolitans ascribed off Piazza (branch of Spineta Marquis) .... Y-DNA: E8287 paternal line: Aplogrupp: J2."
Nobili Napoletani - Famiglia Imperato. (Translated from Italian.)
http://www.nobili-napoletani.it/imperato.htm

http://www.nobili-napoletani.it/images/foto/I/sepolcro%20vitaliano%20imperato.gif

RHAS
03-08-2016, 10:33 PM
"The two Y haplogroups, J & E3b, are fairly well recognised in the literature as moving westwards from the Eastern Mediterrean/Near Eastern region via the north Mediterranean coast during the Neolithic and later (Scozzari, et al., 2001 ; Richards, 2003 ; Semino et al., 2004 ; Di Giacomo et al., 2004 ; Cruciani et al., 2004, 2007), with sub-groups of both haplogroups expanding again and spreading westwards from the Balkans in the Northern Mediterranean in the Early Bronze Age (Cruciani et al., 2007)."
The post-glacial peopling of the British Isles: can `Celtic` and `Anglo-Saxon` physical intrusions be defined and measured?
https://www.academia.edu/13016640/The_post-glacial_peopling_of_the_British_Isles_can_Celtic_a nd_Anglo-Saxon_physical_intrusions_be_defined_and_measured_ Chapter_10

"The Y-haplogroup J has been argued to be a marker for the movement of Neolithic farmers into Europe (largely as J2) from the near East, spreading a dense swathe across the northern Mediterranean from the Levant through Greece, the Balkans and Albania, and Italy, where J2 accounts for up to 30 % of Y-lineages, to Iberia (Richards 2003, Semino 2004 & see fig 5.8b in Oppenheimer, 2006/7)."
The post-glacial peopling of the British Isles: can `Celtic` and `Anglo-Saxon` physical intrusions be defined and measured?
https://www.academia.edu/13016640/The_post-glacial_peopling_of_the_British_Isles_can_Celtic_a nd_Anglo-Saxon_physical_intrusions_be_defined_and_measured_ Chapter_10

"In other words J2e-M12 (J2b in YCC, 2008) originated and expanded locally from the Balkans to Italy, France and Iberia in south-western Europe during the Early Bronze Age, (see also Di Giacomo et al., 2004, and data in Semino et al., 2004, 2007, Scozzari et al., 2001.). Seen in the context of a hypothetical secondary Indo-European language spread, this Late Chalcolithic Bronze Age expansion scenario could even be consistent with the anomalous finding of significant frequencies (1 %-8 %) of J2e-M12 among Indic (Indo-European) speaking populations of South Asia (table 2, Semino et al., 2004)."
The post-glacial peopling of the British Isles: can `Celtic` and `Anglo-Saxon` physical intrusions be defined and measured?
https://www.academia.edu/13016640/The_post-glacial_peopling_of_the_British_Isles_can_Celtic_a nd_Anglo-Saxon_physical_intrusions_be_defined_and_measured_ Chapter_10

"In the British dataset I examined, nearly all of J belonged to the J2 sub-group ; further, all the STR marker profiles of J2 were most consistent with the J2e-M12 subgroup (as inferred using both STR table 3 of SOM in Cruciani et al 2007 and Appendix table in Di Giacomo et al. 2004), thus implying a Balkan Bronze Age source for much of J2 in Britain. J2 is found throughout Britain mainly concentrating in southern England and in central Scotland in a formerly Pictish region. In both regions it is present at rates from 2 % up to 7 %."
The post-glacial peopling of the British Isles: can `Celtic` and `Anglo-Saxon` physical intrusions be defined and measured?
https://www.academia.edu/13016640/The_post-glacial_peopling_of_the_British_Isles_can_Celtic_a nd_Anglo-Saxon_physical_intrusions_be_defined_and_measured_ Chapter_10

"For each of the three sets of candidate Y-lineages (subgroups of I1b, J2 & E3b1) moving from south-west Europe to Britain and Ireland during the Neolithic and Early Bronze Age, Galicia seems the most likely proximal source, on the multiple lines of evidence discussed above, yet southern France (Narbonne/Keltiké) or Liguria are also possible parallel sources for I1b (as discussed above). However, such indecision could be resolved, if the ultimate single origin of these genetic expansions is taken as the western Balkans. Curiously, this Eastern Mediterranean origin, with an Iberian-staging solution is still consistent with the narrative in the Lebar Gabála Érenn."
The post-glacial peopling of the British Isles: can `Celtic` and `Anglo-Saxon` physical intrusions be defined and measured?
https://www.academia.edu/13016640/The_post-glacial_peopling_of_the_British_Isles_can_Celtic_a nd_Anglo-Saxon_physical_intrusions_be_defined_and_measured_ Chapter_10

"Analysis of Y-chromosomes that could have arrived in the British Isles from the southwest, during the Neolithic and onwards, reveals a limited choice of three main groups of lineages I1b*/I1b2, J2e-M12 and E3b1, which are all found in the same distribution as the three putative western Celtic homelands as well as in the British Isles."
The post-glacial peopling of the British Isles: can `Celtic` and `Anglo-Saxon` physical intrusions be defined and measured?
https://www.academia.edu/13016640/The_post-glacial_peopling_of_the_British_Isles_can_Celtic_a nd_Anglo-Saxon_physical_intrusions_be_defined_and_measured_ Chapter_10

"We can see here that J2b-Alpha has a relatively wide distribution. We also note that J2a-Alpha is the most frequent J2b-cluster in Germany. If we were to speculate about the arrival of J2b-Alpha in the British isles, we might be tempted to suggest either Roman troops of Germanic origin, and/or Anglo-Saxons."
J2 Y-DNA Project - Analysis Phase 3.
http://www.j2-ydnaproject.org/analysisphase3.html

RHAS
03-11-2016, 01:11 PM
"The last haplogroup, which displayed an overall frequency of more than 5%, consisted of I1-M253 and J2-M172, showing total frequencies of 11.9% and 5.3%, respectively, aligning the Slovenian population with other central European populations (Rootsi et al., 2004). Other lineages observed in the Slovenian population were found at frequencies of less than 5%, with two exceptions related to regional frequency peaks: a frequency peak for haplogroup E1b1b1a1-M78 was detected at 7.3% in Lower Carniola and a frequency peak of 9.1% was detected in Upper Carniola for haplogroup J2-M172."
The paternal perspective of the Slovenian population and its relationship with other populations.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/251567977_The_paternal_perspective_of_the_Slovenia n_population_and_its_relationship_with_other_popul ations

"Sixteen different halogroups were identified in the analysed sample from Alagoas (Fig. 1). The haplogroup R1b1b2*-M269 (55.47%) was most frequent, followed by J2*-M172 (7.29%), J*(xJ2)-M304 (6.07%), E1b1b1a*-M78 (5.67%), I*(xI2a2)-M170 (4.86%), E1b1a*-M2 (4.45%), E1b1b1b*-M81 (4.05%), T*-M70 (4.05%), G*-M201 (3.64%), I2a2*-M26 (1.62%), Q1a3a*-M3 (0.81%), E*(xE1b1a-b)-M96 (0.40%), E1b1b1*(xE1b1b1a-c)-M35 (0.40%), E1b1b1c1*-M34 (0.40%), R1a1*-M17 (0.40%) and K*(xL,P,T)-M9 (0.40%). In Alagoas population, most male lineages belong to European halogroups (94.74%), followed by African (4.45%) and Amerindian (0.81%) haplogroups."
Analysis of Y chromosome SNPs in Alagoas, Northeastern Brazil.
http://www.fsigeneticssup.com/article/S1875-1768(09)00179-6/fulltext

"In Southern Europe the haplogroup J2, as defined by the M172 marker, can reach frequencies up to 35%, making the dissection of such lineage critical for population studies. Here we present a study on J2 chromosomes from the Italian peninsula. Populations and forensic implications are discussed. A total of 900 individuals were previously genotyped for a number of SNPs, including M172. More than 200 of these have been now genotyped for 7 SNPs within the J2 lineage using a multiplex SNaPshot approach."
Y chromosome J2 subtyping in an Italian sample: Population and forensic implications.
http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S187517680800200X?np=y

"In conclusion: We can now say that based on one of the three hypotheses (Kurgan, Anatolian and «Out of India theory») the haplogroup of Aryans formally claim R1a1a and J2."
Where in India did the Aryans arrive? Three answers to one question.
http://rjgg.molgen.org/index.php/RJGG/article/viewArticle/71

"Knowing that the Portuguese were the main source of Europeans migrating to Brazil, a comparative analysis was made between Y-chromosome diversity in Portugal and the subgroup of samples present in Rio de Janeiro that were assigned to European haplogroups (E3-M96, E3b-M78, E3b-M81, E3b-M34, I-M170, I-M26, J-12f2, J2-M172, K2-M70, L-M22, R1a1-M17, and R1b3-M269)."
Y-Chromosome Genetic Variation in Rio de Janeiro Population.
http://ychrom.invint.net/upload/iblock/1d2/Silva%202006%20Y-Chromosome%20Genetic%20Variation%20in%20Rio%20de%2 0Janeiro%20Population.pdf

"Haplotypes defined by the M35 and M172 polymorphisms have been interpreted as being representative, among others, of the Neolithic component of the European Y-chromosome variation."
The peopling of the Tyrrhenian islands from a genetic uniparental perspective (mtDNA and Y chromosome).
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Paolo_Francalacci/publication/235418313_The_peopling_of_the_Tyrrhenian_islands_f rom_a_genetic_uniparental_perspective_(mtDNA_and_Y _chromosome)/links/09e4151164cd80a02a000000.pdf

"Onofri et al. (2008) analyzed 900 individuals belonging to the common south European hg J2-M172 in order to increase its resolution using a multiplex approach with 7 downstream SNPs."
The History and Geography of the Y Chromosome SNPs in Europe: an update.
http://www.isita-org.com/jass/Contents/2010vol88/PDFonline/Jass2010_15_Francalacci.pdf

"These results support the hypothesis that the surname-chosen Arbereshe are representative of the Y-chromosome genetic variability of the Albanian founder population. Accordingly, the Arbereshe genetic structure can contribute to the interpretation of the recent biological history of the southern Balkans. Intra-haplogroup analyses suggest that this area may have experienced important changes in the last five centuries, resulting in a marked increase in the frequency of haplogroups I2a and J2."
Linking Italy and the Balkans. A Y-chromosome perspective from the Arbereshe of Calabria.
http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.3109/03014460.2010.491837

"All samples were first genotyped for markers, E-M35, F-M89, G-M201, H-M282, I-M170, K-M9, J-M172, J-M267, J-M304, R-M173, P-M45, R-M17 and R-M269, to classify them into major European branches."
The Greeks in the West: genetic signatures of the Hellenic colonisation in southern Italy and Sicily.
http://www.nature.com/ejhg/journal/v24/n3/full/ejhg2015124a.html

"Taken together, D-M174 and O-M175 account for 71.12% of the paternal lineages in Sherpas, bolstering the case for Tibetans as the ancestral population of Sherpas. Likewise, the relative rarity of other Y haplogroups (<10%) among Sherpas (supplementary Figure S1) were also rare among Tibetans, and mostly absent in other East Asian populations. Most of these haplogroups are prevalent in India (F*-M89, J2b*-M12 and R1a1-M17) and Island Southeast Asia (K*-M9), suggesting either shared ancient Y-chromosome lineages or limited recent admixture of Sherpas with surrounding populations."
Genetic evidence of a recent Tibetan ancestry to Sherpas in the Himalayan region.
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4633682/

RHAS
03-11-2016, 09:27 PM
"Bei den Y Haplogruppen dominiert im alpinen Raum die Y Haplogruppe R1b (23% in Öster-reich (A) und 48,5% in der Schweiz (CH)). Es folgen R1a (7% in CH und 26% in A), G2a (8% in A und 10% CH), J2 (6% CH und 12% in A), E1b1 (9% in A und CH), I1 (7% in CH und 12% in A), I2 (4% in CH, 8% in A), sowie einige kleinere Haplogruppen (J1, T, Q, N1c1)."
Molekularbiologische Ahnenforschung: Was verrät sie uns über unsere Herkunft und die Besiedlung Europas? (German)
http://europa.gmgnet.li/seniorenkolleg/pluginevents/dokumente/17%20Skript%20Prof.%20Doebbeling%20Molekularbiolog ische%20Ahnenforschung.pdf

"Von den Völkerwanderungen im Zeitraum von 1200 v. Chr. bis 500 n. Chr. Bleibt der Alpen-raum unberührt. Während der Zugehörigkeit zum römischen Reich, dürfte sich der Anteil mediterraner Haplogruppen (mt K, J, T und Y E1b1, J2, G2a) kaum erhöht haben."
Molekularbiologische Ahnenforschung: Was verrät sie uns über unsere Herkunft und die Besiedlung Europas? (German)
http://europa.gmgnet.li/seniorenkolleg/pluginevents/dokumente/17%20Skript%20Prof.%20Doebbeling%20Molekularbiolog ische%20Ahnenforschung.pdf

Image: Roman crossing the Alps by Mariusz Kozik.

https://s-media-cache-ak0.pinimg.com/736x/2a/db/f6/2adbf6d8851f79e4ee5fbb0ebfbe56c7.jpg

8104

RHAS
03-12-2016, 10:18 AM
"whereas haplogroup J shows a frequency higher than 15% only in Los Santos and Veraguas."
Exploring the Y Chromosomal Ancestry of Modern Panamanians.
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0144223

"The haplogroup diversity was 0.7794±0.0229 and the most frequent haplogroup was R1b1 followed by I(xI2a2), G, J2 and E1b1a(xE1b1a4,E1b1a7). In the analysis of genetic distance, we observed that the population of Espirito Santo State is closer to European and Latin American populations, being more distant from African and Asian populations, and in the classification of paternal lineages according to their ancestry, there was a greater European contribution (85.88 %), followed by African (11.37 %) and Amerindian (2.75 %), confirming previous studies conducted in the Brazilian population and consistent to the pattern of genetic admixture in Brazil."
Estudo de SNP`s do Cromossomo y na Populacao do estado do Espirito Santo, Brazil.
http://repositorio.unesp.br/bitstream/handle/11449/87818/figueiredo_rf_me_arafcf.pdf

"Em termos de frequęncia, o haplogrupo mais encontrado foi o R1b1 (43,14 %), seguido do I(xI2a2) (8,23 %), G (7,84 %), J2 (7,84 %) e E1b1a(xE1b1a4,E1b1a7) (7,46 %)."
Estudo de SNP`s do Cromossomo y na Populacao do estado do Espirito Santo, Brazil. (Portuguese)
http://repositorio.unesp.br/bitstream/handle/11449/87818/figueiredo_rf_me_arafcf.pdf

"Assim, as linhagens paternas obtidas neste estudo foram consideradas: 85,88 % européias (haplogrupos R1b1, I(xI2a2), G, J2, E1b1b1a, R1(xR1a,R1b1), R1a, J(xJ1a,J2), E1b1b1b, E1b1b1c, I2a2, T e N1c), 11,37 % africanas (haplogrupos E1b1a(xE1b1a4, E1b1a7), E1b1a7, E2b1, E1a e A) e 2,75 % ameríndias (haplogrupo Q1a3a(xQ1a3a1-3)) (Figura 12)."
Estudo de SNP`s do Cromossomo y na Populacao do estado do Espirito Santo, Brazil. (Portuguese)
http://repositorio.unesp.br/bitstream/handle/11449/87818/figueiredo_rf_me_arafcf.pdf

"Os principais haplogrupos foram determinados na populaçăo do Espírito Santo, sendo o mais frequente o R1b1 seguido pelo I(xI2a2), G, J2 e E1b1a(xE1b1a4,E1b1a7)."
Estudo de SNP`s do Cromossomo y na Populacao do estado do Espirito Santo, Brazil. (Portuguese)
http://repositorio.unesp.br/bitstream/handle/11449/87818/figueiredo_rf_me_arafcf.pdf

RHAS
09-21-2016, 09:48 PM
Ben Affleck. (Confirmed)

"Benjamin Geza Affleck-Boldt (born August 15, 1972), better known as Ben Affleck, is an American actor and filmmaker."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Affleck

http://cdn.collider.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/batman-v-superman-dawn-of-justice-ben-affleck.jpg

"Ben's Y-DNA helped us determine his paternal haplogroup, a genetic population group sharing a common patrilineal ancestor... Instead, it pointed us back to a rare subclade, or subgroup, of the haplogroup J2, known as J2a1d or J-M319"-- "Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series" p. 147 https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2sg3CwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Finding+Your+Roots%2C+Season+2%3A+The+Official+ Companion+to+the+PBS+Series+google+books&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=j2&f=false

"Ben's European result was 99.7% European. "Straight white bread," Ben joked."
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2sg3CwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Finding+Your+Roots%2C+Season+2%3A+The+Official+ Companion+to+the+PBS+Series+google+books&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=99.7&f=false


"Ben’s patrilineal line can be traced back to his great-great-great-grandfather, William F. Affleck, who was born, c. 1825, in Kirkpatrick Durham, Kirkcudbright, Scotland."
http://ethnicelebs.com/ben-affleck

"237096 Robert Affleck b.1785 d. 1854 Kirkpatrick-Durham J-M172"
https://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2-M172?iframe=ysnp

"248568 John Fleckie abt 1665, J2a1d J-M319"
http://www.worldfamilies.net/surnames/affleck/results

https://pmcvariety.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/casey-affleck-boston-strong-movie.jpg?w=670&h=377&crop=1

Casey Affleck. (Indirect Confirmed)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casey_Affleck

RHAS
09-22-2016, 09:24 PM
Dr. Steve Salvatore. (Confirmed)

Dr. Steve Salvatore, daytime talk show host, medical correspondent for WPIX, a former medical correspondent for CNN. Host of the popular TV program "Dr Steve" has been tested as haplogroup J2-M172.

http://images.zap2it.com/assets/p8589243_b_h3_aa/dr-steve.jpg

Video Source (Time 37:14): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A70Rc5GxBe8&t=37m14s


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A70Rc5GxBe8&t=37m14s

Viktor Reznov
09-25-2016, 12:36 AM
Ben Affleck. (Confirmed)

"Benjamin Geza Affleck-Boldt (born August 15, 1972), better known as Ben Affleck, is an American actor and filmmaker."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ben_Affleck

http://cdn.collider.com/wp-content/uploads/2016/01/batman-v-superman-dawn-of-justice-ben-affleck.jpg

"Ben's Y-DNA helped us determine his paternal haplogroup, a genetic population group sharing a common patrilineal ancestor... Instead, it pointed us back to a rare subclade, or subgroup, of the haplogroup J2, known as J2a1d or J-M319"-- "Finding Your Roots, Season 2: The Official Companion to the PBS Series" p. 147 https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2sg3CwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Finding+Your+Roots%2C+Season+2%3A+The+Official+ Companion+to+the+PBS+Series+google+books&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=j2&f=false

"Ben's European result was 99.7% European. "Straight white bread," Ben joked."
https://books.google.co.uk/books?id=2sg3CwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&dq=Finding+Your+Roots%2C+Season+2%3A+The+Official+ Companion+to+the+PBS+Series+google+books&hl=en&sa=X&redir_esc=y#v=onepage&q=99.7&f=false


"Ben’s patrilineal line can be traced back to his great-great-great-grandfather, William F. Affleck, who was born, c. 1825, in Kirkpatrick Durham, Kirkcudbright, Scotland."
http://ethnicelebs.com/ben-affleck

"237096 Robert Affleck b.1785 d. 1854 Kirkpatrick-Durham J-M172"
https://www.familytreedna.com/public/J2-M172?iframe=ysnp

"248568 John Fleckie abt 1665, J2a1d J-M319"
http://www.worldfamilies.net/surnames/affleck/results

https://pmcvariety.files.wordpress.com/2014/10/casey-affleck-boston-strong-movie.jpg?w=670&h=377&crop=1

Casey Affleck. (Indirect Confirmed)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Casey_Affleck

I always knew there was something (super)heroic about us J2a folks(and in particular L558 folks).

RHAS
10-19-2016, 09:12 PM
James Adair (J2 Confirmed)

"DNA analysis demonstrates that James Adair, the Indian trader and author, who was probably a cousin of our John Adair, belongs to male lineage J2"
https://books.google.co.uk/books…

"James Adair (c.1709–1783) was a native of County Antrim, Ireland, who went to North America and became a trader with the Native Americans of the southern states. From 1735 he resided there for forty years and was almost entirely cut off from the outside world. From 1744 he resided chiefly among the Chickasaw. In 1751, Adair moved to Laurens County, South Carolina."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James_Adair_(historian)

https://dcd1idayz8l8p.cloudfront.net/uploads/production/document/picture/220/main/James-Adair-270.jpg

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/6/6d/Tomestones_004.jpg

12250

RHAS
11-04-2016, 01:47 AM
The Younger Gang (Y-DNA Hg J2 Confirmed)

"On the DNA website, www.familytreedna.com/public/younger (http://www.familytreedna.com/public/younger) this is the pumpkin colored Group 2. To date, we have five kits whose DNA matches exactly (34990, 48680, 48963, 58569 and 72479) and due to the fairly solid genealogy of some of the participants, they can all be presumed to descend from a common ancestor, likely to be Humphrey Younger. The deep ancestral haplogroup, or clan, for this group is J2."
https://www.familytreedna.com/groups/younger/about/results

https://www.facebook.com/cultural.anthropology.of.haplogroup.j2/photos/p.1258462220878597/1258462220878597/?type=3&theater

https://scontent-amt2-1.xx.fbcdn.net/v/t1.0-9/14925473_1258462220878597_4069770737143047233_n.jp g?oh=aa6ccc6ad8e4d50e0a8e324c7b92c582&oe=588B3C1A

https://www.familytreedna.com/public/Younger?iframe=yresults

"The James–Younger Gang was a notable 19th-century gang of American outlaws that included Jesse James. The gang was centered in the state of Missouri, the home of most of the members. Membership fluctuated from robbery to robbery, as the outlaws' raids were usually separated by many months. At various times, it included the Younger brothers (Cole, Jim, John, and Bob), the James brothers (the notorious Jesse James and his brother Frank), John Jarrett (married to Cole's sister Josie), Arthur McCoy, George Shepard, Oliver Shepard, William McDaniel, Tom McDaniel, Clell Miller, Charlie Pitts (born Samuel A. Wells),[1] and Bill Chadwell (alias Bill Stiles). Contrary to frequent reports, the James brothers and Younger brothers were not related by blood. The James–Younger Gang had its origins in a group of Confederate bushwhackers who fought in the bitter partisan fighting that wracked the state of Missouri during the American Civil War. After the war, the men fought on, though it did not truly become the "James–Younger Gang" until 1868 at the earliest, when the authorities first named Cole Younger, John Jarrett, Arthur McCoy, George Shepard and Oliver Shepard as suspects in the robbery of the Nimrod Long bank in Russellville, Kentucky."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/James%E2%80%93Younger_Gang

http://www.whizzpast.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2014/07/jamesgang.jpg

http://s3.amazonaws.com/libapps/accounts/2491/images/HV9.11_r6.jpg

http://www.history.com/topics/westward-expansion/videos/jesse-james-leads-james-younger-gang

RHAS
11-04-2016, 01:48 AM
http://product-images.highwire.com/1115846/1534534.jpg

[YOUNGER] DNA December 2007 Report - Part 1
http://archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/YOUNGER/2007-12/1197128733


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SRvCvsRp5ho

RHAS
11-04-2016, 01:49 AM
Matthew E. Kaplan (J2 Confirmed)

http://fgc.arizona.edu/sites/fgc/files/styles/media_responsive_widest/public/mattkaplan.png

"Matt Kaplan and I go way back—some 10,000 years or so, according to our common Y chromosome. Kaplan, the director of research at the UA's Human Origins Genotyping Laboratory, and I are both members of Y chromosome haplogroup J2 (M172) ... When I think J2, it's the origin of agriculture, Kaplan says. The launch of agriculture also played a key role in the building of towns and cities, and the birth of civilization as people settled into one place and developed more complex social relationships."
http://www.tucsonweekly.com/tucson/genetic-detectives/Content?oid=1624485

"Matthew E. Kaplan of the Human Origins Genotyping Laboratory at the University of Arizona, talked about different ways DNA is used."
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5jPvDdvMWSQ


http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5jPvDdvMWSQ

RHAS
11-05-2016, 04:39 AM
"My husband and his father (and his father and his father and his father) are descendants of Haplogroup J2, the people who thousands of years ago introduced farming to much of the then-known world."
New York Times - Marie Antoinette, Is That You?
http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/25/fashion/25Cyber.html

"Haplogroups G2 and J2, which occur only at about 1-3% frequency in northwest Europe, may have come in part from the Mediterranean region up the Atlantic coast, and in part with the spread of farming through central Europe from Turkey. Possibly, some Roman soldiers who retired in Britain may have had these haplogroups. Haplogroup G2 is represented in the Owen project by Owen Group 17, while Haplogroup J2 is represented by Owen Group 1."
Owen Family Assocciation - Newsletter June 2007 vol. 22 issue 2.
http://owenfamilyassociation.org/ofanewsletters/Vol.22.2%20print-email.pdf

"The remaining NRY haplotypes belonged to West Eurasian lineages. Haplogroups E1b1b1, G2a, and J2a were represented by single haplotypes, and R1b1b2 was detected in four paternally unrelated tribal members, whose haplotypes differed by their STR profile (Tables 3 and 4). R1b1b2 (formerly R1b3) is delineated by the presence of M269 marker, and is a common lineage in Western Europe ([haplogroup 1 in Scozzari et al., 2001];Cruciani et al., 2002; Tambets et al., 2004; Karlsson et al., 2006), although it appears at its highest frequencies in the Iberian Peninsula and Ireland (Alonso et al., 2005; Moore et al., 2006). By contrast, haplogroup G occurs frequently in the Caucasus, Turkey, and Near East (Semino et al., 2000a; Al-Zahery et al., 2003; Nasidze et al., 2003; Cinnioglu et al., 2004), while J2 is ubiquitous in the Near East and Mediterranean region (Al-Zahery et al., 2003; Behar et al., 2004; Cinnioglu et al., 2004; Zalloua et al., 2008)."
Genetic Heritage and Native Identity of the Seaconke Wampanoag Tribe of Massachusetts.
http://xn--c1acc6aafa1c.xn--p1ai/library/papers/Zhadanov2010.pdf

"As for hg J2-M67*, by comparing PAR and SGP hts with those from European reference populations with DAPC, we obtain three different clusters (Figure S4). One of them (cluster 3) is exclusively found in PAR, where it is associated to a single documented pedigree (P05, Table 1) which includes 8 individuals. Another one (cluster 2) is found both in PAR (4 hts) and SGP (1 ht), as well as in Germany and Southern Italy. Dates for the whole of cluster 2 (Table 3) are as older as 6000-9000 years ago. Cluster 1, despite being well represented both in Germany and in Italy, has only one haplotype in SGP."
The genetic history of italians:new insights from uniparentally-inherited markers. - Traces of Medieval migrations in a socially-stratified population from Northern Italy. Evidence from uniparental markers and deep-rooted pedigrees.
http://amsdottorato.unibo.it/6527/1/Sarno_Stefania_Tesi.pdf

"Contrarily to I1-L22, DAPC analysis showed that J2-M67* PAR hts form two different clusters (Table S5, Figure S4), thus suggesting that their high frequency (compared to SGP) is the result of historic/geographic stratification. One of these clusters (cluster 2) is represented both in PAR and SGP and is frequent in Italy and Germany, yielding a date as old as 6000 YBP (Table 3). Another one (cluster 3) is found only in PAR, coinciding with a single pedigree (P05: Table S5, Figure S4) whose common ancestor lived in the 16th century. A search through the Yhrd database (www.yhrd.org) showed that its modal ht has a match in Apulia (Southern Italy)."
The genetic history of italians:new insights from uniparentally-inherited markers. - Traces of Medieval migrations in a socially-stratified population from Northern Italy. Evidence from uniparental markers and deep-rooted pedigrees.
http://amsdottorato.unibo.it/6527/1/Sarno_Stefania_Tesi.pdf

RHAS
03-31-2017, 12:25 AM
Daniel "The Hugenot" Perrin (Y-DNA J2a1h Confirmed!)

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/5/58/PerrinCOA.jpg

According to the DNA test of a relative and a fairly solid genealogy, Daniel "The Hugenot" Perrin belongs to haplogroup J2a1h2a1 (J2-L70, J2-L397, J2-L398).

"My Y-DNA Haplogroup is J2a1h2a1 [J2-L70 (J2-L397, J2-L398)]My Paternal Ancestry: I'm a direct male descendant of Daniel "The Huguenot" Perrin. He was one of the first European Settlers in New York. - Lyman Eric Perrine"
FTDNA Haplogroup J2-M172 Project Facebook Group.
https://www.facebook.com/groups/j2.m172/permalink/10155170247377769/

"Daniel Perrin (1642–1719) was one of the first permanent European inhabitants of Staten Island, New York. Known as "The Huguenot", he arrived in New York Harbor from the Isle of Jersey on July 29, 1665 aboard the ship Philip, under the command of Philip Carteret. He lived in Elizabethtown, part of the Elizabethtown Tract (now Elizabeth, New Jersey), for a while before moving across the Arthur Kill and settling on Staten Island. In 1692 he was granted 80 acres (320,000 m2) of land by Governor Benjamin Fletcher in an area along the south shore of Staten Island then known as Smoking Point. During the American Revolutionary War this area was known as Blazing Star, and is now known as Rossville."
Wikipedia - Daniel Perrin.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Daniel_Perrin

https://archive.org/details/danielperrintheh1910perr

https://ephemeralnewyork.files.wordpress.com/2009/09/newamsterdam1665.jpg

And by extension:

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d7/Ibperrinestatue.JPG

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/I._B._Perrine

RHAS
08-09-2017, 06:11 AM
Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Y-DNA J2b confirmed!

"Nassim Nicholas Taleb, born 1960 is a Lebanese-American essayist, scholar, statistician, former trader, and risk analyst, whose work focuses on problems of randomness, probability, and uncertainty. His 2007 book The Black Swan was described in a review by The Sunday Times as one of the twelve most influential books since World War II ... Taleb was born in Amioun, Lebanon to Minerva Ghosn and Najib Taleb, a physician/oncologist and a researcher in anthropology. His parents were Greek Orthodox Lebanese with French citizenship, and he attended a French school there, the Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassim_Nicholas_Taleb

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Taleb_mug.JPG


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaU7Sxk6Yk4
Nassim Nicholas Taleb speaks at Microsoft Research.

"In economics and finance, a Taleb distribution is the statistical profile of an investment which normally provides a payoff of small positive returns, while carrying a small but significant risk of catastrophic losses. The term was coined by journalist Martin Wolf and economist John Kay to describe investments with a "high probability of a modest gain and a low probability of huge losses in any period." The concept is named after Nassim Nicholas Taleb, based on ideas outlined in his Fooled by Randomness."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taleb_distribution

Nassim Nicholas Taleb Homepage
http://www.fooledbyrandomness.com/

2001: Inducted into the Derivatives Hall of Fame in February '01.
2007: Selected for the Power 30 in Business by SmartMoney in October '07.
2007: getAbstract International Book Award.
2007: His 2007 book The Black Swan was described in a review by The Sunday Times as one of the twelve most influential books since World War II.
2008: Frost & Sullivan Visionary of the Year Award.
2008: In a 2008 article in The Times, the journalist Bryan Appleyard described Taleb as "now the hottest thinker in the world".
2009: Made the Forbes magazine list of "Most Influential Management Gurus".
2011: He made the Bloomberg 50 most influential people in global finance.
2013, 2014, 2015: The most influential 100 thought leaders in the world by the GDI Institute
2014: The 25 most successful Wharton Business School graduates.
2016: Received an honorary doctorate from the American University of Beirut

"Taleb went on to tweet several charts of DNA variation among modern Europeans that he presented as “data” as opposed to Beard’s “anecdotal reasoning.”
https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/08/dna-romans/535701/

https://twitter.com/nntaleb/status/894678113296240640

https://medium.com/incerto/something-is-broken-in-the-uk-intellectual-sphere-7efc9a1f154a

"Today, we have a new contender for the title courtesy of Nassim Nicholas Taleb, the Black Swan author, NYU professor, and all-around public intellectual. Taleb’s new book, Antifragile, has been accompanied by a rash of interviews that have, as a side benefit, brought certain details about Taleb’s personal life to light. We’ve learned, for example, that Taleb “avoids fruit that does not have an ancient Greek or Hebrew name and drinks no liquid that has not been in existence for at least 1,000 years.”
Nassim Nicholas Taleb Will Crush Nerds and Bureaucrats Between His Massive Pecs.
http://nymag.com/daily/intelligencer/2012/12/nassim-nicholas-talebs-list-of-dislikes.html

wandering_amorite
08-09-2017, 12:09 PM
Nassim Nicholas Taleb, Y-DNA J2b confirmed!

"Nassim Nicholas Taleb (Arabic: نسيم نقولا طالب‎‎, alternatively Nessim or Nissim, born 1960) is a Lebanese-American essayist, scholar, statistician, former trader, and risk analyst, whose work focuses on problems of randomness, probability, and uncertainty. His 2007 book The Black Swan was described in a review by The Sunday Times as one of the twelve most influential books since World War II ... Taleb was born in Amioun, Lebanon to Minerva Ghosn and Najib Taleb, a physician/oncologist and a researcher in anthropology. His parents were Greek Orthodox Lebanese with French citizenship, and he attended a French school there, the Grand Lycée Franco-Libanais."
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nassim_Nicholas_Taleb

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/9/9b/Taleb_mug.JPG


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BaU7Sxk6Yk4

"Taleb went on to tweet several charts of DNA variation among modern Europeans that he presented as “data” as opposed to Beard’s “anecdotal reasoning.”
https://www.theatlantic.com/science/archive/2017/08/dna-romans/535701/

NNT breaks my heart. He's a brilliant, clear explicator of important ideas. But his epistemic arrogance about domains beyond his ken is outrageous—especially when you consider that his whole spiel is a crusade against epistemic arrogance. Nassim refers to J2 as "Indo-European", and alternates between identifying with Greek roots (suggesting that Greek Christians in the Levant are essentially Aegean migrants, because they generally look alike), and with Canaanite roots, on the condition that they can be reclassified, along with other J2-heavy Semitic-speaking peoples, as "originally Indo-European". He's militant about the idea that Levantine Arabic is relexified Aramaic, or just plain Aramaic with a light Arabic superstrate—despite the fact that most of his claims would require Egyptian Arabic to be reclassified as an Aramaic derivative too. He's an Arabophobe, and he doesn't know how to keep his identity politics to himself. Also: out of exasperation with people who actually know shit, he apparently blocked Razib Khan a long time ago—a pity, because they share a lot of interests, even political sympathies, in common.

Awale
08-09-2017, 12:22 PM
NNT breaks my heart. He's a brilliant, clear explicator of important ideas. But his epistemic arrogance about domains beyond his ken is outrageous—especially when you consider that his whole spiel is a crusade against epistemic arrogance. Nassim refers to J2 as "Indo-European", and alternates between identifying with Greek roots (suggesting that Greek Christians in the Levant are essentially Aegean migrants, because they generally look alike), and with Canaanite roots, on the condition that they can be reclassified, along with other J2-heavy Semitic-speaking peoples, as "originally Indo-European". He's militant about the idea that Levantine Arabic is relexified Aramaic, or just plain Aramaic with a light Arabic superstrate—despite the fact that most of his claims would require Egyptian Arabic to be reclassified as an Aramaic derivative too. He's an Arabophobe, and he doesn't know how to keep his identity politics to himself. Also: out of exasperation with people who actually know shit, he apparently blocked Razib Khan a long time ago—a pity, because they share a lot of interests, even political sympathies, in common.

Not familiar with this fellow but he sounds like a damn lunatic based on what you've shared here. :| Though I'm sure he's oddly competent at whatever it is he does when he stays out of anthropology and population-genetics based on what some googling implies about his reputation.

wandering_amorite
08-09-2017, 12:32 PM
Not familiar with this fellow but he sounds like a damn lunatic based on what you've shared here. :| Though I'm sure he's oddly competent at whatever it is he does when he stays out of anthropology and population-genetics based on what some googling implies about his reputation.

He's a statistician/options trader who wrote a wonderful trilogy of popular books that basically center on the problem of coming to terms with the reality that our ability to predict events/know things is limited, and therefore we should focus more on chaos-proofing ourselves and our institutions, rather than trying to build perfect statistical models. He justifies his dickishness with the "all press is good press" line (much like his new favorite morally deficient public figure), but more parsimoniously, he's a talented, self-satisfied dick making excuses for himself. (Doesn't mean you shouldn't check out his books, especially Antifragile!)

Agamemnon
08-09-2017, 02:52 PM
NNT breaks my heart. He's a brilliant, clear explicator of important ideas. But his epistemic arrogance about domains beyond his ken is outrageous—especially when you consider that his whole spiel is a crusade against epistemic arrogance. Nassim refers to J2 as "Indo-European", and alternates between identifying with Greek roots (suggesting that Greek Christians in the Levant are essentially Aegean migrants, because they generally look alike), and with Canaanite roots, on the condition that they can be reclassified, along with other J2-heavy Semitic-speaking peoples, as "originally Indo-European". He's militant about the idea that Levantine Arabic is relexified Aramaic, or just plain Aramaic with a light Arabic superstrate—despite the fact that most of his claims would require Egyptian Arabic to be reclassified as an Aramaic derivative too. He's an Arabophobe, and he doesn't know how to keep his identity politics to himself. Also: out of exasperation with people who actually know shit, he apparently blocked Razib Khan a long time ago—a pity, because they share a lot of interests, even political sympathies, in common.

Heard about him before (I also know some people who are close to him), to be perfectly honest he didn't come up with this claim, it's actually quite widespread in nationalist circles in Lebanon, Sa'id Akl for instance aggressively claimed that Lebanese Arabic was not, in fact, Arabic but rather a distinct language (he even promoted the romanisation of Lebanese Arabic). I myself often ended up arguing with Lebanese folks over this, their rejection of Arab identity is totally genuine and they cannot fathom the fact that their native language is a form of Arabic and not a descendant of Aramaic or Phoenician (they also have a hard time accepting the fact that Hebrew is the only Canaanite language left out there, there was a time when I used to tell them "Wanna speak Phoenician? Just learn Hebrew!", it drove them insane).

Though there is some truth to it (Levantine Arabic, especially the northern varieties, is pervaded by an Aramaic substratum), it certainly doesn't warrant labeling Levantine Arabic "relexified Aramaic" (there's no such thing as "relexification" in this context anyway, that's reminiscent of Wexler's crackpot theories) or claiming that Arabic is just a superstrate, like you said by that token one should also claim that Egyptian 3amiya is "relexified Coptic" or "Coptic with an Arabic superstrate"... Ironically, that's exactly what some of the Egyptian nationalists involved in "Pharaonism" claim.

Anyway, I bet he's J2b1-M205.

wandering_amorite
08-09-2017, 03:09 PM
Heard about him before (I also know some people who are close to him), to be perfectly honest he didn't come up with this claim, it's actually quite widespread in nationalist circles in Lebanon, Sa'id Akl for instance aggressively claimed that Lebanese Arabic was not, in fact, Arabic but rather a distinct language (he even promoted the romanisation of Lebanese Arabic). I myself often ended up arguing with Lebanese folks over this, their rejection of Arab identity is totally genuine and they cannot fathom the fact that their native language is a form of Arabic and not a descendant of Aramaic or Phoenician (they also have a hard time accepting the fact that Hebrew is the only Canaanite language left out there, there was a time when I used to tell them "Wanna speak Phoenician? Just learn Hebrew!", it drove them insane).

Though there is some truth to it (Levantine Arabic, especially the northern varieties, is pervaded by an Aramaic substratum), it certainly doesn't warrant labeling Levantine Arabic "relexified Aramaic" (there's no such thing as "relexification" in this context anyway, that's reminiscent of Wexler's crackpot theories) or claiming that Arabic is just a superstrate, like you said by that token one should also claim that Egyptian 3amiya is "relexified Coptic" or "Coptic with an Arabic superstrate"... Ironically, that's exactly what some of the Egyptian nationalists involved in "Pharaonism" claim.

Anyway, I bet he's J2b1-M205.

I'm aware that it's a common claim—but for someone who claims to be steeped in rigor, his cognate-based approach to identifying Aramaic words in Levantine Arabic (the cognate rate between Central Semitic languages being as high as it is) is frankly pathetic. Also, FWIW, I understand—even sympathize with—the Lebanese Christian rejection of Arab identity. Lebanese folks are overwhelmingly descended from indigenous NW Semitic folks, we know well. Phoenicianism and Pharaonism is their bare sense—assuming they don't cloud peoples' judgment about things like language origins—are perfectly innocuous and reasonable to me, as someone who could be called a "Zionist", whose ethnogeographic identity hearkens back 2,000 years. But not only is NNT Arabophobic; he's become Semitophobic, sharing and sometimes endorsing the views of these chuckleheads: http://operationantioch.blogspot.com/

Better yet—he's alternative claimed his J2b is of Greek or Phoenician origin (ultimately I-E in his mind—bonkers)—and the latter theory is almost certainly true, given what we've seen out of Byblos. But then he goes and ignores J1 @ the same site, from the same period, and characterizes its presence in the Levant as intrusive and non-Canaanite? And then, of course, ignores all autosomal evidence so that he can claim that common enthusiasm about olive oil, and similar looks, mean that Greek Islanders are genetically identical to Lebanese Christians. Seems to be part of a kitchen sink approach to distancing himself from being called "Arab" or "Middle Eastern". Fair enough. If I were a Greek Orthodox Lebanese guy, I'd identify with Phoenician and Byzantine heritage too. But NNT should be capable of nuance.

Awale
08-09-2017, 03:22 PM
Ironically, that's exactly what some of the Egyptian nationalists involved in "Pharaonism" claim.

Yes, I've seen this before. Quite a hilarious suggestion, honestly. But, in the end of the day if you took certain, especially rural, dialects of the various colloquial forms of Arabic (Maghrebi, Egyptian, Levantine, Gulfer etc.) and put speakers of those dialects who had ZERO knowledge of MSA and no contact with other Arabs in the same room and made them speak; they'd effectively find that they're speaking distinct languages and not comprehend all that much. But of course, they're all descended from the same language at the end of the day and this isn't remotely caused by being descendants of the prior local languages with an Arabic super-strate (rofl-copter).


I myself often ended up arguing with Lebanese folks over this, their rejection of Arab identity is totally genuine and they cannot fathom the fact that their native language is a form of Arabic and not a descendant of Aramaic or Phoenician (they also have a hard time accepting the fact that Hebrew is the only Canaanite language left out there, there was a time when I used to tell them "Wanna speak Phoenician? Just learn Hebrew!", it drove them insane).

I don't know if it's because we're in an "Arab country" where they're surrounded by other Arabs or not but I don't encounter as many "I'm not an Arab" types among the Lebanese here as some folks in other countries have noted to me. But I have encountered this sort of mentality before:


Nassim refers to J2 as "Indo-European", and alternates between identifying with Greek roots (suggesting that Greek Christians in the Levant are essentially Aegean migrants, because they generally look alike), and with Canaanite roots, on the condition that they can be reclassified, along with other J2-heavy Semitic-speaking peoples, as "originally Indo-European".

As some other members who grew up in the Middle East like myself will confirm (i.e. DMXX), it's something of a common stereotype in these parts that Levantine Christians (Lebanese ones in particular and this can sometimes be true for their Muslim counterparts as well) are, for lack of a better term, "OWD". They're often disliked for this as well. I haven't encountered this as much as some folks have but I've seen my fair share of "I'm descended from Greeks" or "I'm white" or "I'm descended from French colonists." talk. This Nassim guy is just another sadly typical manifestation of this stereotype, in my humble opinion. They're quite different from Copts in this respect who have, I assume, been affected by the generally strong sense of nationalism in Egypt.

Agamemnon
08-09-2017, 03:23 PM
I'm aware that it's a common claim—but for someone who claims to be steeped in rigor, his cognate-based approach to identifying Aramaic words in Levantine Arabic (the cognate rate between Central Semitic languages being as high as it is) is frankly pathetic. Also, FWIW, I understand—even sympathize with—the Lebanese Christian rejection of Arab identity. Lebanese folks are overwhelmingly descended from indigenous NW Semitic folks, we know well. Phoenicianism and Pharaonism is their bare sense—assuming they don't cloud peoples' judgment about things like language origins—are perfectly innocuous and reasonable to me, as someone who could be called a "Zionist", whose ethnogeographic identity hearkens back 2,000 years. But not only is NNT Arabophobic; he's become Semitophobic, sharing and sometimes endorsing the views of these chuckleheads: http://operationantioch.blogspot.com/

Better yet—he's alternative claimed his J2b is of Greek or Phoenician origin (ultimately I-E in his mind—bonkers)—and the latter theory is almost certainly true, given what we've seen out of Byblos. But then he goes and ignores J1 @ the same site, from the same period, and characterizes its presence in the Levant as intrusive and non-Canaanite? And then, of course, ignores all autosomal evidence so that he can claim that common enthusiasm about olive oil, and similar looks, mean that Greek Islanders are genetically identical to Lebanese Christians. Seems to be part of a kitchen sink approach to distancing himself from being called "Arab" or "Middle Eastern". Fair enough. If I were a Greek Orthodox Lebanese guy, I'd identify with Phoenician and Byzantine heritage too. But NNT should be capable of nuance.

As a rule of thumb, most of the Greek Orthodox (as well as the Melkites) in the Levant tend to subscribe to views similar to those espoused by Nassim Taleb. Their contention is often inconsistent and inherently contradictory, it can be a virulent mixture of "Syrian Nationalism" (think of Antoun Sa3adeh's SSNP), Phoenicianism and Greek Orthodoxy at the same time, Karim El Koussa's "Jesus the Phoenician (https://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Phoenician-Karim-El-Koussa/dp/162006281X)" is a pretty good example of this in fact. This is mostly a reaction to the various Arab movements' attempts to Arabise the region's history, but in the end they're doing the exact same thing.

I'm not surprised to see him claim that J1 is intrusive, as a rule of thumb you're whatever your father is (or was) in that part of the world. The funniest debates often take place on Arab DNA boards (or, more recently, on Twitter, if you can believe that). The problem with people like Nassim Taleb as I see it is that they will enthusiastically try to claim some sort of kinship with the Greeks or the Canaanites while actively seeking to "debunk" the Jews' links to their homeland.

Agamemnon
08-09-2017, 03:44 PM
Yes, I've seen this before. Quite a hilarious suggestion, honestly. But, in the end of the day if you took certain, especially rural, dialects of the various colloquial forms of Arabic (Maghrebi, Egyptian, Levantine, Gulfer etc.) and put speakers of those dialects who had ZERO knowledge of MSA and no contact with other Arabs in the same room and made them speak; they'd effectively find that they're speaking distinct languages and not comprehend all that much. But of course, they're all descended from the same language at the end of the day and this isn't remotely caused by being descendants of the prior local languages with an Arabic super-strate (rofl-copter).

Quite so, if you put an Algerian, a Yemeni and a Khaliji with no prior knowledge of MSA in the same room they'd have a hard time understanding one another. OTOH the state of diglossia in most Arab countries, which isn't going to disappear anytime soon, is probably going to lead to convergence sooner or later (we're already seeing this in fact). But like you said, despite the local substrates, all these varieties of Arabic are descendants of Old Arabic at the end of the day.



I don't know if it's because we're in an "Arab country" where they're surrounded by other Arabs or not but I don't encounter as many "I'm not an Arab" types among the Lebanese here as some folks in other countries have noted to me. But I have encountered this sort of mentality before:



As some other members who grew up in the Middle East like myself will confirm (i.e. DMXX), it's something of a common stereotype in these parts that Levantine Christians (Lebanese ones in particular and this can sometimes be true for their Muslim counterparts as well) are, for lack of a better term, "OWD". They're often disliked for this as well. I haven't encountered this as much as some folks have but I've seen my fair share of "I'm descended from Greeks" or "I'm white" or "I'm descended from French colonists." talk. This Nassim guy is just another sadly typical manifestation of this stereotype, in my humble opinion. They're quite different from Copts in this respect who have, I assume, been affected by the generally strong sense of nationalism in Egypt.

You encounter a lot of this in non-Arab countries, I've seen Lebanese folks reject Arab identity in Turkey, Israel (mostly ex-SLA members) and here in France. You almost never see Syrians doing that for example. IMO there are many reasons as to why they reject (or do not reject) Arab identity, it may depend on where they're currently living, but I'd say most of the reasons relate to Lebanese politics (which follow sectarian lines).

Awale
08-09-2017, 03:52 PM
OTOH the state of diglossia in most Arab countries, which isn't going to disappear anytime soon, is probably going to lead to convergence sooner or later (we're already seeing this in fact).

Good point, yes. Whatever strong divergence could've occurred someday is probably being gradually murdered by diglossia with MSA.


You encounter a lot of this in non-Arab countries, I've seen Lebanese folks reject Arab identity in Turkey, Israel (mostly ex-SLA members) and here in France. You almost never see Syrians doing that for example. IMO there are many reasons as to why they reject (or do not reject) Arab identity, it may depend on where they're currently living, but I'd say most of the reasons relate to Lebanese politics (which follow sectarian lines).

I see. I haven't encountered this much from Lebanese Muslims here, it's more common with their Christians but even then it's important to not generalize. A good friend of mine, who's a Maronite, is pretty matter-of-fact about how he's an Arab, as just one example. Like, it's not even an issue to him; he just believes that he is Arab, the same way I'd say that I'm Somali. And yes, I've never seen this behavior among Syrians here which sort of points to what you're saying about Lebanese politics, I suppose.

wandering_amorite
08-09-2017, 03:53 PM
As a rule of thumb, most of the Greek Orthodox (as well as the Melkites) in the Levant tend to subscribe to views similar to those espoused by Nassim Taleb. Their contention is often inconsistent and inherently contradictory, it can be a virulent mixture of "Syrian Nationalism" (think of Antoun Sa3adeh's SSNP), Phoenicianism and Greek Orthodoxy at the same time, Karim El Koussa's "Jesus the Phoenician (https://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Phoenician-Karim-El-Koussa/dp/162006281X)" is a pretty good example of this in fact. This is mostly a reaction to the various Arab movements' attempts to Arabise the region's history, but in the end they're doing the exact same thing.

I'm not surprised to see him claim that J1 is intrusive, as a rule of thumb you're whatever your father is (or was) in that part of the world. The funniest debates often take place on Arab DNA boards (or, more recently, on Twitter, if you can believe that). The problem with people like Nassim Taleb as I see it is that they will enthusiastically try to claim some sort of kinship with the Greeks or the Canaanites while actively trying to "debunk" the Jews' links to their homeland.

Taleb's actually pro-Israel, to the surprise of many of his Syrian Christian/Assadist/Iranian/Russian Twitter admirers.

Agamemnon
08-09-2017, 03:56 PM
Taleb's actually pro-Israel, to the surprise of many of his Syrian Christian/Assadist/Iranian/Russian Twitter admirers.

I did not say that Nassim Taleb is anti-Israel, just that people like him tend to be like that... Which, in turn, is why the pro-Assad/Ba3ath/IRGC/Putin crowd is dismayed, he's the exception, not the rule :lol:

Awale
08-09-2017, 04:04 PM
And then, of course, ignores all autosomal evidence so that he can claim that common enthusiasm about olive oil, and similar looks, mean that Greek Islanders are genetically identical to Lebanese Christians.

If he actually gave them the time of day, I wonder how bad he'd hyperventilate aftering seeing these results:

[1] "distance%=1.7375 / distance=0.017375"

Lebanese_Christian

Saudi 51.7
Greek 48.3

:eyebrows:

Agamemnon
08-09-2017, 04:28 PM
I see. I haven't encountered this much from Lebanese Muslims here, it's more common with their Christians but even then it's important to not generalize. A good friend of mine, who's a Maronite, is pretty matter-of-fact about how he's an Arab, as just one example. Like, it's not even an issue to him; he just believes that he is Arab, the same way I'd say that I'm Somali. And yes, I've never seen this behavior among Syrians here which sort of points to what you're saying about Lebanese politics, I suppose.

Oh yeah, I also used to know a Maronite who was adamant about being an Arab, he often used to claim that Lebanese Christians were all Ghassanids and what have you. These types exist as well, but like I said this has mostly to do with politics.

Awale
08-09-2017, 04:36 PM
Oh yeah, I also used to know a Maronite who was adamant about being an Arab, he often used to claim that Lebanese Christians were all Ghassanids and what have you. These types exists as well, but like I said this has mostly to do with politics.

This guy isn't so adamant as he just sort of casually accepts it as fact. Like, it's at a point where he'd probably look at you side-eyed and think you were nuts if you began arguing against him being "Arab". It's not as "thought out" as with that Ghassanids fellow. :lol: There are a good number like him here, at least based on my experiences. But yeah, I've noticed that they have a lot of sectarianism in their political scene from just searching online over the years.


Edit:

He's not necessarily ignorant, mind you and neither are some of the others I've encountered. I.e. he's well aware that Aramaic used to be spoken by his folk but the way he sees it seems to be "Yes, well we speak Arabic now so we're Arabs" from what I gather. Think he also believes there was substantive intermixture with Arabians but I'm not sure on that count.

Power77
08-09-2017, 04:45 PM
"Jesus the Phoenician (https://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Phoenician-Karim-El-Koussa/dp/162006281X)" is a pretty good example of this in fact.

Unsurprisingly, most of the customer reviews (https://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Phoenician-Karim-El-Koussa/dp/162006281X) are utterly hilarious:rofl:.

vettor
08-09-2017, 05:21 PM
As a rule of thumb, most of the Greek Orthodox (as well as the Melkites) in the Levant tend to subscribe to views similar to those espoused by Nassim Taleb. Their contention is often inconsistent and inherently contradictory, it can be a virulent mixture of "Syrian Nationalism" (think of Antoun Sa3adeh's SSNP), Phoenicianism and Greek Orthodoxy at the same time, Karim El Koussa's "Jesus the Phoenician (https://www.amazon.com/Jesus-Phoenician-Karim-El-Koussa/dp/162006281X)" is a pretty good example of this in fact. This is mostly a reaction to the various Arab movements' attempts to Arabise the region's history, but in the end they're doing the exact same thing.

I'm not surprised to see him claim that J1 is intrusive, as a rule of thumb you're whatever your father is (or was) in that part of the world. The funniest debates often take place on Arab DNA boards (or, more recently, on Twitter, if you can believe that). The problem with people like Nassim Taleb as I see it is that they will enthusiastically try to claim some sort of kinship with the Greeks or the Canaanites while actively seeking to "debunk" the Jews' links to their homeland.

never heard of Jesus the phoenician..................but have heard of the recent theory ( 2013-14) of Jesus the Gentile who married Mary the Phoenician priestess

RHAS
08-10-2017, 02:43 AM
Now you 4 filled 2 pages in this otherwise informative RHAS J2 News thread with this negative non relevant pseudo scientific offtopic bullshit as a response to a famous J2 find, i would respectfully like to ask you to get on topic or get out and discuss the pathetic issues you have somewere else. I suggest some J1 or E issue support thread.

fished
08-10-2017, 03:11 AM
Now you 4 filled 2 pages in this otherwise informative RHAS J2 News thread with this negative non relevant pseudo scientific offtopic bullshit as a response to a famous J2 find, i would respectfully like to ask you to get on topic or get out and discuss the pathetic issues you have somewere else. I suggest some J1 or E issue support thread.

Looks like Jesus was a J2 Indo-European Phoenician after all...

RHAS
09-10-2017, 11:54 AM
Cherokee Chief Bowl. (J2-M172 Confirmed!)

"I was extremely pleased to get correspondence from the descendants of Col. John Bowles, the founder of the Texas Band of the Cherokee who died at the head of a war party, shot in the back by a white man, near Redlands, Texas, in 1839. We located two elderly brothers in Oklahoma who were great-great-great grandsons of the legendary chief. To everyones surprise Bowles DNA came back J2, the haplogroup that contains the Cohen modal lineage, with a two-step mutation matching a person identified as Ashkenazi from the Ukraine. How could this be? Bowles was similar to several other Cherokee chiefs in having been a known half breed. His father was a Scots trader and his mother a full-blood Cherokee woman. When his father was killed and robbed by two North Carolinians in 1768, the son was only 12 years old, but within the next two years the fair-complexioned, auburn haired boy had killed both ! his fathers slayers. After that, he became a Chickamauga warrior. The Bowl (in Cherokee, Duwali) was a white chief at the same time as The Glass (in actuality, Thomas Glass of North Carolina) and Black Fox, my ancestor (a Scotsman descended from Blacks and Foxes), were chiefs of the Cherokee Nation."
Cherokee DNA Studies: Real People Who Proved the Geneticists Wrong
https://books.google.nl/books?id=o-0UCwAAQBAJ&printsec=frontcover&hl=nl&source=gbs_ge_summary_r&cad=0#v=onepage&q&f=false

http://genealogyimagesofhistory.com/images5/ebay/ChiefBowl.jpg

"The Chickamauga Cherokee were a group that separated from the greater body of the Cherokee tribes during the American Revolution."
Wikipedia - Chickamauga Cherokee
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chickamauga_Cherokee

"The Bowl (also Chief Bowles); (Cherokee: Di'wali) (~1765 – July 16, 1839) was one of the leaders of the Chickamauga Cherokee during the Cherokee–American wars, served as a Principal Chief of the Cherokee Nation–West, and was a leader of the Texas Cherokees (Tshalagiyi nvdagi). Di'wali was born around 1765 in Little Hiwassee, a Cherokee town in current-day North Carolina. His mother was Cherokee, and his father was a Scottish trader. Emmet Starr, an early historian of the Cherokee, describes Bowles as "being decidedly Gaelic in appearance, having light eyes, red hair, and somewhat freckled. ... On the morning of July 16, though severely outnumbered, Di'wali made every effort to win. Di'wali "exhorted the Indians to fight bravely. During the last battle he could be heard repeatedly encouraging them, and more than once urging them to charge." But eventually, with his troops depleted of ammunition, Di'wali ordered retreat, though he remained. Sitting on his horse, wearing a military hat and sword given to him by Sam Houston, Di'wali faced the advancing Texans. The Texan forces shot his horse and then injured the chief, shooting him in the thigh and the back. Unable to walk but raising himself to a sitting position on the ground, Di'wali was singing a war song when Capt. Robert W. Smith approached Di'wali and shot him in the head. Smith then took the sword from D'wali's body and swaths of skin from his arm as souvenir. Of Di'wali, John H. Reagan recalls, "I had witnessed his dignity and manliness in council, his devotion to his tribe in sustaining their decision for war against his judgement, and his courage in battle." As he had requested, Di'wali was left on the battlefield according to tradition. A historical marker now stands at the site of Chief Di'wali 's death. A funeral for Di'wali was held by the descendants of the tribe in 1995, on the 156 anniversary of his death."
Wikipedia - The Bowl (Cherokee Chief)
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Bowl_(Cherokee_chief)

http://www.countylinemagazine.com/July-2012/Remembering-the-Battle-of-the-Neches-Cherokee-Chief-Bowles-Other-Victims/CherokeeChiefBowlesMarkerWEB.PAG.jpg

"Notable Texas Cherokee -The Bowl Duwali, (d. 1839), Texas Cherokee chief and military leader. Killed at the Battle of the Redlands during the Cherokee War July 1839."
Wikipedia - Texas Cherokees.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Texas_Cherokees

https://farm4.staticflickr.com/3726/10225323086_fdb9dc891a.jpg

https://s3.amazonaws.com/gs-waymarking-images/1aa72530-f650-43cf-8e1e-49d93a1bbdd3_d.jpg

Power77
02-16-2018, 11:05 PM
Where do all those ethnic Anglo (and Gaelic) J2 carriers come from? Are they descended from Romans? Or Jews? Or French Normans? Or Huguenots? Or maybe even Celts for that matter:confused:? Perhaps our pal @Agamemnon could provide us some good answer(s) to such a question:).