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MacUalraig
01-24-2019, 11:08 AM
I'd be interested to browse other haplogroup stories, perhaps we can keep this thread just for the actual texts? This is the M222 one including the references.

" Haplogroup: R-M222


A genetic story of your fatherline


A predominantly Irish branch of the R-L21 fatherline.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-M222 group.

R-M222 is a branch of the larger R-L21 fatherline, which is itself a branch of the much larger R1b fatherline which was carried by waves of Indo-European expansions, and which is very common throughout Western Europe today as a result (ISOGG 2017). The R-L21 fatherline is associated with the northern Atlantic shores of Europe today, especially in parts of Britain and Brittany (Hay 2017). The R-M222 branch of this fatherline is most frequently found in Ireland (although it is also found occasionally outside Ireland in other parts of Britain) (Myres et al. 2011), especially in Belfast and County Mayo (Manco 2013). The literature, research, and theories behind M222 are a perfect example of how science is not immune to being caught up in mythos and politics.

Early theories on M222’s origins in Ireland links link the spread of this fatherline to the legendary Niall of the Nine Hostages, a supposed Fifth Century warlord based near present day Donegal (Manco 2013). The data does not support this however. Not only is M222 most common today in areas other than where Niall’s descendents are said to live today (if he did exist) (Manco 2013), but also it is likely that M222 arrived in Ireland much earlier than the Fifth Century, in either the dawn of the Bronze Age (Cassidy et al. 2016) or with the La Tene Iron Age culture (Manco 2013).

Who were the people who carried your signature?


There is some debate about whether the Indo-European Celts arrived in Ireland in the Bronze Age or the Iron Age (Anthony 2010). Nevertheless, the Celtic expansion that first started in the alps and radiated outwards as widespread as present-day Spain and Turkey did indeed reach the far corners of Britain (Hay 2017). As well as leaving a genetic legacy that can be traced all the way to you, the Celtic people that reached Britain brought with them a way of life and distinct cultural heritage that superseded much of what had gone before (Hill 1995).

There is archaeological evidence that the Iron Age Celts of Ireland built wooden trackways through bogs, similar to those dating from the same time in England, the Netherlands, and Germany (Casparie & Moloney 1994). Celtic Britain was connected to Romans, Greeks, and other European cultures via a vast trade network through which a number of goods including precious metals, slaves, and wine flowed (Simmons 2006). These Iron Age Celts also had a distinct art style (resurrected first in the Early Christian period in Ireland, and again in the Romantic Celtic Revival of the 18th and 19th Centuries) (Megaw & Megaw 1996), and a pantheon of Indo-European gods that had counterparts in the Norse, Slavic, Greek, and Indian Indo-European deities of that time (Cunliffe 1997).


Citations
• Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
• ISOGG (2017) Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades. [ONLINE]
• Myres, N.M., et al., 2011. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe. European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(1), pp.95-101.
• Casparie, W.A. and Moloney, A., 1994. Neolithic wooden trackways and bog hydrology. Journal of Paleolimnology, 12(1), pp.49-64.
• Simmons, Victoria (2006). John T. Koch, ed. Celtic Culture: A Historical Encyclopedia. I. ABC-CLIO. p. 1615. ISBN 1-85109-440-7.
• Hill, J.D., 1995. The pre-Roman Iron Age in Britain and Ireland (ca. 800 BC to AD 100): an overview. Journal of World Prehistory, 9(1), pp.47-98.
• Cunliffe, Barry, (1997) The Ancient Celts. Oxford, Oxford University Press ISBN 0-19-815010-5, pp.202, 204–8. p. 183 (religion).
• Anthony, D. W. (2007) The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press.
• Manco, J. 2013. Irish surnames and Y-DNA. [ONLINE]
• Cassidy, L.M., et al., 2016. Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(2), pp.368-373. "

deadly77
01-24-2019, 12:00 PM
This is my one for Haplogroup I1, Subclade I-Z2535:

A genetic story of your fatherline
Common today across Northern Europe, especially in Scandinavia.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the I1 group.

By the standards of haplogroups found commonly in Europe, I1 is positively ancient. The first humans to colonise Europe between 28-45,000 years ago carried (amongst other fatherlines) the I fatherline. I1 is thought to have split off from this quite soon afterwards, possibly around 27,000 years ago (Hay 2017). Despite this though, it does not seem to have been a common fatherline in Europe during this era (the Middle Stone Age). Most skeletons that have been tested from this time by archaeologists tend to carry the closely related but different I* and I2 fatherlines instead (Hay 2017). The prevalence of I1 increases at the next major era - the New Stone Age (or Neolithic). This was a period of extreme transition for Europe, as hunter gatherer lifestyles were replaced by new fangled agriculture, brought by waves of migration from the south and east (Skoglund et al. 2012). Some of these farmers populated the Baltic, Northern Germany and Scandinavia, and it seems likely that they mixed with the original hunter gatherers, introducing I1 to these new Europeans (Hay 2017). I1 seems to have been very successful at the forefront of expansion, as it is most common today in these areas, being carried by approximately one third of Scandinavian men today (Lappalainen et al. 2009). ​

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The Linear Pottery Culture and subsequent Funnelbeaker Culture are two major archaeological examples of groups of people who lived in Northern Europe at the time of transition from hunting and gathering to farming (Bickle & Whittle 2013; Hinz et al. 2012). Both groups are named for their distinctive pottery that can still be found today. The people from these culture groups were never one unified political entity, but instead are grouped together due to shared cultural traits and similar material goods.

Whilst they likely still relied heavily on hunting, these people were distinguished from their ancestors by the animals they herded and the crops they grew. Sheep, cattle, pigs, and goats were all kept for meat and (with the exception of pigs) milk (Bentley et al. 2004). We know from isotopic analysis of pottery shards that they used ceramic strainers to make cheese (Roffet-Salque et al. 2016), a calorie rich resource that would have been invaluable in helping to survive further migrations north. In fact, it is hypothesised that the lactose tolerance gene mutation that allows the majority of Europeans today to consume dairy products might have originated with these people during this time (Itan et al. 2009).

Citations
Skoglund, P., et al., 2012. Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe. Science, 336(6080), pp.466-469.
Hinz, M., et al., 2012. Demography and the intensity of cultural activities: an evaluation of Funnel Beaker Societies (4200–2800 cal BC). Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(10), pp.3331-3340.
Bickle, P. and Whittle, A. eds., 2013. The first farmers of central Europe: diversity in LBK lifeways. Oxbow Books.
Bentley, R.A., Price, T.D. and Stephan, E., 2004. Determining the ‘local’87 Sr/86 Sr range for archaeological skeletons: a case study from Neolithic Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31(4), pp.365-375.
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup I1 (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
Lappalainen, T., et al., 2008. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region. Annals of human genetics, 72(3), pp.337-348.
Underhill, P.A., et al., 2007. New phylogenetic relationships for Y-chromosome haplogroup I: reappraising its phylogeography and prehistory. Rethinking the Human Revolution. Cambridge, UK: McDonald Institute Monographs, pp.33-42.
Rootsi, S., et al., 2004. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in Europe. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 75(1), pp.128-137.
Lappalainen, T., et al., 2009. Population Structure in Contemporary Sweden—AY‐Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis. Annals of human genetics, 73(1), pp.61-73.
Itan, Y., et al., 2009. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Comput Biol, 5(8), p.e1000491.
Roffet-Salque, M., et al, 2016. From the inside out: Upscaling organic residue analyses of archaeological ceramics. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.

firemonkey
01-24-2019, 12:29 PM
Haplogroup: E-M35
Subclade: E-V68
A genetic story of your fatherline

Has many different sub-branches found across Africa, Europe, and the Near East.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the E-M35 group.

E-M35 is the major ancestral branch of the E1b1b fatherline, and includes almost every branch of the older E1b1b fatherline (ISOGG 2015). The only exception to this is a single branch of E1b1b found in Ethiopia (Hay 2017). This is consistent with the academic consensus that E1b1b itself originated somewhere in the Horn of Africa (Cruciani et al. 2004), probably around 30,000 years ago (Trombetta et al. 2015). E-M35 is estimated to have split off from E1b1b around 25,000 years ago (Trombetta et al. 2015). It likely originated not far from its ancestral fatherline, either in the Horn of Africa, North Africa, or in neighbouring areas in the Near East (Cruciani et al. 2004). The various sub-branches of E-M35 are often associated with the migration patterns of some of the first farmers (Lazaridis et al. 2016). The spread of E-M35 also seems to correspond to the spread of the Afro-Asiatic languages - modern examples of these include Hausa, Arabic, and Hebrew (Ehret et al. 2004). Connected to this, E-M35 and its sub-branches are commonly found in both Sephardic and Ashkenazi Jewish males (Behar et al. 2003). Today, E-M35 is found across a wide geographic area - it is most common along the coastline of the Mediterranean and the Horn of Africa, but is also found as far north as Germany and as far south as South Africa (Hay 2017).
Who were the people who carried your signature?

The spread of E-M35 is a story that involves a plethora of characters, cultures, and civilisations spread out across around 25,000 years (Hay 2017). The first people to carry this fatherline would have been hunter gatherers, living in small groups and using stone tools to hunt (Hay 2017). The rise of pastoralism (a semi-nomadic lifestyle living alongside domesticated herds of animals) is often associated with E-M35 - it is likely that the fatherline spread with some of the first pastoralists into North Africa, the Middle East, and perhaps even parts of South Europe (Gebremeskel & Ibrahim 2014). The rise of agriculture in the Fertile Crescent led to mass migrations from the Middle East across Europe and North Africa - these migrations also seem to have dispersed E-M35 even further (Underhill 2002). It is at this point that we begin to also see the rise of civilisations. Some of these, such as the Phoenicians and Greeks, developed into great maritime cultures, crossing the Mediterranean to trade and colonise far from their homelands (Semino et al. 2004). Later, the Roman Empire expanded even further into Northern Europe. All of this would have been instrumental in making E-M35 as widespread as it is today (Hay 2017).
Citations

Gebremeskel, E.I. & Ibrahim, M.E. (2014) Y-chromosome E haplogroups: their distribution and implication to the origin of Afro-Asiatic languages and pastoralism. European Journal of Human Genetics, 22(12), 1387-1392.
Lazaridis, I., et al. (2016) Genomic insights into the origin of farming in the ancient Near East. Nature, 536(7617), 419-424.
Hay, M. (2017) Haplogroup E1b1b (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
Trombetta, B., et al., 2015. Phylogeographic refinement and large scale genotyping of human Y chromosome haplogroup E provide new insights into the dispersal of early pastoralists in the African continent. Genome biology and evolution, 7(7), pp.1940-1950.
Underhill, P.A., 2002. Inference of Neolithic population histories using Y-chromosome haplotypes. Examining the farming/language dispersal hypothesis. McDonald Institute for Archaeological Research, Cambridge, pp.65-78.
Semino, O., et al., 2004. Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 74(5), pp.1023
Behar, D.M., et al., 2003. Multiple origins of Ashkenazi Levites: Y chromosome evidence for both Near Eastern and European ancestries. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 73(4), pp.768-779.
Cruciani, F., et al., 2004. Phylogeographic analysis of haplogroup E3b (E-M215) Y chromosomes reveals multiple migratory events within and out of Africa. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 74(5), pp.1014-1022.
Ehret, C., Keita, S.O. and Newman, P., 2004. The origins of Afroasiatic. Science, 306(5702), pp.1680-1680.
ISOGG (2017) Y-DNA Haplogroup E and its Subclades. [ONLINE].

Mine is very basic .

01-24-2019, 12:42 PM
Haplogroup: R-M198
Subclade: R-Z283

A genetic story of your fatherline
An ancient branch of the R1a fatherline.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-M198 group.

R-M198 (also known as R1a1a or R-M512) is a branch of the larger R1a fatherline, a haplogroup that is found across Europe and West Asia (Horvath 2016). R1a is found in particularly high concentrations in Eastern Europe (approaching 60% in Poland for example) (ISOGG 2018). R1a is thought to have branched off from another fatherline (R1) shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum, the coldest era of the last Ice Age, approximately 26,500 years ago (Hay 2018). This probably occurred somewhere in the Eurasian steppeland, quite possibly in Siberia or Central Asia (Horvath 2016). R1a is thought to have been one of the predominant fatherlines in the early Bronze Age proto-Indo-Europeans that lived around the modern day Ukraine and migrated outwards as far westwards as Spain, and as far eastwards as India (Hay 2018).

We know this because we can now test the DNA found in bodies in archaeological sites, even from thousands of years ago. Ancient DNA testing has confirmed the presence of haplogroup R1a1a in samples from the Corded Ware culture in Germany (2600 BCE), from Tocharian mummies (2000 BCE) in Northwest China, from Kurgan burials (circa 1600 BCE) from the Andronovo culture in southern Russia and southern Siberia, as well as from a variety of Iron-age sites from Russia, Siberia, Mongolia and Central Asia (Hay 2018).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The group of Indo-Europeans that first forayed into much of Northeast and Central Europe are now known as the Corded Ware Culture (Lougas et al. 2016). This name was given to these people by archaeologists, due to the elaborate and intricate cord-like patterns found on much of their pottery (Bĺgenholm 1995). It is believed that these are some of the first Europeans to make widespread use of dairy products in their diet (Itan et al. 2009). We know this from chemical analysis of the shards of pottery that have been found (Roffet-Salque et al. 2016). It is likely that this is also where the gene that allows the majority of Europeans today to be able to digest lactose developed (Itan et al. 2009). It is thought that both the Germanic and Slavic language families were disseminated across Europe by the Corded Ware culture, who spoke a language that is an ancestor to both of these tongues (Renfrew 1989).

It is worth noting that like many groups of peoples dubbed ‘cultures’ by archaeologists, the Corded Ware people were not a unified lot. Across the area in which they were found (a broad swath of European territory which includes Germany, Scandinavia, and Eastern Europe) there were many different sub-cultures, each with their own customs, ways of life, unique rituals, and distinctive archaeological records that help distinguish them today.

Dorkymon
01-24-2019, 12:43 PM
Here you go:

Haplogroup: I2
Subclade: I-S17250

A genetic story of your fatherline
Dispersed across Europe by hunter gatherers, and then again by farmers.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the I2 group.

The I2 fatherline is part of the broader I family of fatherlines - the oldest major haplogroup to have originated in Europe (Hay 2017). I2 itself appears to have originated around 26,500 - 19,000 years ago, during a period known as the Last Glacial Maximum. The last major Ice Age was at its peak during this era, with much of the world’s moisture locked up in glaciers, and vast portions of Europe covered by ice or tundra (Clark et al. 2009). As the Ice Age receded, stone age hunter gatherers began to branch out across the continent, following the herds of animals that proliferated as the world warmed. I2 would have branched out across Europe at this time. The next major demographic shift in this part of the world happened with the advent of farming, where a wave of migration from the Middle East replaced much of the existing population. The I2 fatherline appears to have been one of the winners of this era. It’s high presence today in much of Eastern Europe and Sardinia implies that the haplogroup was absorbed into these migrations early on (Hay 2017). I2 is also found in lower frequencies throughout much of the rest of Europe (ISOGG 2017).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The first farmers of Europe entered Greece around 9000 years ago - it took almost another millenia for these proto-agricultural communities to spread across Southeast Europe (Minichreiter 2001). The Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș culture (actually an amalgamation of three similar cultures found in Serbia, Hungary, and Romania respectively) have been studied by archaeologists for decades, in hope of shedding some light on how Europe’s first farmers lived (Minichreiter 2001). Permanent settlements were established in order to be able to farm - these generally were small and close to water (Donau-Archäologie 2007). An analysis of the animal bones found at these sites showed that 74% belonged to sheep and goat, indicating that many of the populace were probably shepherds (Donau-Archäologie 2007). However, many other types of bones were found in smaller quantities including stork, hare, and pike (Donau-Archäologie 2007). This is one piece of evidence showing that hunting and fishing were still performed even after farming replaced hunter-gathering. Bones weren’t only discarded though - an array of bone tools found shows that these people utilised every part of the animals they reared for both meat and resources. The Starčevo–Kőrös–Criș people also were adept at making pottery - both intricately decorated vessels, and also figurines representing both humans and animals (Donau-Archäologie 2007).

Trelvern
01-24-2019, 02:02 PM
Haplogroup: R-U106
Subclade: R-S497
A genetic story of your fatherline

The Germanic branch of the R1b fatherline.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-U106 group.

R-U106 is sometimes referred to as the Germanic branch of the R1b fatherline, and this haplogroup is found in large concentrations in both Northwest Germany and the Netherlands (Hay 2017). It is important to note that R-U106 is not the only haplogroup associated with Germanic people. Nevertheless, charting the expansion and migration patterns of R-U106 is largely an exercise in charting the expansion and migration patterns of Germanic people over the last few millennia (Hay 2017). R-U106 would have been carried into Germany at the dawn of the Bronze Age, when massive Indo-European migrations were sweeping across much of Eurasia (Myres et al. 2011). Central Europe represents where two different branches of this expansion would have met again and mingled, with R-U106 (as a branch of R1b) being more common in the west of Germany, whilst R1a lineages are more common further east (Hay 2017).

Today, most R-U106 results found outside of Germany are a result of the Germanic migrations that have shaped much of Europe for the past two millennia (Hay 2017). The Völkerwanderung period helped lead to the collapse of the Roman Empire as many Germanic peoples migrated across former Imperial territories in the initial centuries of the first millennium, including the Anglo-Saxon settlement of Britain (Myres et al. 2011).
Who were the people who carried your signature?

The Anglo-Saxons who first settled Britain in the Fifth Century AD were not one united folk, but instead were numerous disparate tribes originating from modern day Saxony and Denmark (Lambert 2014). Although undoubtedly in part a series of invasions, there were also peaceful migrations alongside this as the new Germanic settlers moved into the power vacuum left by the newly departed Roman legionnaires (Richards 1992).

The Anglo-Saxon way of life dramatically altered British demographics, leading to a cultural and political overhaul that still influences British life today (Lambert 2014). The English language, law system, and many other key customs all stem from this time (Richards 1992). Yet there is much about the first Anglo-Saxons that would be alien to a British person today. They were pagans that worshipped a pantheon of gods and they performed great ship burials to commemorate their dead rulers (Lambert 2014). The most famous of these burials at Sutton Hoo was excavated by archaeologists, and showed amongst other things that the Anglo-Saxons were connected to trade routes spanning as far as the Byzantine Empire in Greece and Turkey (Bruce-Mitford 1983).
Citations

Richards, J.D., 1992. Anglo-saxon symbolism. The Age of Sutton Hoo, pp.131-47.
Lambert, T. (2014) Daily life in Anglo Saxon England
Bruce-Mitford, R.L.S., 1983. The Sutton Hoo Ship-burial: pt. 1-2. Late Roman and Byzantine silver, hanging-bowls, drinking vessels, cauldrons and other containers, textiles, the lyre, pottery bottle and other items (Vol. 3).
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
ISOGG (2017) Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades. [ONLINE]
Myres, N.M., et al., 2011. A major Y-chromosome haplogroup R1b Holocene era founder effect in Central and Western Europe. European Journal of Human Genetics, 19(1), pp.95-101.

aaronbee2010
01-24-2019, 02:10 PM
Haplogroup: R2
Subclade: R-Y1383

A genetic story of your fatherline
R2 is most common in the Indian subcontinent.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R2 group.

The R2 group is predominantly found today in the Indian subcontinent, particularly in individuals whose ancestors were members of middle and upper castes in the Indian caste system (Zerjal et al. 2007). It is most common towards the southeast in states such as Andhra Pradesh (Kivisild et al. 2003). It is also found in areas of Central and West Asia such as Iran, Georgia, and Turkey (Wells et al. 2001). It is also common in some groups of Romani gypsies, no surprise considering that they are descended from a group that migrated out of India over a millenia ago.

The R2 haplotype seems to have probably come to the Indian Subcontinent from Central Asia, perhaps alongside the R1a1 haplotype which is also commonly found here (Sengupta et al. 2006). Most theories today hold that R2 was probably carried into the subcontinent by the Indo-Iranians, a branch of the Indo-European people that spread out from the steppe at the dawn of the Bronze Age (Sengupta et al. 2006). R2 is just one of the many branches of the R fatherline which has been associated with the Indo-Europeans. It is thought that the Indo-Iranians may have reached India around 1500 BC (Anthony 2007). The Indian caste system is thought to have developed after their arrival, which may explain why Indo-Iranian fatherlines are more common in higher castes (Zerjal et al. 2007).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The Indo-Iranians originated from Bronze Age cultures such as the Sintashta and Andronovo Cultures that flourished where the western Eurasian steppe meets the great expanse of Siberia (Anthony 2007). They are characterised not just by their genetic signatures, but also the languages that they would have spoken. Originating from just a small area in Central Asia, Indo-European languages spread out across Eurasia as Indo-European people did, and form the basis of languages spoken from Great Britain to India today (Anthony 2007). This helps explain why some universal and ancient concepts such as “mother” have very similar words associated with them when comparing countries found thousands of miles from one another (being māter in Latin, mḗtēr in Ancient Greek, mātár in Vedic Sanskrit, mātar in Old Iranian, and māthir in Old Irish).

Indo-Iranians would have been at the forefront of cutting edge military technology. Being a Bronze Age society, they would have used metal for their swords, as well as for elaborate jewellery and decoration . They may have been the first people to truly master the usage of chariots, the tanks of the Bronze Age world. This would explain why chariots are heavily featured in the ancient Indian Vedic texts, which also are thought to have their origins in the mythology of the Indo-Europeans (Anthony 2007).

Citations
Zerjal, T., et al. 2007. Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India. Human genetics, 121(1), pp.137-144.
Wells, R.S., et al. 2001. The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(18), pp.10244-10249.
Anthony, D. W. (2007) The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press.
Sengupta et al., 2006. Polarity and temporality of high resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
Kivisild et al., 2003. The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.


Haplogroup: R-M198
Subclade: R-Z283

It's a shame LivingDNA gave you a result like that. R-Z283 is a very broad result, and there are plenty of subclades for it on ISOGG and YFull that LivingDNA could've tested for, especially considering how incredibly significant R1a-Z283 is in Europe.

fostert
01-24-2019, 02:28 PM
Haplogroup: R-P312
Subclade: R-CTS4065

A genetic story of your fatherline

Our analysis gives your haplogroup as R-P312.

Your earliest ancestors reached Britain and Ireland around 2500BC. Geneticists can tell that there was a very rapid expansion of population because P312 immediately divides into many subgroups, a sign that many sons of each man were living, as were the grandsons of these men. Lineages were multiplying as people multiplied and spread. The rate of fertility was exponential and your P312 markers expanded in every direction.

Along with skills making particularly fine style of decorated pottery they were also skilled goldsmiths. It appears that they could extract copper from ore and work it. This was probably seen as a magical process; the use of fire to change dull ore into bright and shiny objects such as jewelry and weaponry.

Who were the people who carried your signature?

Farming was already important but your ancestors probably derived their tremendous prestige and power from their other skills.

Their decorated beakers have occasionally been found to contain the residue of beer and there is some evidence that the cultivation of barley increased after c2,500BC. However was more likely that their abilities as metalworkers powered their expansion. Copper is a comparatively soft metal but it could still be fashioned into fearsome weaponry. Axe-like halberds have been found. It may well be that the dominance of R1b lineages in general and R-P312 in particular came about because of an aggressive takeover of land. Your P312 marker, continued to cross the North Sea with early medieval invaders such as the Jutes, Angles, Frisians, Saxons and Norse Vikings, as well as German auxiliaries that came with the Roman legions.

No citations found[
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01-24-2019, 06:41 PM
Haplogroup: R2
Subclade: R-Y1383

A genetic story of your fatherline
R2 is most common in the Indian subcontinent.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R2 group.

The R2 group is predominantly found today in the Indian subcontinent, particularly in individuals whose ancestors were members of middle and upper castes in the Indian caste system (Zerjal et al. 2007). It is most common towards the southeast in states such as Andhra Pradesh (Kivisild et al. 2003). It is also found in areas of Central and West Asia such as Iran, Georgia, and Turkey (Wells et al. 2001). It is also common in some groups of Romani gypsies, no surprise considering that they are descended from a group that migrated out of India over a millenia ago.

The R2 haplotype seems to have probably come to the Indian Subcontinent from Central Asia, perhaps alongside the R1a1 haplotype which is also commonly found here (Sengupta et al. 2006). Most theories today hold that R2 was probably carried into the subcontinent by the Indo-Iranians, a branch of the Indo-European people that spread out from the steppe at the dawn of the Bronze Age (Sengupta et al. 2006). R2 is just one of the many branches of the R fatherline which has been associated with the Indo-Europeans. It is thought that the Indo-Iranians may have reached India around 1500 BC (Anthony 2007). The Indian caste system is thought to have developed after their arrival, which may explain why Indo-Iranian fatherlines are more common in higher castes (Zerjal et al. 2007).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The Indo-Iranians originated from Bronze Age cultures such as the Sintashta and Andronovo Cultures that flourished where the western Eurasian steppe meets the great expanse of Siberia (Anthony 2007). They are characterised not just by their genetic signatures, but also the languages that they would have spoken. Originating from just a small area in Central Asia, Indo-European languages spread out across Eurasia as Indo-European people did, and form the basis of languages spoken from Great Britain to India today (Anthony 2007). This helps explain why some universal and ancient concepts such as “mother” have very similar words associated with them when comparing countries found thousands of miles from one another (being māter in Latin, mḗtēr in Ancient Greek, mātár in Vedic Sanskrit, mātar in Old Iranian, and māthir in Old Irish).

Indo-Iranians would have been at the forefront of cutting edge military technology. Being a Bronze Age society, they would have used metal for their swords, as well as for elaborate jewellery and decoration . They may have been the first people to truly master the usage of chariots, the tanks of the Bronze Age world. This would explain why chariots are heavily featured in the ancient Indian Vedic texts, which also are thought to have their origins in the mythology of the Indo-Europeans (Anthony 2007).

Citations
Zerjal, T., et al. 2007. Y-chromosomal insights into the genetic impact of the caste system in India. Human genetics, 121(1), pp.137-144.
Wells, R.S., et al. 2001. The Eurasian heartland: a continental perspective on Y-chromosome diversity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 98(18), pp.10244-10249.
Anthony, D. W. (2007) The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press.
Sengupta et al., 2006. Polarity and temporality of high resolution Y-chromosome Distributions in India Identify Both Indigenous and Exogenous Expansions and Reveal Minor Genetic Influence of Central Asian Pastoralists.
Kivisild et al., 2003. The Genetic Heritage of the Earliest Settlers Persists Both in Indian Tribal and Caste Populations.



It's a shame LivingDNA gave you a result like that. R-Z283 is a very broad result, and there are plenty of subclades for it on ISOGG and YFull that LivingDNA could've tested for, especially considering how incredibly significant R1a-Z283 is in Europe.

Hi aaronbee,

They did test downstream of R1a-Z283, it is just I was Negative for all known SNP below it, since then I have tested with he Big Y with FTDNA, and have discovered I was actually an unknown and novel Branch under of R1a-Z283, since then another Big Y tester has joined me on that Branch, seems we were perhaps originally Baltic ( maybe) but somehow made our way to Normandy, and came over with the Normans, today at least judging by STR results that this new Branch under R1a-Z283 is predominantly an Norman Irish Haplogroup, with mainly the Irish Eustace surname. There are other surnames associated again Irish but through maybe some paternal event and lost the Eustace surname.
http://www.yfull.com/share/yreport/a50acaa3420b1e3e7f03fc7a30501293/

aaronbee2010
01-24-2019, 06:53 PM
Hi aaronbee,

They did test downstream of R1a-Z283, it is just I was Negative for all known SNP below it, since then I have tested with he Big Y with FTDNA, and have discovered I was actually an unknown and novel Branch under of R1a-Z283, since then another Big Y tester has joined me on that Branch, seems we were perhaps originally Baltic ( maybe) but somehow made our way to Normandy, and came over with the Normans, today at least judging by STR results that this new Branch under R1a-Z283 is predominantly an Norman Irish Haplogroup, with mainly the Irish Eustace surname. There are other surnames associated again Irish but through maybe some paternal event and lost the Eustace surname.
http://www.yfull.com/share/yreport/a50acaa3420b1e3e7f03fc7a30501293/

Thank you for clarifying that for me! I looked for your subclade on YFull and it's directly below Z283 at the moment (for now), so it's definitely as new as you say. I've edited my post accordingly. Progress is always nice to see! :D

There's another user here who received a broad subclade result, and he was quite disappointed. I wonder if the same reason applied to his case.

Angriff
01-24-2019, 07:23 PM
Haplogroup: I-L22
Subclade: I-P109

A genetic story of your fatherline

Most frequently found in the northerly regions of Scandinavia and Finland.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the I-L22 group.

I-L22 is a branch of the I1 fatherline, which is amongst the oldest of the major European haplogroups to be present on the continent today (Lappalainen et al. 2009). Some of the first humans who colonised Europe 45,000 years ago would have carried the basal I fatherline, with I1 arising around 27,000 years ago (Hay 2017). It appears that I1 increased in prevalence during the Neolithic (New Stone Age) when migrant farmers from the Middle East intermixed with the older European hunter gatherers as they migrated northwards and westwards (Lappalainen et al. 2009).

I1 is particularly common in Northern Europe - I-L22 is most frequently found in Finland, Sweden, and Norway (Hay 2017). This northern cluster of I1 fatherlines probably arose during the Bronze Age, where a people known to archaeologists as the ‘Battle-Axe Culture’ lived in Scandinavia (Hay 2017). The far north location of much of the I-L22 fatherline today has been hypothesised to be linked to the Indo-European expansion into Europe at around this time (Hay 2017). These new peoples who migrated from the Eurasian steppe into Europe may have prompted a northerly migration by the Bronze Age Scandinavians, where they reverted from a farming lifestyle back to a semi-nomadic pastoral existence, with more emphasis placed again on hunting and gathering (Neuvonen et al. 2015).

Who were the people who carried your signature?

The Battle Axe Culture of Bronze Age Scandinavia was a northern offshoot of the a people known as the Corded Ware Culture (Lougas et al. 2016). Both these cultures are named for items that archaeologists have found associated with these people - the Corded Ware people are associated with elaborate and intricate cord-like patterns found on much of their pottery (Bagenholm 1995). Meanwhile, the Battle Axe people are (rather unsurprisingly) associated with battle axes found in graves and other archaeological sites associated with these people - it is thought that these metal objects were high status symbols (Vandkilde 2005).

It is believed that these are some of the first Europeans to make widespread use of dairy products in their diet (Itan et al. 2009). We know this from chemical analysis of the shards of pottery that have been found (Roffet-Salque et al. 2016). It is likely that this is also where the gene that allows the majority of Europeans today to be able to digest lactose developed (Itan et al. 2009). Rock carvings from this time display seafaring vessels, attesting to the Battle Axe people’s place in a dynamic network of cultures in the Bronze Age Baltic (Ostmo 1996).

Citations

Ostmo, Einar (1996). " The Indo-European Question: a Norwegian perspective ". In Huld, Martin E; Jones-Bley, Karlene. The Indo-Europeanization of Northern Europe. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
Lougas, L., Kriiska, A. and Maldre, L., 2016. New dates for the Late Neolithic Corded Ware Culture burials and early husbandry in the East Baltic region. Archaeofauna, (16).
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup I1 (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
Vandkilde, H., 2005. A review of the early Late Neolithic period in Denmark: practice, identity and connectivity. Journal of Neolithic Archaeology.
Lappalainen, T., et al., 2009. Population Structure in Contemporary Sweden—AY‐Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis. Annals of human genetics, 73(1), pp.61-73.
Itan, Y., et al., 2009. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Comput Biol, 5(8), p.e1000491.
Neuvonen, A.M., et al., 2015. Vestiges of an ancient border in the contemporary genetic diversity of north-eastern Europe. PloS one, 10(7), p.e0130331.
Roffet-Salque, M., et al, 2016. From the inside out: Upscaling organic residue analyses of archaeological ceramics. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
Bagenholm, G., 1995. Corded Ware ceramics in Finland and Sweden. Fennoscandia Archaeologica, 12, pp.19-23.

digital_noise
01-24-2019, 07:36 PM
Originated in the New Stone Age, but spread mostly in the Bronze Age.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the E-V13 group.

E-V13 emerged approximately 7800 years ago as a branch of the larger E-M78 fatherline (itself a branch of the E1b1b fatherline) (ISOGG 2015). In fact, all carriers of the E-V13 fatherline today have a common ancestor who lived even more recently than that, approximately 4100 years ago (Hay 2017). This means that, despite the E-V13 fatherline originating in the Neolithic (New Stone Age), it is the Bronze Age where it really proliferated.

This leads to an interesting theory. The Bronze Age migrations that heavily altered European demographics were carried out by a group known now as the Indo-Europeans - a group of nomadic pastoralists from the steppe (Anthony 2010). However, E-V13 originated outside of this group. What appears to have happened is that a non-Indo-European lineage was adopted into the Indo-European expansion, and was then extremely successful in proliferating (Hay 2017). The E-V13 fatherline is found in both R1a and R1b areas (the two areas representing the major differing Indo-European migration patterns). Thus, it seems probable that E-V13 was assimilated early on in the Indo-European history (Hay 2017). Today, E-V13 is most common in Greece and Southeast Europe, although it is unique amongst E fatherlines in that it is also found as far north as Scandinavia and the Balkans (Cruciani et al. 2007).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The Mycenaeans and the Dorians are two prominent examples of the new Indo-European ruling people who established hegemony over Greece towards the end of the Bronze Age (Hay 2017). Bronze Age Greece is both older and very different from the well known Classical Greek era, which occurred over six hundred years after the Mycenaean civilisation was at its high point. In fact, the Mediterranean-wide dark age that separates these two periods obscured much that was previously well known, to the extent that the inhabitants of Greece came to believe that the giant walls of Mycenae had been built by cyclops rather than men (Pliny).

Instead of the city states that flourished during the Greek Classical period, Mycenaean Greece was divided into a number of palatial estates - ruled by a wanax (king) who formed the cultural, religious, and economic centre of his domain (Kelder 2010). These states were interconnected through alliances and frequent war - in addition, they were all linked into the vast Bronze Age trade routes that spanned the Mediterranean, bringing the Egyptian, Mesopotamian, and Greek spheres closer together (Cline 2015). Today, the Mycenaeans are perhaps best remembered as the semi-mythical invaders in Homer’s Iliad. Although recorded centuries afterwards, archaeological evidence suggests that the Mycenaeans did indeed fight against the city of Troy (Cline 2015).

Stephen1986
01-24-2019, 11:43 PM
Haplogroup: I-L22
Subclade: I-P109

A genetic story of your fatherline

Most frequently found in the northerly regions of Scandinavia and Finland.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the I-L22 group.

I-L22 is a branch of the I1 fatherline, which is amongst the oldest of the major European haplogroups to be present on the continent today (Lappalainen et al. 2009). Some of the first humans who colonised Europe 45,000 years ago would have carried the basal I fatherline, with I1 arising around 27,000 years ago (Hay 2017). It appears that I1 increased in prevalence during the Neolithic (New Stone Age) when migrant farmers from the Middle East intermixed with the older European hunter gatherers as they migrated northwards and westwards (Lappalainen et al. 2009).

I1 is particularly common in Northern Europe - I-L22 is most frequently found in Finland, Sweden, and Norway (Hay 2017). This northern cluster of I1 fatherlines probably arose during the Bronze Age, where a people known to archaeologists as the ‘Battle-Axe Culture’ lived in Scandinavia (Hay 2017). The far north location of much of the I-L22 fatherline today has been hypothesised to be linked to the Indo-European expansion into Europe at around this time (Hay 2017). These new peoples who migrated from the Eurasian steppe into Europe may have prompted a northerly migration by the Bronze Age Scandinavians, where they reverted from a farming lifestyle back to a semi-nomadic pastoral existence, with more emphasis placed again on hunting and gathering (Neuvonen et al. 2015).

Who were the people who carried your signature?

The Battle Axe Culture of Bronze Age Scandinavia was a northern offshoot of the a people known as the Corded Ware Culture (Lougas et al. 2016). Both these cultures are named for items that archaeologists have found associated with these people - the Corded Ware people are associated with elaborate and intricate cord-like patterns found on much of their pottery (Bagenholm 1995). Meanwhile, the Battle Axe people are (rather unsurprisingly) associated with battle axes found in graves and other archaeological sites associated with these people - it is thought that these metal objects were high status symbols (Vandkilde 2005).

It is believed that these are some of the first Europeans to make widespread use of dairy products in their diet (Itan et al. 2009). We know this from chemical analysis of the shards of pottery that have been found (Roffet-Salque et al. 2016). It is likely that this is also where the gene that allows the majority of Europeans today to be able to digest lactose developed (Itan et al. 2009). Rock carvings from this time display seafaring vessels, attesting to the Battle Axe people’s place in a dynamic network of cultures in the Bronze Age Baltic (Ostmo 1996).

Citations

Ostmo, Einar (1996). " The Indo-European Question: a Norwegian perspective ". In Huld, Martin E; Jones-Bley, Karlene. The Indo-Europeanization of Northern Europe. Journal of Indo-European Studies Monograph. Washington, DC: Institute for the Study of Man.
Lougas, L., Kriiska, A. and Maldre, L., 2016. New dates for the Late Neolithic Corded Ware Culture burials and early husbandry in the East Baltic region. Archaeofauna, (16).
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup I1 (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
Vandkilde, H., 2005. A review of the early Late Neolithic period in Denmark: practice, identity and connectivity. Journal of Neolithic Archaeology.
Lappalainen, T., et al., 2009. Population Structure in Contemporary Sweden—AY‐Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis. Annals of human genetics, 73(1), pp.61-73.
Itan, Y., et al., 2009. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Comput Biol, 5(8), p.e1000491.
Neuvonen, A.M., et al., 2015. Vestiges of an ancient border in the contemporary genetic diversity of north-eastern Europe. PloS one, 10(7), p.e0130331.
Roffet-Salque, M., et al, 2016. From the inside out: Upscaling organic residue analyses of archaeological ceramics. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.
Bagenholm, G., 1995. Corded Ware ceramics in Finland and Sweden. Fennoscandia Archaeologica, 12, pp.19-23.

edwardsson
01-25-2019, 03:57 PM
Haplogroup: R-U152
Subclade: R-L20
A genetic story of your fatherline

Most common in the European Alps, which first nurtured the Celtic people.
Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-U152 group.
Also known as haplogroup R1b-S28, the R-U152 fatherline is a branch of R1b, a fatherline found throughout much of Western Europe. The R-U152 branch is often called the Italo-Celtic branch, due to its probable origins in the Alpine regions of Southern Europe during the Bronze and Iron Ages (Hay 2017). The Alps were key to the European transition from the age of stone to the ages of metal - the valuable ores that lay deep within the mountains were intrinsically linked to the rise of the people often referred to as the ancient Celts (Manning 1995). Cultures such as the Urnfield Culture, Hallstatt Culture, and La Tene Culture formed the basis for a series of mass migrations that saw Celtic culture exported as far as Britain in the north, and Anatolia in the east (Hay 2017). Due to this, whilst R-U152 is most common today in North Italy and the regions geographically closest to the Alps, the R-U152 signature can also be found at a lower frequency across much of Western and Central Europe, and can also be found in parts of Greece, Turkey, and even Central Asia (Cruciani et al. 2011).

Who were the people who carried your signature?

To some, the term ‘Celtic’ describes a set of Indo-European peoples who migrated across much of Europe from 1200 BC onwards, carrying a distinctive set of languages, cultural traits (such as chariot usage and a revered pantheon of gods), and genetic signatures with them (Hay 2017). Yet today, ‘Celtic’ is also used in many other contexts. In particular, the Celtic Revival in the 19th Century blended both romanticism and ethnic nationalism into a potent cocktail that helped foster identity and resistance in various European areas including (but not limited to) Scotland, Ireland, and Brittany (Megaw & Megaw 1996). The cultural links and continuity between the ancient Celts and these places is often debated, and too complex to be resolved by genetics alone. However, it is worth noting that there is no one ‘Celtic’ signature shared between these areas that makes them united in their distinctiveness when compared to neighbouring regions (Leslie et al. 2015).
Thus when we say that R-U152 is a haplogroup associated with the Celts, we are talking about an expansion of Iron and Bronze Age people, and not about the modern Welsh, Scots, Irish, or other people who may be referred to as Celts. Indeed, many of these people will be far more likely to carry different fatherlines instead (Hay 2017).

Citations



Cruciani, F., et al., 2011. Strong intra-and inter-continental differentiation revealed by Y chromosome SNPs M269, U106 and U152. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 5(3), pp.e49-e52. (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20732840)
Megaw, J.V.S. and Megaw, M.R., 1996. Ancient Celts and modern ethnicity. Antiquity, 70(267), pp.175-181. (https://goo.gl/FU2VXL)
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA). [ONLINE] (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_R1b_Y-DNA.shtml)
Leslie, S., et al., 2015. The fine-scale genetic structure of the British population. Nature, 519(7543), pp.309-314. (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v519/n7543/abs/nature14230.html)
Manning, W.H., 1995. Ironworking in the Celtic world. The Celtic World, pp.310-320. (https://books.google.co.uk/books?hl=en&lr=&id=C3cUtvx8uwIC&oi=fnd&pg=PA310&dq=Manning,+W.H.,+1995.+Ironworking+in+the+Celtic+ world.+The+Celtic+World,+pp.310-320.&ots=d5uSCWcVUv&sig=vhKe7qxhoIc09OdUNL3GuKILCog#v=onepage&q&f=false)

Adrian Stevenson
01-25-2019, 06:40 PM
Haplogroup: I1

A genetic story of your fatherline
Common today across Northern Europe, especially in Scandinavia.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the I1 group.

By the standards of haplogroups found commonly in Europe, I1 is positively ancient. The first humans to colonise Europe between 28-45,000 years ago carried (amongst other fatherlines) the I fatherline. I1 is thought to have split off from this quite soon afterwards, possibly around 27,000 years ago (Hay 2017). Despite this though, it does not seem to have been a common fatherline in Europe during this era (the Middle Stone Age). Most skeletons that have been tested from this time by archaeologists tend to carry the closely related but different I* and I2 fatherlines instead (Hay 2017). The prevalence of I1 increases at the next major era - the New Stone Age (or Neolithic). This was a period of extreme transition for Europe, as hunter gatherer lifestyles were replaced by new fangled agriculture, brought by waves of migration from the south and east (Skoglund et al. 2012). Some of these farmers populated the Baltic, Northern Germany and Scandinavia, and it seems likely that they mixed with the original hunter gatherers, introducing I1 to these new Europeans (Hay 2017). I1 seems to have been very successful at the forefront of expansion, as it is most common today in these areas, being carried by approximately one third of Scandinavian men today (Lappalainen et al. 2009). ​

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The Linear Pottery Culture and subsequent Funnelbeaker Culture are two major archaeological examples of groups of people who lived in Northern Europe at the time of transition from hunting and gathering to farming (Bickle & Whittle 2013; Hinz et al. 2012). Both groups are named for their distinctive pottery that can still be found today. The people from these culture groups were never one unified political entity, but instead are grouped together due to shared cultural traits and similar material goods.

Whilst they likely still relied heavily on hunting, these people were distinguished from their ancestors by the animals they herded and the crops they grew. Sheep, cattle, pigs, and goats were all kept for meat and (with the exception of pigs) milk (Bentley et al. 2004). We know from isotopic analysis of pottery shards that they used ceramic strainers to make cheese (Roffet-Salque et al. 2016), a calorie rich resource that would have been invaluable in helping to survive further migrations north. In fact, it is hypothesised that the lactose tolerance gene mutation that allows the majority of Europeans today to consume dairy products might have originated with these people during this time (Itan et al. 2009).

Citations
Skoglund, P., et al., 2012. Origins and genetic legacy of Neolithic farmers and hunter-gatherers in Europe. Science, 336(6080), pp.466-469.
Hinz, M., et al., 2012. Demography and the intensity of cultural activities: an evaluation of Funnel Beaker Societies (4200–2800 cal BC). Journal of Archaeological Science, 39(10), pp.3331-3340.
Bickle, P. and Whittle, A. eds., 2013. The first farmers of central Europe: diversity in LBK lifeways. Oxbow Books.
Bentley, R.A., Price, T.D. and Stephan, E., 2004. Determining the ‘local’87 Sr/86 Sr range for archaeological skeletons: a case study from Neolithic Europe. Journal of Archaeological Science, 31(4), pp.365-375.
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup I1 (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
Lappalainen, T., et al., 2008. Migration waves to the Baltic Sea region. Annals of human genetics, 72(3), pp.337-348.
Underhill, P.A., et al., 2007. New phylogenetic relationships for Y-chromosome haplogroup I: reappraising its phylogeography and prehistory. Rethinking the Human Revolution. Cambridge, UK: McDonald Institute Monographs, pp.33-42.
Rootsi, S., et al., 2004. Phylogeography of Y-chromosome haplogroup I reveals distinct domains of prehistoric gene flow in Europe. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 75(1), pp.128-137.
Lappalainen, T., et al., 2009. Population Structure in Contemporary Sweden—AY‐Chromosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Analysis. Annals of human genetics, 73(1), pp.61-73.
Itan, Y., et al., 2009. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Comput Biol, 5(8), p.e1000491.
Roffet-Salque, M., et al, 2016. From the inside out: Upscaling organic residue analyses of archaeological ceramics. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.

martinmkp
01-28-2019, 05:56 AM
Haplogroup: R-U152
Subclade: R-L2

A genetic story of your fatherline
Most common in the European Alps, which first nurtured the Celtic people.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-U152 group.

Also known as haplogroup R1b-S28, the R-U152 fatherline is a branch of R1b, a fatherline found throughout much of Western Europe. The R-U152 branch is often called the Italo-Celtic branch, due to its probable origins in the Alpine regions of Southern Europe during the Bronze and Iron Ages (Hay 2017). The Alps were key to the European transition from the age of stone to the ages of metal - the valuable ores that lay deep within the mountains were intrinsically linked to the rise of the people often referred to as the ancient Celts (Manning 1995). Cultures such as the Urnfield Culture, Hallstatt Culture, and La Tene Culture formed the basis for a series of mass migrations that saw Celtic culture exported as far as Britain in the north, and Anatolia in the east (Hay 2017). Due to this, whilst R-U152 is most common today in North Italy and the regions geographically closest to the Alps, the R-U152 signature can also be found at a lower frequency across much of Western and Central Europe, and can also be found in parts of Greece, Turkey, and even Central Asia (Cruciani et al. 2011).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
To some, the term ‘Celtic’ describes a set of Indo-European peoples who migrated across much of Europe from 1200 BC onwards, carrying a distinctive set of languages, cultural traits (such as chariot usage and a revered pantheon of gods), and genetic signatures with them (Hay 2017). Yet today, ‘Celtic’ is also used in many other contexts. In particular, the Celtic Revival in the 19th Century blended both romanticism and ethnic nationalism into a potent cocktail that helped foster identity and resistance in various European areas including (but not limited to) Scotland, Ireland, and Brittany (Megaw & Megaw 1996). The cultural links and continuity between the ancient Celts and these places is often debated, and too complex to be resolved by genetics alone. However, it is worth noting that there is no one ‘Celtic’ signature shared between these areas that makes them united in their distinctiveness when compared to neighbouring regions (Leslie et al. 2015).

Thus when we say that R-U152 is a haplogroup associated with the Celts, we are talking about an expansion of Iron and Bronze Age people, and not about the modern Welsh, Scots, Irish, or other people who may be referred to as Celts. Indeed, many of these people will be far more likely to carry different fatherlines instead (Hay 2017).

Citations
Cruciani, F., et al., 2011. Strong intra-and inter-continental differentiation revealed by Y chromosome SNPs M269, U106 and U152. Forensic Science International: Genetics, 5(3), pp.e49-e52.
Megaw, J.V.S. and Megaw, M.R., 1996. Ancient Celts and modern ethnicity. Antiquity, 70(267), pp.175-181.
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
Leslie, S., et al., 2015. The fine-scale genetic structure of the British population. Nature, 519(7543), pp.309-314.
Manning, W.H., 1995. Ironworking in the Celtic world. The Celtic World, pp.310-320.

Sid Griffith
01-28-2019, 05:46 PM
Haplogroup: R-L21
Subclade: R-DF13

A genetic story of your fatherline
A fatherline associated with the Atlantic shores of Northern Europe.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-L21 group.

R-L21 is a branch of the larger R1b fatherline which was carried by waves of Indo-European expansions, and which is very common throughout Western Europe today as a result (ISOGG 2017). R-L21 is also sometimes referred to as R-S145 or R-M529 (ISOGG 2017); regardless of the terminology, it is perhaps best described as the ‘Atlantic Celtic’ branch of R1b (Hay 2017). It is most common today in the northwest of Europe, especially Britain and Northwest France (Cassidy et al. 2016). It probably reached these regions in the early Bronze Age - analysis of ancient bones found in Ireland and dated to 2000 BC associate the L21 marker with people who have arrived at this time (Cassidy et al. 2016). It is therefore very probable that these people were the ones that introduced bronze working to areas such as Ireland and Scotland (Cassidy et al. 2016).

They are most common in areas of Britain less affected by the Anglo-Saxon migrations - Scotland, Wales, and especially Ireland. The high density of this signature in Brittany may be due to the mass exodus of Britons that occurred around 500 AD as the Anglo-Saxons were invading. Many centuries later, the slave raids of the Vikings may help explain why R-L21 is fairly common today in Iceland and Norway as well (Hay 2017).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
Although the R-L21 fatherline is found today throughout much of Western Europe at low frequencies, it is most common today in Ireland, Scotland, Wales, and Brittany. Collectively, these regions are often associated with a ‘Celtic’ identity that means many different things to different people. Arising out of a blend of romanticism and ethnic nationalism in the 19th Century, this idea of a Celtic identity linked the peoples of these areas back to the pre-Roman inhabitants of Western Europe (Megaw & Megaw 1996). Nevertheless, there was never one unified and shared Celtic culture that united these people together. Instead, they would have each had their own unique cultures and customs, stemming from a common source but differing due to centuries of both isolation and outside influences (Laing 2006).

The identities of the ancient peoples of what is now Scotland, Ireland, and Wales are more complex. Although they are certainly continuations to some degree of the Bronze and Iron Age tribal peoples of Britain, they have never existed in a vacuum. Both the Romans and the Vikings have imparted much to these areas as well, either through direct occupation or more peaceful trade (Laing 2006).

Citations
Laing, L.R., 2006. The Archaeology of Celtic Britain and Ireland: c. AD 400-1200. Cambridge University Press.
Megaw, J.V.S. and Megaw, M.R., 1996. Ancient Celts and modern ethnicity. Antiquity, 70(267), pp.175-181.
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup R1b (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
ISOGG (2017) Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades. [ONLINE]
Cassidy, L.M., et al., 2016. Neolithic and Bronze Age migration to Ireland and establishment of the insular Atlantic genome. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 113(2), pp.368-373.

BroderTuck
01-28-2019, 09:19 PM
Haplogroup: N-M46
Subclade: N-VL29

A genetic story of your fatherline

A branch of a fatherline that has extended across the Eurasian steppe.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the N-M46 group.

Fatherline N-M46 (also known as fatherline N1c1) is strongly associated with the Uralic people - that is, both the Samoyedic and the Finno-Ugric peoples found in Scandinavia, Eastern Europe, and Russia (Hay 2017). N-M46 is a branch of the larger N1c fatherline, and is thought to have split off into its own unique haplogroup around 4400 years ago (Tambets et al. 2004). It is the most common branch of the N fatherline to be found across the globe today (Hay 2017). The Uralic peoples speak some of the only non-Indo-European languages native to Europe today (other than the Basque language spoken in Northern Iberia) (Haak et al. 2015). Hungarian, Estonian, and Finnish are all examples of Uralic languages, and have hinted at a far off geographic origin for these people long before the rise of population genetics (Hay 2017).

By tracing the prevalence and variance in the different N fatherlines and their sub-branches, it is possible to trace the movement of the ancestors of the Uralic peoples over thousands of years. It seems likely that the original N1 fatherline emerged in the Liao River Valley in China, and a slow movement of people over millennia has brought the fatherline further and further westwards, with branches such as N-M46 having probably emerged within the Eurasian steppe land and forests (Shi et al. 2013).

Who were the people who carried your signature?

The name ‘Uralic’ is derived from the Ural Mountains, found in modern day Russia and northern Kazakhstan (Guglielmino et al. 1990). At various points in history, westwards migrations appear to have bought both the Uralic peoples and the N-M46 fatherline into Europe. One of the last major migrations of this kind was the Magyar invasion of Hungary in the 9th Century AD (Barford 2001). The Magyars were a collection of Uralic nomadic tribes probably located near the River Dniester in modern day Ukraine (Toth 1998). Like the Anglo-Saxons in Britain, some Magyars would have already been familiar with the Carpathian Basin (the heartlands of Hungary) due to various Early Medieval powers such as the Byzantine and Bulgarian Empires hiring them as mercenaries to fight on their behalf (Fodor 1982). Historians still debate the exact reason why the Magyars invaded - some see it as a pre-planned war for a new homeland, whereas others see it as a reaction to aggression from neighbouring states (Toth 1998).

The following century and a half saw the Magyars transition from a tribal coalition of semi-nomadic groups into a strong, centralised European kingdom (Fodor 1982). Medieval Slavic culture played a major influence, as did the Catholic Church - less than a century after the invasion, the Hungarian king Stephen I had abandoned the Tengri faith and enforced Christian worship (Barford 2001).

Citations

Haak et al., 2015. Massive migration from the steppe is a source for Indo-European languages in Europe.
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup N1c. [ONLINE]
Tambets et al., 2004. The Western and Eastern Roots of the Saami—the Story of Genetic “Outliers” Told by Mitochondrial DNA and Y Chromosomes.
Guglielmino, C.R., et al., 1990. Uralic genes in Europe. American Journal of Physical Anthropology, 83(1), pp.57-68.
Barford, P. M. (2001). The Early Slavs: Culture and Society in Early Medieval Eastern Europe. Cornell University Press.
Tóth, S. L. (1998). Levédiától a Kárpát-medencéig [From Levedia to the Carpathian Basin] (in Hungarian). Szegedi Középkorász Muhely.
Fodor, István (1982). In Search of a New Homeland: The Prehistory of the Hungarian People and the Conquest. Corvina Kiadó.
Shi, H., et al. (2013). Genetic Evidence of an East Asian Origin and Paleolithic Northward Migration of Y-chromosome Haplogroup N. PLOS ONE 8(6): e66102

fabaud
01-31-2019, 11:58 AM
Haplogroup: J2
Subclade: J-M92

A genetic story of your fatherline

J2 is found across Asia, being around 21,000 years old.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the J2 group.

This haplogroup is around 21,000 years old (Batini et al., 2015) and widespread throughout Asia, particularly the Middle East and Turkey, and is also found in the Mediterranean. It is believed to have originated in the Middle East (Semino et al., 2004).

After the initial migration of modern humans out of Africa, they settled in an area known as the Fertile Crescent in what is now the Middle East. The climate and land allowed the development of agriculture and the first crops were grown. Whilst some of your ancient ancestors settled, forming the first recorded civilisations, others migrated through Turkey along the Mediterranean coast, most likely herding goats and sheep, and other populations spread through Central Asia to India. It is suggested this migration happened after the end of the last ice age resulted in these areas becoming more suitable for farming. Additionally it has been theorised that the Silk Road, a network of trade routes crossing Asia, was responsible for more recent movements of haplogroup J2 to East Asia (Zhong et al., 2010).

Who were the people who carried your signature?

Agriculture first developed in the Middle East around 11,000 years ago (Kılınc et al., 2016) in the Fertile Crescent, helped by its rich soil and favourable climate for farming. The crops your ancient ancestors cultivated included wheat, barley, peas, and lentils. As people built permanent dwellings the first villages formed, supported by abundant food from agriculture, leading to organised communities. Animals such as goats and sheep were domesticated, and the herders of these spread into the more mountainous Caucasus region, an area including Georgia, Turkey, Azerbaijan, and Iran, where it is found today at relatively high frequencies (Balanovsky et al., 2011).

Haplogroup J2 is found amongst both Sephardi and Ashkenazi Jews. Sephardi Jews historically lived in Spain and Portugal whilst Ashkenazi Jews typically resided in Central and Eastern Europe, with a large modern diaspora in the USA.

Citations

Kılınç, G., et al. (2016) The Demographic Development of the First Farmers in Anatolia. Current Biology, Volume 26, Issue 19, 2659 - 2666
Batini, C., et al. (2015) Large-scale Recent Expansion of European Patrilineages Shown by Population Resequencing. Nature Communications 6, 7152
Semino, O., et al., 2004. Origin, diffusion, and differentiation of Y-chromosome haplogroups E and J: inferences on the neolithization of Europe and later migratory events in the Mediterranean area. The American Journal of Human Genetics, 74(5), pp.1023
Zhong, H., et al. (2010). Extended Y Chromosome Investigation Suggests Postglacial Migrations of Modern Humans into East Asia via the Northern Route. Molecular Biology and Evolution 28 (1): 717-727.
Balanovsky, O., et al. (2011) The Genographic Consortium. Parallel Evolution of Genes and Languages in the Caucasus Region. Molecular Biology and Evolution, 28(10), 2905–2920

Amud93
09-05-2019, 03:48 PM
Haplogroup: R-M198
Subclade: R-CTS3402

A genetic story of your fatherline

An ancient branch of the R1a fatherline.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-M198 group.

R-M198 (also known as R1a1a or R-M512) is a branch of the larger R1a fatherline, a haplogroup that is found across Europe and West Asia (Horvath 2016). R1a is found in particularly high concentrations in Eastern Europe (approaching 60% in Poland for example) (ISOGG 2018). R1a is thought to have branched off from another fatherline (R1) shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum, the coldest era of the last Ice Age, approximately 26,500 years ago (Hay 2018). This probably occurred somewhere in the Eurasian steppeland, quite possibly in Siberia or Central Asia (Horvath 2016). R1a is thought to have been one of the predominant fatherlines in the early Bronze Age proto-Indo-Europeans that lived around the modern day Ukraine and migrated outwards as far westwards as Spain, and as far eastwards as India (Hay 2018).

We know this because we can now test the DNA found in bodies in archaeological sites, even from thousands of years ago. Ancient DNA testing has confirmed the presence of haplogroup R1a1a in samples from the Corded Ware culture in Germany (2600 BCE), from Tocharian mummies (2000 BCE) in Northwest China, from Kurgan burials (circa 1600 BCE) from the Andronovo culture in southern Russia and southern Siberia, as well as from a variety of Iron-age sites from Russia, Siberia, Mongolia and Central Asia (Hay 2018).

Who were the people who carried your signature?

The group of Indo-Europeans that first forayed into much of Northeast and Central Europe are now known as the Corded Ware Culture (Lougas et al. 2016). This name was given to these people by archaeologists, due to the elaborate and intricate cord-like patterns found on much of their pottery (Bĺgenholm 1995). It is believed that these are some of the first Europeans to make widespread use of dairy products in their diet (Itan et al. 2009). We know this from chemical analysis of the shards of pottery that have been found (Roffet-Salque et al. 2016). It is likely that this is also where the gene that allows the majority of Europeans today to be able to digest lactose developed (Itan et al. 2009). It is thought that both the Germanic and Slavic language families were disseminated across Europe by the Corded Ware culture, who spoke a language that is an ancestor to both of these tongues (Renfrew 1989).

It is worth noting that like many groups of peoples dubbed ‘cultures’ by archaeologists, the Corded Ware people were not a unified lot. Across the area in which they were found (a broad swath of European territory which includes Germany, Scandinavia, and Eastern Europe) there were many different sub-cultures, each with their own customs, ways of life, unique rituals, and distinctive archaeological records that help distinguish them today.

Citations
ISOGG (2018) Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades. [ONLINE]
Horvath, C.B., 2016. R1a Subclades and Bronze Age migrations on the Eurasian Steppes. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 11(10).
Coles, J.M. and Harding, A.F. eds., 2014. The Bronze Age in Europe: An introduction to the prehistory of Europe c. 2000-700 BC (Vol. 18). Routledge.
Kristiansen, K. and Larsson, T.B., 2005. The rise of Bronze Age society: travels, transmissions and transformations. Cambridge University Press.
Lougas, L., Kriiska, A. and Maldre, L., 2016. New dates for the Late Neolithic Corded Ware Culture burials and early husbandry in the East Baltic region. Archaeofauna, (16).
Bĺgenholm, G., 1995. Corded Ware ceramics in Finland and Sweden. Fennoscandia Archaeologica, 12, pp.19-23.
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
Itan, Y., et al., 2009. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Comput Biol, 5(8), p.e1000491.
Renfrew, C., 1989. The origins of Indo-European languages. Scientific American, 261(4), pp.106-115.
Roffet-Salque, M., et al, 2016. From the inside out: Upscaling organic residue analyses of archaeological ceramics. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.

boilermeschew827
09-06-2019, 04:27 PM
Haplogroup: R-M198
Subclade: R-L365

A genetic story of your fatherline

An ancient branch of the R1a fatherline.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-M198 group.

R-M198 (also known as R1a1a or R-M512) is a branch of the larger R1a fatherline, a haplogroup that is found across Europe and West Asia (Horvath 2016). R1a is found in particularly high concentrations in Eastern Europe (approaching 60% in Poland for example) (ISOGG 2018). R1a is thought to have branched off from another fatherline (R1) shortly after the Last Glacial Maximum, the coldest era of the last Ice Age, approximately 26,500 years ago (Hay 2018). This probably occurred somewhere in the Eurasian steppeland, quite possibly in Siberia or Central Asia (Horvath 2016). R1a is thought to have been one of the predominant fatherlines in the early Bronze Age proto-Indo-Europeans that lived around the modern day Ukraine and migrated outwards as far westwards as Spain, and as far eastwards as India (Hay 2018).

We know this because we can now test the DNA found in bodies in archaeological sites, even from thousands of years ago. Ancient DNA testing has confirmed the presence of haplogroup R1a1a in samples from the Corded Ware culture in Germany (2600 BCE), from Tocharian mummies (2000 BCE) in Northwest China, from Kurgan burials (circa 1600 BCE) from the Andronovo culture in southern Russia and southern Siberia, as well as from a variety of Iron-age sites from Russia, Siberia, Mongolia and Central Asia (Hay 2018).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The group of Indo-Europeans that first forayed into much of Northeast and Central Europe are now known as the Corded Ware Culture (Lougas et al. 2016). This name was given to these people by archaeologists, due to the elaborate and intricate cord-like patterns found on much of their pottery (Bĺgenholm 1995). It is believed that these are some of the first Europeans to make widespread use of dairy products in their diet (Itan et al. 2009). We know this from chemical analysis of the shards of pottery that have been found (Roffet-Salque et al. 2016). It is likely that this is also where the gene that allows the majority of Europeans today to be able to digest lactose developed (Itan et al. 2009). It is thought that both the Germanic and Slavic language families were disseminated across Europe by the Corded Ware culture, who spoke a language that is an ancestor to both of these tongues (Renfrew 1989).

It is worth noting that like many groups of peoples dubbed ‘cultures’ by archaeologists, the Corded Ware people were not a unified lot. Across the area in which they were found (a broad swath of European territory which includes Germany, Scandinavia, and Eastern Europe) there were many different sub-cultures, each with their own customs, ways of life, unique rituals, and distinctive archaeological records that help distinguish them today.

Citations
ISOGG (2018) Y-DNA Haplogroup R and its Subclades. [ONLINE]
Horvath, C.B., 2016. R1a Subclades and Bronze Age migrations on the Eurasian Steppes. European Scientific Journal, ESJ, 11(10).
Coles, J.M. and Harding, A.F. eds., 2014. The Bronze Age in Europe: An introduction to the prehistory of Europe c. 2000-700 BC (Vol. 18). Routledge.
Kristiansen, K. and Larsson, T.B., 2005. The rise of Bronze Age society: travels, transmissions and transformations. Cambridge University Press.
Lougas, L., Kriiska, A. and Maldre, L., 2016. New dates for the Late Neolithic Corded Ware Culture burials and early husbandry in the East Baltic region. Archaeofauna, (16).
Bĺgenholm, G., 1995. Corded Ware ceramics in Finland and Sweden. Fennoscandia Archaeologica, 12, pp.19-23.
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]
Itan, Y., et al., 2009. The origins of lactase persistence in Europe. PLoS Comput Biol, 5(8), p.e1000491.
Renfrew, C., 1989. The origins of Indo-European languages. Scientific American, 261(4), pp.106-115.
Roffet-Salque, M., et al, 2016. From the inside out: Upscaling organic residue analyses of archaeological ceramics. Journal of Archaeological Science: Reports.

Björnsson
09-11-2019, 12:57 AM
It would be redundant to repost the R-M198 story, but I've got the same problem of a broad R-Z282, yet my older son is R-Z283 and younger son is R-Z284. I was confused about the downstream issue and don't know much about the Y Full website, but Gedmatch verifies my sons aren't bastards. Due to the R-Z284 of my younger son, it also proves that family tradition ties us to the Domesday Book founder of our village and his Swedish origin in the reign of King Knut, when three runestones are dated in my forefathers' names. Furthermore, my Domesday ancestor's name is only found in Finland otherwise, on the Swedish coast. My Domesday forefather named our village after his Viking wife, our foremother (of our village, even though not my mtDNA, which is Anglo-Saxon K2a5a from South of the Humber), who co-owned with him a previous manor on her father's land. I've known of our Viking roots since 1990 or 1991, but didn't know if they were Denmark or Norway, as both were in Yorkshire. I was pleasantly surprised in 2008 to read the paper trail leading to Sweden, as I suspected since 2003. This blood trail confirms all of that.

Koolmets21
09-17-2019, 08:57 PM
Haplogroup: H-M82
Subclade: H-M2972

A genetic story of your fatherline
A branch of the H fatherline that is predominantly associated with the Indian subcontinent.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the H1a1 group.

H1a1 is a branch of the larger H fatherline, which itself is predominantly associated with the population of the Indian subcontinent (Haber et al. 2012). It is believed that the H fatherline is one of the earliest haplogroups found commonly in the continent today, having been present before the Indo-European expansions at the dawn of the Bronze Age (Cordaux et al. 2004). This would mean that the H fatherline is associated with the earliest Stone Age hunter gatherers of India - which would help explain why it is found across many different ethnicities, castes, and tribes within the subcontinent today (Cordaux et al. 2004). It is also found at lower frequencies across the Indian Ocean from Arabia to Southeast Asia, which is no surprise given the long history of extensive maritime trade in this part of the world (Rai et al. 2012).

H1a1 is also known as H-M82, and like most branches of H, is found within India (Hay 2017). Yet this branch is also extremely prevalent within the Romani people who are found mostly across Europe today, in places as widespread as Lithuania, Romania, and Spain (Lallanilla 2013). This is no coincidence - the Romani are descendants of a Hindi people who appear to have begun a long migration westwards approximately 1500 years ago (Gresham et al. 2001).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The Romani are a nomadic ethnic group with Indian origins (Rai et al. 2012). This had been hypothesised for a long time before genetic tests were able to confirm any link - the Romani language is very similar to Hindi, Bengali, and Punjabi (Matras 1995). It is estimated that there are between 4-10 million Romani people living in Europe today, mostly in Central and Southeastern Europe (Gresham et al. 2001). Whilst it is now fairly undisputed that they came from India, it is not known exactly why this migration occurred (Hancock 2008). Some have suggested that they may be descendants of a military group that left India following an unsuccessful war (Hancock 2008). Others suggest that the name ‘Romani’ is derived from a Hindi word for musician, indicating that these people were wandering entertainers (Lee 2008). What is known is that the Romani are documented to have been present in the Byzantine Empire (the rump of the old Roman Empire based around modern day Greece, Turkey, and the Balkans) from around 1000 years ago (Hancock 2008).

Whilst H1a1 is found outside of Romani populations within Europe, this is only the case in countries where the Romani live or have historically lived. It can be surmised that non-Romani people with a H1a1 fatherline have Romani ancestors, indicating that the Romani have to some extent intermixed with the local populations over generations (Hay 2017).

ketty
10-27-2019, 09:11 PM
Haplogroup: R-Z93
Subclade: R-Z94

A genetic story of your fatherline
The main Asian branch of the R1a fatherline.

Your fatherline signature belongs to the R-Z93 group.

R-Z93 is just one subclade of the widespread R1a fatherline, which is found across a large portion of Eurasia and carried by millions of men today (Hay 2017). It is thought that R-Z93 originated in the Eurasian steppe, quite possibly in what is now Russia, around 10000 years ago (Pamjav et al. 2012). Like many of the R fatherlines, its spread is associated with the dramatic spread of a group of people known to archaeologists and geneticists as the Indo-Europeans (Hay 2017). As their name suggests, the Indo-Europeans roamed far from their steppe homelands to settle in lands as far apart as Western Europe and Northern India (Underhill et al. 2010). The R-Z93 fatherline appears to have travelled with the people who moved eastwards with this expansion; today the fatherline is at its highest frequency in Central Asia, and is also found across the Middle East, India, and Southeast Asia (Hay 2017).

R-Z93 is also found in Roma gypsies (Hay 2017). Whilst this may first seem surprising, it matches what linguists, anthropologists, and historians have long suspected - that the origins of the Roma people lie in India. Genetic evidence confirms that over a thousand years ago, a group of nomads left India and travelled across Asia to Eastern Europe, bringing their distinct cultural and genetic heritage with them (Pappas 2012).

Who were the people who carried your signature?
The Indo-Iranians originated from Bronze Age cultures such as the Sintashta Culture that flourished where the western Eurasian steppe meets the great expanse of Siberia (Anthony 2007). They are characterised not just by their genetic signatures, but also the languages that they would have spoken. Originating from just a small area in Central Asia, Indo-European languages spread out across Eurasia as Indo-European people did, and form the basis of languages spoken from Great Britain to India today (Anthony 2007). This helps explain why some universal and ancient concepts such as “mother” have similar words associated with them when comparing countries found thousands of miles from one another (being māter in Latin, mḗtēr in Ancient Greek, mātár in Vedic Sanskrit, mātar in Old Iranian, and māthir in Old Irish).

Although most migrations of R-Z93 have headed west to east, there have also been population movements back the other way. One of these, many thousands of years after the Indo-Iranian expansions, was the migration of the Roma people out of India and into Eastern Europe. In the 19th Century, linguists suggested that the Romani diaspora had its origins in Northern India (Pappas 2012). Modern genetics has confirmed this, with theories suggesting that the Roma could have been either travelling troubadours, or soldiers who fled following Islamic invasions from Iran (Pappas 2012).

Citations
Pappas, S. 2012. Origin of the Romani People Pinned Down. [ONLINE]
Pamjav, H., et al., 2012. Brief communication: New Y‐chromosome binary markers improve phylogenetic resolution within haplogroup R1a1. American journal of physical anthropology, 149(4), pp.611-615.
Underhill, P.A., et al. 2010. Separating the post-Glacial coancestry of European and Asian Y chromosomes within haplogroup R1a. European Journal of Human Genetics, 18(4), pp.479-484.
Anthony, D. W. (2007) The Horse The Wheel And Language. How Bronze-Age Riders From the Eurasian Steppes Shaped The Modern World, Princeton University Press.
Hay, M. 2017. Haplogroup R1a (Y-DNA). [ONLINE]