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sktibo
04-17-2019, 05:04 PM
I've been reading about the languages of France and how Gaulish may have affected them. In broad terms, the ones I have found the most information on are standard French ('Oil'), Occitan ('Oc'), and Breton.
One thing I'd like to know more about is how Gaulish affected the Oil and Oc Romance languages of France. Some people have shared the opinion that Gaulish was very similar to Latin, so it is impossible to know how affected French was by this as it could have been that Latin and Gaulish were so similar to begin with that it is impossible to gauge the impact.
Some have shared the opinion that hardly any influence from Gaulish remains in modern French, except for the one hundred or so words which we think come from it. These sources stated that the oddities and departures from other Romance languages are almost exclusively due to Germanic influence. I was surprised to see ideas that French is devoid or nearly devoid of any Gaulish influence expressed fairly frequently in my search.
There's the idea that the French Romance languages contain a Gaulish substrate, and were noticeably affected by this, vocabulary excluded. Some things I read expressed the belief that Occitan would be closer to Gaulish as it doesn't contain the added layer of Germanic Frankish language that the Oil languages received. The Oil languages, being further north than the Oc languages would have received Latin influence later, and I was able to find more words of Gaulish origin in standard French than I was for Occitan, but this could be because I wasn't looking in the right places. It is hard to tell which language group out of these two might have been more strongly influenced by Gaulish with what I have access to.
There seems to have been a few theories proposed about Breton having a strong link to the Gaulish language, one even claiming that the Vannetais dialect of Breton is more or less a case of Gaulish language survival. I'm curious if anyone here knows more about these theories or ideas.

There's the idea that Gaulish would have been closer to the Romance languages, based on the claim that Gaulish was more similar to Latin than Insular Celtic, and the opposing idea that it was quite dissimilar to Latin and quite close to the P-Celtic Insular languages. I was hoping to get some more concrete information on this topic but it seems like I have a collection of theories instead. Is there no agreement on this topic? Does anyone have any further information on this?

Thanks very much

Camulogène Rix
04-17-2019, 05:52 PM
If you understand French, just read this paper: a good summary of what we know today on this vanished language. Gaulish would have been definitelly closer to Insular Celtic (Brittonic). Julius Ceasar needed a translator when he negotiated with the chieftains of Gaul tribes.
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaulois_(langue)

vettor
04-17-2019, 05:54 PM
There is another dictionary you can buy in france apart from the languages you mentioned above
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franco-Proven%C3%A7al_language


The Royal house of Italy, the House of Savoy began by speaking Savoyard , a branch of Franco-provencal, before learning Piedmontese
I have also held a savoyard dictionary in my hand when I was last in france

sktibo
04-18-2019, 05:52 AM
If you understand French, just read this paper: a good summary of what we know today on this vanished language. Gaulish would have been definitelly closer to Insular Celtic (Brittonic). Julius Ceasar needed a translator when he negotiated with the chieftains of Gaul tribes.
https://fr.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gaulois_(langue)

Thanks, there are also the accounts of the Romans writing in greek instead of latin so that the Gauls wouldn't be able to read messages. I think it's probably both - translators were needed for spoken but the written language was similar enough for a need to disguise it using Greek.
I was able to read the wiki page you linked on Gaulish and one on Breton using translate, it has more info than the English versions, so thank you! These said that the idea of a significant Gaulish influence on Breton, Vannetais in particular, aren't considered to be a real possibility any more. It also said that the Gaulish language used an SVO word order as opposed to Insular Celtic including Breton which are VSO. I'm not stating that I think Gaulish is more similar to Latin than insular Celtic but it seems from what I can tell to be somewhere in between these. The wiki page also reminded me that we don't know these things for sure! I'll have to read it over again.. Lot of good stuff in there.

sktibo
04-19-2019, 12:23 PM
Just in case anyone else is interested in this, there's a paper called "ON THE GAULISH INFLUENCE ON BRETON" on academia.eu (https://www.academia.edu/28555947/ON_THE_GAULISH_INFLUENCE_ON_BRETON)

It looks to be well written and researched, but I'm not an expert on any of this. It concludes that we more or less have no real evidence that Gaulish influenced the Breton language, but that it might have happened. Here's what the conclusion has to say:



As we have seen in the first Chapter, not all of the arguments on the survival of Gaulish are satisfactory, either because of the interpretation of the data or because of the fact that the texts do not specifically tell us anything about the situation in Armorica. We cannot be sure that we are dealing with the Gaulish language, every time Gallica lingua is mentioned in a Latin text. However, when we look at the big picture, it seems plausible that Gaulish was still spoken in Armorica at the time the Bretons arrived; it was a relatively remote area, just as the Alpine regions, and the connections with Britain could very well have played a role. Therefore it is likely that there was a situation in which Gaulish could have influenced Breton.
How are the arguments that are used by Falchun and Fleuriot to prove Gaulish influence on Breton constructed, and are these satisfactory and sound? In the second Chapter, I have shown that there are some problems of argumentation in the debate. Falchuns argument on the accent of both Gaulish and Breton cannot be used to prove Gaulish influence, because Modern Breton evidence was used instead of Old Breton data, which is anachronistic. In other cases, such as the initial h-, the clusters *xs and -tn-, -tl-, -tr- and -cr-, palatalisation and rhotacism, French is equalled with Gaulish, because there is no or little evidence from Gaulish, but this premise is not always legitimate (2.1.2, 2.1.4, 2.1.5, 2.1.7 and 2.1.8). The development of sr- into fr- is not only shared by Breton and Gaulish, but also by Welsh, and is probably from an earlier stage, i.e. the Gallo-Brittonic unity, and can therefore not be used to prove Gaulish influence. In the arguments on the morphological features in 2.2, archaisms are taken as evidence for Gaulish influence. When we take all the arguments together, we can conclude that the case for Gaulish influence on Breton is not very well-founded.
The unexpected Breton features such as *xs > s (2.1.4) or *ū > u (2.3.1), and the metathesized form of banal (2.3.2) still have to be explained, and it is possible to do so with the help of Gaulish influence. However, we have to be aware not to use Gaulish influence as an argument that can be used whenever something is not explained otherwise, as Falchun seems to do quite often.
Our knowledge of Gaulish and Old Breton is not comprehensive, and it is therefore not an easy task to prove the Gaulish influence on Breton, but as our knowledge of the languages increases, more evidence may come to light to explain some of the things we discussed, or to support or deny the idea of Gaulish influence on Breton entirely.


The French Wikipedia page on Gaulish mentions this in regards to Breton and Gaulish:


À une époque, certains ont tenté, à la suite de François Falc'hun, d'expliquer les particularités du dialecte vannetais du breton par l'influence d'un substrat gaulois. Aujourd'hui, la plupart des linguistes ont rejeté cette hypothèse et expliquent, a contrario, certaines de ces particularités dialectales par l'existence d'un substrat gallo-romain plus important dans la région de Vannes (cf. les explications dans l'article sur la langue bretonne).
At one time, some tried, following François Falc'hun, to explain the peculiarities of the Vannet dialect of Breton by the influence of a Gaulish substrate. Today, most linguists have rejected this hypothesis and, conversely, explain some of these dialectal peculiarities by the existence of a greater Gallo-Roman substratum in the Vannes region (see explanations in the article on the Breton language).

As I don't speak French I'm not sure how well Google Translate did on this so I'm not completely certain about this translation.


I really wish I had some information which goes into detail on the Occitan language or the Langues D'Oc and how those might or might not relate to or have been affected by the Gaulish language. I have a feeling that this information is out there but that it exists in the French speaking part of the internet outside of what I can access using English...

CannabisErectusHibernius
04-23-2019, 05:45 AM
I remember reading somewhere that some Gaulish tribes spoke Q-Celtic dialects, anybody know anything about this?
I wonder if these Q speaking tribes were on the hinterlands of the Atlantic, or perhaps adjacent to the Celtiberians of Spain? Koch's theory about Q celtic being spoken in the bronze age, and the P innovation coming with the Iron Age is pretty interesting, though I guess not really on topic. I am curious as to how many Gauls actually made it into Ireland, Gall in Irish means foreigner. Donegal = fort of the Gauls?��

Jessie
04-23-2019, 06:15 AM
I remember reading somewhere that some Gaulish tribes spoke Q-Celtic dialects, anybody know anything about this?
I wonder if these Q speaking tribes were on the hinterlands of the Atlantic, or perhaps adjacent to the Celtiberians of Spain? Koch's theory about Q celtic being spoken in the bronze age, and the P innovation coming with the Iron Age is pretty interesting, though I guess not really on topic. I am curious as to how many Gauls actually made it into Ireland, Gall in Irish means foreigner. Donegal = fort of the Gauls?��

Gall just meant foreigner not Gaul so Donegal would be fort of the foreigners. So any foreigner in Ireland i.e. Viking, Norman would be called Gall.

Trelvern
04-23-2019, 06:31 AM
Gall just meant foreigner not Gaul so Donegal would be fort of the foreigners. So any foreigner in Ireland i.e. Viking, Norman would be called Gall.

Le Gall (Ar Gall=foreigner) is a very common surname in Brittany
and the foreigner is the French!

galleg \ˈɡa.lːek\ masculin
(Linguistique) Français (langue) (french language)


the eastern part of Brittany is "gallo" (does not speak Breton but a Romance language)

CannabisErectusHibernius
04-23-2019, 06:55 AM
Gall just meant foreigner not Gaul so Donegal would be fort of the foreigners. So any foreigner in Ireland i.e. Viking, Norman would be called Gall.

Thought I read somewhere that the term Gall originally referred to Gauls in old Irish, but I cant find anything. Of course Ptolemy's map has the Manapi in Ireland, which could be related to the Belgic Menapii. Or could just be a common Celtic tribal name. The Donegal comment was meant tongue in cheek, but the emoticons just don't come through.

Nino90
04-23-2019, 09:59 AM
Interesting thread. I always wonder how much impact Latin and Romans had on French and Iberian languages.
Since Italic and Celtic prop derived from the same origin. Same thing with the genetics. Did the romans impact French to be more "med" than before?

sktibo
04-24-2019, 08:38 AM
Just an update on what I've found on this topic:

I posted in the linguistics section to try and get information on the Langues d'oc and related languages, but I've got no real information from anyone there yet.
I found two wikipedia pages, one in French and one in Occitan that state that Occitan has both less Celtic and less Germanic influence than French.

So far, all in all, it looks like:
French and the oil languages definitely have some notable Gaulish influence, but the degree or significance is debated
Occitan and the oc languages only have very little if any Gaulish influence
Breton may have some Gaulish influence but it also might not have any.

NixYO
04-28-2019, 12:12 PM
Just an update on what I've found on this topic:

I posted in the linguistics section to try and get information on the Langues d'oc and related languages, but I've got no real information from anyone there yet.
I found two wikipedia pages, one in French and one in Occitan that state that Occitan has both less Celtic and less Germanic influence than French.

So far, all in all, it looks like:
French and the oil languages definitely have some notable Gaulish influence, but the degree or significance is debated
Occitan and the oc languages only have very little if any Gaulish influence
Breton may have some Gaulish influence but it also might not have any.
I read on a Swedish forum that one of the few clear and noticeable morphological influences that Gaulish has had on French is their weird way of counting with exempli gratia soixante-onze (eng. sixty-eleven):

https://translate.google.se/translate?hl=&sl=sv&tl=en&u=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.flashback.org%2Fp67407950%23p6 7407950

Mnjä. En comes from the Latin inde, which means from there in Classical Latin, but already in the late imperial Late Latin the meaning of it, both according to Baumgartner and Menard's French etymological dictionary and according to Salenius' Latin-Swedish dictionary, so already the Late Latin had a word with the same scope of significance as the modern French en. Y comes from Latin ibi, meaning there, which has undergone a similar development to there.

However, Hubert expresses no consensus with those views, especially no contemporary (the French-language original of the book you apostrophes were written more than a hundred years ago, during a period when it was generally modern to make as much essence as possible of nos ancêtres les Gaulois) and he was also not a Romanist by the union, but primarily archaeologist and secondly sociologist. A modern and popular book on the history of the French language such as Mireille Huchon's, usually indicates the number count (soixante-onze etc) as the only clear example of grammatical/morphological influence on today's French from the Gallic substrate.


Interesting thread. I always wonder how much impact Latin and Romans had on French and Iberian languages.
Since Italic and Celtic prop derived from the same origin. Same thing with the genetics. Did the romans impact French to be more "med" than before?
The structure of French is completely Romance/Vulgar Latin. Before the Romans they spoke other languages such as inter alia Gaulish.

https://twitter.com/nntaleb/status/1005202922794356738

Point is; if you're not Med, you'll never understand the Mediterranean. You can spend 31 y in Oxford reading "classics", all that sh*t, & still understand nothing about the Mediterranean. Now, if you're not Med, the closest you'll ever get is via squid ink & Moustaki. Salve.

3) The French have tried to become Meds for 2000 years. They can't: except for spots, Germanics speaking a Latin language.

4) For instance to be Med you need to both disrespect hard work and respect success, exactly the opposite of the "work ethics" & the worship of labor in the non-necessarily Prostestant North.

5) Another reason there large entities don't work in the Med, causing a scale problem: you cannot be alpha if you are not free & self-employed (or the boss), an employee of Goldman Sachs is of a lower status than a local doctor.

6) To understand the Romans, essential Meds, who shunned doing things themselves but praised builders:

"Caesar pontem fecit" means Ceasar *had a bridge built* (by others), not "built a bridge" as usually translated.

Tr. into French would be "a fait bâtir un pont" not "a bâti".

https://twitter.com/nntaleb/status/860517970296090624

There is very little that is Mediterranean about the "French" (north of Avignon), except, of course, their language.

Camulogène Rix
04-28-2019, 12:40 PM
Interesting thread. I always wonder how much impact Latin and Romans had on French and Iberian languages.
Since Italic and Celtic prop derived from the same origin. Same thing with the genetics. Did the romans impact French to be more "med" than before?

Genetically speaking, only in the very south of Gaul (Provincia)

NixYO
04-28-2019, 01:42 PM
Genetically speaking, only in the very south of Gaul (Provincia)
Some relevant maps:

https://static.boredpanda.com/blog/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/maps-atlas-of-prejudice-yanko-tsvetkov-59ae5315eea0c__605.jpg

^^ This map above misses most of Liguria for some reason!

http://koeppen-geiger.vu-wien.ac.at/pics/GoogleEarth_2.jpg

https://pages.uoregon.edu/klio/maps/rr/kelly-RE-Caesar.jpg

https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/thumb/f/fe/Map_of_the_Ancient_Rome_at_Caesar_time_%28with_con quests%29-fr.svg/2050px-Map_of_the_Ancient_Rome_at_Caesar_time_%28with_con quests%29-fr.svg.png

https://cdn0.vox-cdn.com/assets/4822164/gaul_conquest.jpg

http://www.domusvi.es/wp-content/uploads/2017/02/carte_de_l_occitan.jpg

https://i.pinimg.com/originals/e2/d1/ac/e2d1acdc4caed92c172cf925b2b50854.jpg

https://i.postimg.cc/PdNMtP43/France-administrative-divisions-departments-regions.jpg

Andour
10-02-2019, 05:14 PM
For what it's worth :

Auvergnat was the local variant of Occitan in the north of the Massif Central. It can now be considered extinct, in spite of the ardent efforts of a few die-hard conservationists. My grandparents talked in that language at family reunions. I confirm it was essentially derived from Latin. For example, Christmas was called Tsaleñdä (from Latin calendae). The local farmers also lived (vieùre < vivere), mowed (sedzä < secare), reaped (mèdre < medere), milked (meùze < mulgere) in Latin.

That said, in our old isolated mountains, a number of Gaulish words survived, which as far as I know, did not survive in standard French. Here are a few examples :

a'laùzà (a lark) < Gaulish alauda - 'aùrà (wind) < auellos - 'banà (horn) < banna - be'né (basket)< benna (wickerwork) -
'bodzà (a large bag) < bulga - 'brayä (trousers) <braccia - 'dreùlià (tramped footpath) < drullia (broken pieces) -
'gaùnià (cheeks+chin) < gena (cheek) - 'kledà (gate) < kleta (fence) - pey'rü (cauldron < pario -
sü'di (pigsty) < succotegos (succos : pig ; tegos : roof, shelter, house) - tsavanieù (barn owl) < cauannos

I very much doubt that Gaulish and Latin were that close, in spite of the shared vocabulary ('ex' meant 'out of' in both languages ; Latin 'cum' was Gaulish 'com' ; 'medium' was 'medios') and regular cognates (Gaulish 'ater' - Latin 'pater' ; lano - planus ; etc.). I also doubt they were mutually intelligible, even though the declensions, for what we know of them, may have sounded somewhat familiar.

The reason Roman soldiers used Greek to encrypt their messages was simply that long before the Roman conquest proper, Gauls had long-established trading routes and traditions with Rome, exporting ceramics, importing wine. A century before Caesar defeated the Gauls at Alesia, there were already numerous Gaulish mercenaries in the Roman legions. Vercingetorix himself served under Caesar's orders in the Roman armies. So no wonder quite a few Gauls spoke Latin.

Gaulish apparently stood in between north and south, with, also, words with clear Germanic cognates : dorom (mouth, door) : door, Tür ; briga (hill, hillfort) : Berg, Burg ; briua (bridge) : *brugjo.

Personally, if I were to dig into Gaulish legacies in French, I'd turn towards toponyms, and hydronyms (though quite a few of the latter may be Pre-Celtic).

Addendum : Not all Gaulish tribes went "P-Celtic", apparently. There was a tribe on the western slopes of the Jura mountains that was called the Sequani.

Andour
10-08-2019, 10:40 AM
For those of you who can read French, and are interested in Gaulish :

https://www.academia.edu/16699213/Pr%C3%A9cis_de_Gaulois_Classique

sktibo
12-07-2019, 08:38 PM
I am still very interested in this topic and continue to read about it from time to time, I wanted to note two things which I thought were particularly interesting here.

1. Apparently Gaulish impacted the gender in modern French, Latin had three, and it was Gaulish influence that moved this to two. Further, the words in French which are masculine or feminine were based off the Masculine and Feminine words in Gaulish. The example listed was the sea, which was neutral in Latin and Feminine in Gaulish, and it became Feminine in French.
2. Apparently Vulgar Latin, which is the ancestor of modern French, as opposed to Latin, took loan words from Gaulish. Thus, some French words of Vulgar Latin origin were originally Gaulish words.

Overall, while there does seem to have been some significant input from Gaulish to French, it doesn't seem to have been as significant as Frankish or English. I've read that a big part of the problem is that identifying the extent of impact on a language that a substrate has is much more difficult than identifying the impact of a superstrate.

Nonetheless, I find it very interesting to explore because French did become the language of the Gauls, and it doesn't seem that the Gaulish identity has ever completely left despite the loss of language. We have terms like "Gallicisms" to refer to French phrases in English, heck, "Gallicize" means "to make or become French in attitude, language, etc." Asterix and Obelix are a great example of the awareness of the Gallic heritage of the French. Rather than losing the Gallic or Gaulish identity entirely, it seems that a Gallo-Roman identity was instead created, and I find this to be so interesting that this identity remained strong despite the later introduction of such a strong Germanic / Frankish influence in the ruling class.

JonikW
12-07-2019, 09:57 PM
I am still very interested in this topic and continue to read about it from time to time, I wanted to note two things which I thought were particularly interesting here.

1. Apparently Gaulish impacted the gender in modern French, Latin had three, and it was Gaulish influence that moved this to two. Further, the words in French which are masculine or feminine were based off the Masculine and Feminine words in Gaulish. The example listed was the sea, which was neutral in Latin and Feminine in Gaulish, and it became Feminine in French.
2. Apparently Vulgar Latin, which is the ancestor of modern French, as opposed to Latin, took loan words from Gaulish. Thus, some French words of Vulgar Latin origin were originally Gaulish words.

Overall, while there does seem to have been some significant input from Gaulish to French, it doesn't seem to have been as significant as Frankish or English. I've read that a big part of the problem is that identifying the extent of impact on a language that a substrate has is much more difficult than identifying the impact of a superstrate.

Nonetheless, I find it very interesting to explore because French did become the language of the Gauls, and it doesn't seem that the Gaulish identity has ever completely left despite the loss of language. We have terms like "Gallicisms" to refer to French phrases in English, heck, "Gallicize" means "to make or become French in attitude, language, etc." Asterix and Obelix are a great example of the awareness of the Gallic heritage of the French. Rather than losing the Gallic or Gaulish identity entirely, it seems that a Gallo-Roman identity was instead created, and I find this to be so interesting that this identity remained strong despite the later introduction of such a strong Germanic / Frankish influence in the ruling class.

Apologies for not adding anything material on the Gaulish language here, but I can't resist saying that I reckon Asterix and Obelix are the greatest ambassadors that France has ever had. I partly learned to read with Asterix books that I was given during stays in Cornwall when I was a few years old. I had no idea what a Gaul was then of course. I visit France a lot and am always pleased to see that the books still sell well there. Parc Asterix is also the only theme park that I ever enjoyed visiting with my kids… On a more serious note, I've read a little about the debate over how far modern Breton might have been influenced by the British immigrants rather than mainland Gaulish but would dearly love to know more too.

sktibo
12-07-2019, 10:04 PM
Apologies for not adding anything material on the Gaulish language here, but I can't resist saying that I reckon Asterix and Obelix are the greatest ambassadors that France has ever had. I partly learned to read with Asterix books that I was given during stays in Cornwall when I was a few years old. I had no idea what a Gaul was then of course. I visit France a lot and am always pleased to see that the books still sell well there. Parc Asterix is also the only theme park that I ever enjoyed visiting with my kids… On a more serious note, I've read a little about the debate over how far modern Breton might have been influenced by the British immigrants rather than mainland Gaulish but would dearly love to know more too.

The sources I've dug through tell me that there was a François Falc'hun who had the view that the Vannetais variant of Breton was highly influenced by or was actually a descendant of Gaulish. IIRC it turned out that the peculiarities of Vannetais were more likely due to Latin influence, at least, that's the general consensus now. I was not able to find anything that indicated that Breton had actually been influenced by Gaulish with certainty, but there's speculation that it had been. Conversely, although it is not much, it seems certain that Gaulish actually did impact modern French.
I think the question of Gaulish influence on Breton is a very interesting one, and I thought this:
https://www.academia.edu/28555947/ON_THE_GAULISH_INFLUENCE_ON_BRETON
was a pretty interesting read.

Camulogène Rix
12-07-2019, 10:30 PM
A good friend of mine has just published this book
35218

According to him, very few Gaulish words have remained in the French vocabulary. We have been deeply romanized.

sktibo
12-07-2019, 10:35 PM
A good friend of mine has just published this book
35218

According to him, very few Gaulish words have remained in the French vocabulary. We have been deeply romanized.

Yeah, only about ~150 words that come directly from Gaulish, if I remember correctly. I think almost of all them were related to plants, agriculture, farming, tools, things like that?
I want that book!

NixYO
12-08-2019, 01:13 AM
I am still very interested in this topic and continue to read about it from time to time, I wanted to note two things which I thought were particularly interesting here.

1. Apparently Gaulish impacted the gender in modern French, Latin had three, and it was Gaulish influence that moved this to two. Further, the words in French which are masculine or feminine were based off the Masculine and Feminine words in Gaulish. The example listed was the sea, which was neutral in Latin and Feminine in Gaulish, and it became Feminine in French.
2. Apparently Vulgar Latin, which is the ancestor of modern French, as opposed to Latin, took loan words from Gaulish. Thus, some French words of Vulgar Latin origin were originally Gaulish words.

Overall, while there does seem to have been some significant input from Gaulish to French, it doesn't seem to have been as significant as Frankish or English. I've read that a big part of the problem is that identifying the extent of impact on a language that a substrate has is much more difficult than identifying the impact of a superstrate.

Nonetheless, I find it very interesting to explore because French did become the language of the Gauls, and it doesn't seem that the Gaulish identity has ever completely left despite the loss of language. We have terms like "Gallicisms" to refer to French phrases in English, heck, "Gallicize" means "to make or become French in attitude, language, etc." Asterix and Obelix are a great example of the awareness of the Gallic heritage of the French. Rather than losing the Gallic or Gaulish identity entirely, it seems that a Gallo-Roman identity was instead created, and I find this to be so interesting that this identity remained strong despite the later introduction of such a strong Germanic / Frankish influence in the ruling class.
French people can correct me if I am wrong about this, but as I have understood it, the French élite saw themselves as ancestors to the Franks (i.e. Germanics) before the French Revolution, while the revolutionaries romanticised the Gauls (i.e. Celts) because of this.

Camulogène Rix
12-08-2019, 09:35 AM
French people can correct me if I am wrong about this, but as I have understood it, the French élite saw themselves as ancestors to the Franks (i.e. Germanics) before the French Revolution, while the revolutionaries romanticised the Gauls (i.e. Celts) because of this.

Indeed, and the Kings of France Y haplogroup was R1b-U106 Z381 (Frankish)

Andour
12-08-2019, 11:17 AM
I am still very interested in this topic and continue to read about it from time to time, I wanted to note two things which I thought were particularly interesting here.

1. Apparently Gaulish impacted the gender in modern French, Latin had three, and it was Gaulish influence that moved this to two. Further, the words in French which are masculine or feminine were based off the Masculine and Feminine words in Gaulish. The example listed was the sea, which was neutral in Latin and Feminine in Gaulish, and it became Feminine in French.
2. Apparently Vulgar Latin, which is the ancestor of modern French, as opposed to Latin, took loan words from Gaulish. Thus, some French words of Vulgar Latin origin were originally Gaulish words.

Overall, while there does seem to have been some significant input from Gaulish to French, it doesn't seem to have been as significant as Frankish or English. I've read that a big part of the problem is that identifying the extent of impact on a language that a substrate has is much more difficult than identifying the impact of a superstrate.

Nonetheless, I find it very interesting to explore because French did become the language of the Gauls, and it doesn't seem that the Gaulish identity has ever completely left despite the loss of language. We have terms like "Gallicisms" to refer to French phrases in English, heck, "Gallicize" means "to make or become French in attitude, language, etc." Asterix and Obelix are a great example of the awareness of the Gallic heritage of the French. Rather than losing the Gallic or Gaulish identity entirely, it seems that a Gallo-Roman identity was instead created, and I find this to be so interesting that this identity remained strong despite the later introduction of such a strong Germanic / Frankish influence in the ruling class.

@sktibo

Gaulish may well have impacted gender in modern French. But a neutral gender is clearly attested in Gaulish. The "-on" ending in the nominative is the Gaulish equivalent of the Latin "-um" ending. Compare Latin "templum" and Gaulish "nemeton" (same meaning). The capital "city" of the Vellavi was Ruession, also neuter.

@all

Concerning Brittany. The fleet of the Veneti (a tribe living in Brittany at the time of the conquest) was trounced by the Roman fleet in 56 BC. There is no reason to think that Brittany escaped the same form of romanization that spread over all Gaulish territories at the time. There is only to look at the genetic results of modern Bretons to understand that the influx of Welsh genes in the 5th century must have been absolutely massive.

Concerning how the French now identify with their Gaulish ancestors... well, for centuries the Gauls lay forgotten in the misty depths of French history. Latin and Greek were the languages the learned were expected to be fluent in. In church, Mass was said in Latin well into the 20C. Our "Gaulish revival" is essentially due to Napoleon III, in the mid 19C. It all had to do with nationalism, with reviving a sense of national(istic) pride. There was no point in extolling the Germanic heritage when the Bourbon kings were supposed to be history, and when Germany was the great rival. It was Napoleon III who resurrected the site of the Battle of Gergovia, and had a monument erected there. Even the statue of Vercingetorix, on the Place de Jaude in Clermont-Ferrand, was given the face of "emperor" Napoleon III. Prior to that, I would think very few French people bothered to wonder who the Gauls were.

sktibo
12-08-2019, 06:02 PM
@sktibo

Gaulish may well have impacted gender in modern French. But a neutral gender is clearly attested in Gaulish. The "-on" ending in the nominative is the Gaulish equivalent of the Latin "-um" ending. Compare Latin "templum" and Gaulish "nemeton" (same meaning). The capital "city" of the Vellavi was Ruession, also neuter.

@all

Concerning Brittany. The fleet of the Veneti (a tribe living in Brittany at the time of the conquest) was trounced by the Roman fleet in 56 BC. There is no reason to think that Brittany escaped the same form of romanization that spread over all Gaulish territories at the time. There is only to look at the genetic results of modern Bretons to understand that the influx of Welsh genes in the 5th century must have been absolutely massive.

Concerning how the French now identify with their Gaulish ancestors... well, for centuries the Gauls lay forgotten in the misty depths of French history. Latin and Greek were the languages the learned were expected to be fluent in. In church, Mass was said in Latin well into the 20C. Our "Gaulish revival" is essentially due to Napoleon III, in the mid 19C. It all had to do with nationalism, with reviving a sense of national(istic) pride. There was no point in extolling the Germanic heritage when the Bourbon kings were supposed to be history, and when Germany was the great rival. It was Napoleon II who resurrected the site of the Battle of Gergovia, and had a monument erected there. Even the statue of Vercingetorix, on the Place de Jaude in Clermont-Ferrand, was given the face of "emperor" Napoleon III. Prior to that, I would think very few French people bothered to wonder who the Gauls were.

That's very interesting because I've come across this "Gaulish must have directed French Vulgar Latin towards two genders" more than once, and I didn't see any reason to disbelieve it because the Insular Celtic languages have two genders. So if there was a neutral gender in Gaulish, that would be an example of something that Gaulish may have had in common with Latin, and would give a point to the theory that "Gaulish and Latin weren't all that different" - Or at least, pointing to Gaulish being somewhere along the linguistic spectrum between Insular Celtic and Latin.

Andour
12-08-2019, 08:37 PM
That's very interesting because I've come across this "Gaulish must have directed French Vulgar Latin towards two genders" more than once, and I didn't see any reason to disbelieve it because the Insular Celtic languages have two genders. So if there was a neutral gender in Gaulish, that would be an example of something that Gaulish may have had in common with Latin, and would give a point to the theory that "Gaulish and Latin weren't all that different" - Or at least, pointing to Gaulish being somewhere along the linguistic spectrum between Insular Celtic and Latin.

Proof enough that Latin didn't need any Gaulish influence to lose its neutral gender : Italian, Spanish, Portuguese also lost their neuter. It is difficult to imagine that Gaulish/Celtic might have impacted Italian. Latin "mare" (neutral) became Italian "mare" (masculine).

sktibo
12-08-2019, 08:44 PM
Proof enough that Latin didn't need any Gaulish influence to lose its neutral gender : Italian, Spanish, Portuguese also lost their neuter. It is difficult to imagine that Gaulish/Celtic might have impacted Italian. Latin "mare" (neutral) became Italian "mare" (masculine).

That's quite interesting in comparison to Italian, which went in a different gender direction than French for that word. French certainly seems to have retained more of Gaulish than the other Romance languages, but man, it's still so little... at least, with certainty. As mentioned previously, it's pretty much impossible to determine the what the effect of a substrate language might have been.

I find it very interesting how much the other Gallo-Romance langauges of the Oc family, even Occitan, sound like Spanish to my monolingual English ears, although Auvergnat, or the little I could find of it online, sounded a bit more like standard French. I suspect that the regional languages (or dialects) such as Poitevin or Gallo to name a couple might have retained a bit more Gaulish influence than standard French, which I believe was mentioned in the paper you linked earlier in this thread.

Thank you for your contributions, by the way. They've been very helpful. You really seem to know quite a lot about this topic, can I ask you about how you became interested in it? Is it due to your heritage being from Auvergne?

I want to add that whether or not Gaulish actually did impact French all that much (doesn't look like it really left much of a legacy of course) that even a small knowledge of French (which I have been learning) has been invaluable in allowing me to learn more about the Gauls as I never really found that much on them in the English speaking parts on the internet. I am motivated to continue to learn French just because the more I learn of it it seems the more information I will be able to access about the Gauls!

Andour
12-08-2019, 09:25 PM
As mentioned previously, it's pretty much impossible to determine the what the effect of a substrate language might have been.

Yes... and you also have to take into account the fact that so few Gaulish writings have been preserved (a few curses, a calendar, a few dedications to the gods...). In one of my posts above, I mentioned a number of words of Gaulish origin in my grandparents' dialect. There are plenty more words in that language for which I can't find any identifiable Latin etymology. But I can't assign them to Gaulish (even though it's the most likely source) for lack of evidence. The same is probably true for some other French dialects, not necessarily in the southern Occitan area. I suppose you'd find similar examples of "unknown etymology" in Picard, Angevin or Berrichon - though to be honest, I don't know much about those dialects. Anyway, there always remains the suspicion that those words (or at least some of them) might have been locally-produced neologisms that have nothing to do with any known language.

Camulogène Rix
12-08-2019, 10:28 PM
Access to the book: "La langue gauloise: grammaire, texte et glossaire"

http://etudesindoeuropeennes.fr/articleContent/89

The glossary starts from page 223

sktibo
12-08-2019, 10:36 PM
Access to the book: "La langue gauloise: grammaire, texte et glossaire"

http://etudesindoeuropeennes.fr/articleContent/89

The glossary starts from page 223

Une opportunite me practicer lire un peu de francais! Thanks for the link Camu!

NixYO
12-09-2019, 02:39 AM
Proof enough that Latin didn't need any Gaulish influence to lose its neutral gender : Italian, Spanish, Portuguese also lost their neuter. It is difficult to imagine that Gaulish/Celtic might have impacted Italian. Latin "mare" (neutral) became Italian "mare" (masculine).
Romanian neuter nouns are like the fish species kobudai (https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Asian_sheepshead_wrasse): Declined as masculine nouns in singular but as feminine nouns in plural:

https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Romanian_nouns#/Gender

An intrinsic property of Romanian nouns, as in all Romance languages, is their gender. However, while most Romance languages have only two genders, masculine and feminine, Romanian also has neuter gender. In Latin, the neuter is a separate gender, requiring all determiners to have three distinct forms, such as the adjective bona, bonus, bonum (meaning good). Comparatively, Romanian neuter is a combination of the other two genders. More specifically, in Romanian, neuter nouns behave in the singular as masculine nouns and in the plural as feminine nouns. As such, all noun determiners and all pronouns only have two possible gender-specific forms instead of three. From this perspective, it's possible to say that in Romanian there are really just two genders, masculine and feminine, and the category labeled as neuter contains nouns whose gender switches with the number.

sktibo
12-09-2019, 07:53 PM
I just want to post a couple more interesting papers relevant to the topic here:

"Pour une réévaluation du substrat celtique et pré-indo-européen du lexique français"
https://www.academia.edu/11257681/Pour_une_r%C3%A9%C3%A9valuation_du_substrat_celtiq ue_et_pr%C3%A9-indo-europ%C3%A9en_du_lexique_fran%C3%A7ais

"L’émergence du français ou la rencontre du latin vulgaire avec des parlers celtiques puis germaniques"
https://books.openedition.org/pur/32772?lang=en

sktibo
03-01-2020, 06:28 PM
I'm still researching the French language and why it is the way it is. My interest in this language more or less began when a friend told me long ago that "French is nearly a Celtic language" and being generally aware of prominent cultural things such as Asterix and Obelix, initially I just accepted that would be true. Currently, I do not think it is. There are quite a lot of differing opinions on sites like Quora and Reddit, some which even include well done and detailed explanations, explaining why Gaulish is a likely candidate for some of the features of French despite limited vocabulary influence. However, I also found that while one person was able to argue a Gaulish origin, another was also able to do the same in favor of a Latin (Vulgar Latin) origin. Therefore, nothing in favor of Gaulish was ever concrete. The genders of words in the Occitan and French languages or dialects do appear to be coming from the genders for these things in Gaulish. I haven't found evidence against that yet, but that seems to be about it. I hit the end of the road with the possibilities of Gaulish influence, and my interest turned to Germanic and Frankish influence.
It appears to be very common for people to attribute all the oddities of French compared to it's neighboring Romance languages to Frankish influence. Frankish definitely appears to have given vocabulary and calques to modern French, but what I found really surprising was that similarly to Gaulish, features of modern French which are often attributed to Germanic influence also have a Latin origin argument tied to them. Initially, I read something that said that the "pas" negation was Germanic due to the position, but later found out this was actually a Latin word in origin and this development just happened within the language. I read that "Avoir" was Germanic because of the similarity to Germanic words such as "Have" but when I dove into this more deeply, there was an explanation for how this developed from Latin. Many people attribute the rather unique sound of French as compared to Spanish or Italian as being due to the Germanic influence, (What I read a lot of people say was that French is the result of Germanics learning Latin.. but that would have to mean that the Franks outnumbered the native Gallo-Roman population and if that were the case, French wouldn't be a Romance language today...) but then Portuguese also has a relatively strange sound, often being compared to Russian, and we know that it wasn't influenced by Russian or Slavic in that way.
What I found was that, similarly to how people want to view DNA tests as representations of historical migrations and peoples on a population, people also are far too keen to attribute the influence of historical peoples on languages, and although it often seems that this is a reason, perhaps most of the time, a unique feature in a language is actually just an innovation that took place within that language and is not due to the influence of a historical people of the region that language was spoken in.
The more deeply I look into this question, the more often I find that the answer is "Vulgar Latin that developed in a unique direction." I'll admit that isn't the answer I had hoped to find when I set out on this journey, but I think I would have to be pretty ignorant to convince myself otherwise.

Back to all things Gaulish, this probably isn't worth much but I thought it was interesting. There are a couple videos on YouTube that display re-constructed Gaulish language, the accent this re-constructed Gaulish has, is to my ears, most like the Limousin dialect of Occitan - which is the most North-Westerly Occitan language or dialect. What I found of Auvergnat wasn't dissimilar either but I personally thought Limousin stood out as being the closest. Not that this means anything! I am not by any means claiming that the re-constructed Gaulish accent is accurate at all as I don't think there's a way to accurately replicate how this language would have sounded when it has been dead for so long. But, I thought this was interesting and a bit of fun.

moesan
03-14-2020, 01:28 PM
Few celtic words in French, true. But let's keep in mind the latin words are very common in ALL IE European languages! only 40% (rather lesser) of true Romance words in modern French! (scientific affirmation), the remnant loaned or created on Latin and Greek later.

moesan
03-14-2020, 01:33 PM
Romanian neuter nouns are like the fish species kobudai (https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Asian_sheepshead_wrasse): Declined as masculine nouns in singular but as feminine nouns in plural:

https://www.wikiwand.com/en/Romanian_nouns#/Gender

furthermore, nouns gender is not a hard marker of language identity, not so much: in French dialects (Oil), more than a noun may be either masculine or feminine (un(E) fourmi BI).

sktibo
05-01-2021, 05:48 PM
This is a topic that has not ceased to interest me. I have come across a couple of books which delve into this topic, and I want to share a few quotes here.
From "Les Patois" by Albert Dauzat:

les celtismes offrent leur maximum en langue d’oïl, puis en franco-provençal, Italie du Nord-Ouest, en arverno-limousin, ensuite en provençal.
Throughout the book, various examples of sound changes, what the author believes are attributed to Gaulish, and why, are given. Ultimately this book gives the impression that it is the langues d'oil which have kept the most features of Gaulish origin.

However, another book, "Nos racines celtiques" by Pierre Gastal offers an opposing view:

2) Les parlers occitans
La quasi-totalité des toponymes du tableau de la page 24 sont des termes occitans. En effet, une part non négligeable du vocabulaire de cette langue descend du gaulois, et dans une proportion nettement supérieure à celle du français. Cette observation n’est pas nouvelle. En 1737 déjà, un érudit méridional dressait une liste de mots languedociens qu’il retrouvait en breton et en gallois. On peut expliquer cela par le fait que la moitié sud de la France a été peu affectée par la langue germanique des envahisseurs francs. Ensuite, et surtout, parce que les parlers occitans concernent souvent des populations de montagnes et de plateaux: l’isolement, la rudesse des conditions d’existence ont protégé leur langue des influences extérieures. L’éloignement des écoles romaines, le maintien d’une culture purement orale, d’un mode de vie lié à la terre, les unions endogamiques par la force des choses, y ont préservé plus logntemps la pratique de la langue traditionnelle. Ce sont les dialectes du Massif Central qui recèlent donc, logiquement, le plus de mots gaulois. À l’écart des villes et des grandes routes – ces vecteurs de la romanisation –, l’Auvergne, le Velay, le Vivarais, le Rouergue ont conservé plus longtemps leur parler celte: à trois ans de la chute de l’Empire d’Occident, Sidoine Apollinaire témoigne que la noblesse arverne, instruite en latin et en relation étroite avec l’administration romaine, s’exprimait toujours, comme le peuple, en gaulois.

The case is made here that it is the Occitan language(s) - specifically the dialects such as that of Andour's family - Auvergnat, and I suppose, Limousin as well since they're often grouped, which conserve the most features of the Gaulish language. This seems logical: the combination of geographic isolation, lack of Germanic influence, and having undergone less Romanization than the dialects of Languedocian, Provencale, or Catalan certainly could have resulted in a larger degree of conservation of Gaulish linguistic features and vocabulary. Essentially, these appear to be the modern continuation of Gaulish Vulgar Latin, minus the other influences that the languages of Oil underwent.

This book contains tables showing examples, comparing Occitan to a modern Celtic language of choice, and then to the Gaulish word itself. It makes a very convincing case that Occitan preserves more than often thought of Gaulish.

Of course, I am not a linguist. I did not conduct my own study on this subject. What I am seeing, is that this is a debate that has strong arguments for both sides. I do regularly come across the argument that the Langues d'Oil were less romanized and therefore contain more Gaulish features than the Langues d'Oc. However, to those also interested in this subject, I highly recommend "Nos racines celtique" as it also contains quite a lot of information on the features of Gaulish that survived into modern standard French.

Indeed, although the vocabulary is limited, I was surprised to see quite a few words I regularly encounter in my readings, such as "arpenter, baiser, balayer, bas, basculer, bassin, battre, berceau, blague, (as I'm writing this I realize so many of the words listed of Gaulish origin are quite common, and it would take me too long to go through this alphabetically and write out all the words I immediately recognize...) a good few of them are related to descriptions of landscape, like falaise or rocher; which I found quite interesting. I certainly did not think that so many common words would be of Gaulish origin - if indeed, my source for this is accurate, of course.

Andour
05-02-2021, 01:06 AM
Hi, Sktibo,

Thanks for the quote (food for thought indeed), and for providing the title of the book (I'd have asked if you hadn't!).

A few random thoughts in reaction to what you wrote :

1. No-one can contest the obvious fact that French as well as its patois are massively descended from Latin. Of course a number of Gaulish words survived, as did quite a few Germanic words. But let's face it: they are statistically marginal, not to say numerically insignificant - the Gaulish words more so than the Germanic ones. And they are specific to restricted semantic fields (eg the lexicon of craftsmanship and farmwork in the case of Gaulish). Of course, Breton (Celtic), Basque (most likely pre-PIE), Flemish and the Germanic dialects of Alsace and Moselle are notorious exceptions to that general rule.

2. I have identified a few Gaulish words in the language my grandmothers spoke. But... my command of that language is partial at best, and, much more importantly, I do not know what to make of those words I can't link to Latin roots. They might be Gaulish for all I know, but for lack of reliable references, and after two thousand years of gradual sound change, elision, suffixation, etc... I can't be sure whether they were once Gaulish, or older, or were created locally in the course of the said 2000 years. To illustrate my point: a strawberry in "my" dialect is a "madzüfà". No Latin root. After digging into it, I found out the word was of Basque origin. My region has no close connection to the Basque country. Never had. What this implies is that this specific word must have survived over the centuries from some pre-PIE neolithic Iberian or Basque-like language spoken around here before the first "Beakers" arrived. But this one was a lucky strike. There are dozens of others I don't know what to make of. At the end of the day, though, the bulk of the vocabulary of the Occitan dialects (mine and others) is essentially Latin.

3. Concerning the 'distinctive' phonology of French, as compared to Italian or Spanish, well, the influence of Gaulish may have played a role (it surely did), and so did Germanic, but that distinctiveness, in my opinion, is mostly due to something akin to what geneticists call "drift". Geographical barriers, mountain ranges, rivers, restricted zones of interaction were probably enough for each region to develop a distinct phonology, local mannerisms, and possibly local neologisms.

4. To complicate things further, many Gaulish and Latin words were cognates. Rex and rixs, cum and com, ex and eks, medium and medios, (p)lanos and planus, (p)ritos (a ford) and porta (a door)... So the vanquished Gauls probably identified words that sounded familiar in the new language. Besides, the declension systems were extremely close. So even the grammar may have been reasonably accessible. So "un roi" doesn't need to be either a rex or a rixs - it is both.

5. Of course the Franks settled essentially in the northern half of France. But... as they were doing so, the Burgundians rooted themselves en masse all the way from the Swiss border to the mouth of the Rhone, mixing (rather painlessly) with the locals. And the Wisigoths occupied Aquitaine and the Auvergne. The Gallo-Roman Arverni resisted invasion for four years, but then Rome decided to sacrifice the Auvergne, and give it over to the Wisigoths, in order to preserve its influence over Provence, geographically closer and more deeply romanised. Surprisingly, after reluctant beginnings, the Arverns/Auvergnats got on fairly well with the Wisigoths, to such a point that they joined forces to fight the Franks at Vouillé. Defeated, the Wisigoths fled. The Arvern volunteers stayed until they were all dead. The point is : even the Auvergne was submitted to Germanic linguistic influences, so relying on Germanic occupation to explain the split betwwen Langues d'Oc and Langues d'Oil doesn't hold water. Haplogroup R1a stands at 5% in Auvergne and the Rhone Valley, its highest score on French territory.

6. The indubitable Gaulish heritage that does obvioulsy survive in present-day France is in toponyms. In my region alone, most of the towns are "Gaulish". Thiers is from Gaulish Tigernos, Riom was Ritomagos, Ambert was Amberitos, Brioude was Brivas, La Bourboule was named after the Gaulish god of springs and torrents Borvo, and so on and so forth.

Well, that's it for now. Not sure it helps. Hope it does.

sktibo
05-02-2021, 04:15 AM
Andour,

Thank you for your thoughtful response.

The following points I'll make here are off the top of my head (I am too lazy to actually hunt down the sources where I think I am getting these from, as they are not in my native language!) so do not hesitate to fact check what I write here.

I agree that all of this is certainly within the Latin / Roman range or sphere. I haven't seen anything that makes a claim that somehow one of these languages is either "Celtic" or "Germanic" (But there are some particularly absurd comments out on the internet I found where people try to claim this)
Your point #3 is of great interest to me, because, I agree with you - yet, I hardly ever seem to find others that do. I think the most likely case, even for French is that it is the result of Vulgar Latin evolution which is more geographically distant to the "homeland" of the Roman languages. Yet, often I find that French people wish to differentiate themselves, and the most common way to do this is by either claiming a close link to the Gauls or to the Germanic peoples. Of course, I cannot be certain that that is not what happened. I believe I've read theories claiming all three scenarios for some of the rather "unique" features of French. I feel that the explanation of uniquely shifted Vulgar Latin is the most conservative guess, albeit, the most "boring" as well.

As for what is considered a Gaulish word, what I'm finding is that often people consider Latin loanwords of Gaulish origin to "count" as Gaulish words. As I understand it, the Vulgar Latin of each of these major areas were different, and the differences in these regional Vulgar Latin languages or dialects was due to whatever the substrate was.

There is a particular interesting list in "Nos racines celtiques" on page 39, which shows a sample of a comparison of Occitan, a selected modern Celtic language, and the Gaulish word, to compare these. I'm sure you'd find this quite interesting. This table is actually viewable in a preview of the ebook here: https://www.adverbum.fr/editions-desiris/pierre-gastal/nos-racines-celtiques_4r4cdugn3lym.html

As for the Burgundians, IIRC, some authors attribute the formation of the Franco-Provencal/Arpitian language group to their influence - as with the Oil languages, who knows for sure. About the Visigoths, they didn't seem to leave much influence linguistically where they went - the languages of Iberia don't have much Germanic influence, I don't think Visigothic influence has resulted in Germanic linguistic influence, or so it seems. Some random comments I have read over time claimed that the Visigoths spoke Latin or some form of Latin. Who knows if there's any truth to that.

Previously I had thought that Celtic/Gaulish vocabulary was confined to specific domains, but the list of Gaulish words (Nos racines celtiques) that survive in French are often quite common, I think, which was greatly surprising. That is, if those words actually are of Gaulish origin. I have to take the author's word for it.

French words of Gaulish origin - quickly copied and pasted, lacking formatting:


Abaissement, abasourdir, abonner, acculer, acheminer, alêne, alise, alisier, alouette, alose,
aloyau, ambassade, ambassadeur, andain, arpent, arpenter, arpenteur, arpentage, aurochs,
auvent.
Bac, baccalauréat, bâche, bachelette, bachelier, bâcher, bachotte, Bagaudes, bagnole, baie
(golfe), baiser, baisse, baisser, bajoue, balai, balayage, balayer, balayure, balle (enveloppe
du blé), ballot, ballotter, baluchon, banlieue, banne, bannette (pain), baquet, baraterie,
baratin, baratiner, baratineur, barboter, barde, barguigner, barrage, barre, barreau, barrer,
barrette (de cardinal), barreur, barrière, bas, basculer, bassesse, basset, bassin, bassine,
bassinet, bataille, batailler, bataillon, bâton, battage, batte, battement, batteur, battoir,
battre, baudroie, bauge (gîte fangeux du sanglier), baume, bavard, bave, baver, béalière,
bec, bécasse, bécassine, becquée, becqueter, bêchage, bêche, bêcher, bêcheur, bécoter,
bedaine, bédane, bedonnant, bedot, bégaiement, bégayer, bègue, benne, béquille, ber,
berceau, bercer, béret, berge, berle, berne, berner, bétoine, béton, bétonner, bétonneuse,
bicot (jeune bouc), bidule, bief, bièvre, billard, bille, biller, billon, billot, bique, biquet,
biquette, bitume, bitumer, bitumineux, blafard, blague (à tabac), blair, blaireau, blairer,
blé, blèche, bléchir, bleu, bogue, boisseau, bonde, bonder, bondon, bordel, bordélique,
bordigue, borgne, borne, borner, bot (pied), botte, bottier, bottine, bouc, boucher,
boucherie, boudin, boudiner, boue, boueux, bouge, bouillon-blanc, boulaie, bouleau,
bourbeux, bourbier, bourbillon, bourbotte, bourne, bourreau, bourreler, bousculer,
bouteille, braguette, brai, braies, braillard, braillement, brailler, braiment, braire, bran,
brancard, brancarder, brancardier, branche, brancher, brandade, branée, branle, branle bas, branler, brasser, brasserie, brasseur, bréhaigne, brenne, bretèche, breuil, bricolage,
bricole, bricoler, bricoleur, brigade, brigadier, brigand, brigandage, brigantin, brigue,
briguer, brin, brindille, brio, bris, brisant, briser, brisure, broc, broche, brochet, brochette,
broncher, bronquer, brosse, brosser, brouet, brouillard, brouiller, brouillon, broussaille,
brousse, brouter, broutement, broutille, bruire, bruissement, bruit, bruyant, bruyère,
buanderie, budget, buée, burle, burler.
Cabane, cabanon, cabine, cabinet, cabrer (se), cabri, cabriole, cabrioler, cabriolet, cade,
cage, cageot, cagette, cagibi, cagoulard, cagoule, cagoulé, caillasse, caillebotis, caillebotte,
cailler, caillette, caillot, caillou, caillouteux, cailloutis, cairn, camisole, canton, cantonner,
cantonnement, caraco, carrossable, carrosse, carrosserie, carrossier, cavalcade, cavale,
cavaler, cavalerie, cavalier, cervoise, chahuter, chai, chamois, chamoiser, chamoiserie,
chamoisine, changement, changer, chant (face étroite), char, charançon, chariot, charpente,
charpentier, charretée, charretier, charrette, charroi, charron, charrue, chat, chat-huant, 252
Nos racines celtiques
chatière, chaton, chatoyer, chatterie, chauvir, chemin, cheminement, cheminer, chemise,
chemisier, chênaie, chêne, cheval, chevaleresque, chevalerie, chevalier, chevalin, chevau chée, chevauchement, chevaucher, chouan, chouanner, chouannerie, chouette, claie,
clayette, clayonnage, cloche, clocher, clocheton, clochette, cloque, cloquer, coche, cocher
(verbe), cochet (jeune coq), cochon, cochonnaille, cochonner, cochonnerie, combe,
contrebas, copeau, coq, coquelet, coquelicot, coqueluche, coquet, coquetterie, corme,
cormier, cormoran, couche, coudraie, coudrier, coule, craie, cran, cravant (oie), crayeux,
crayon, crayonner, crème, crèmerie, crémeux, crémier, créneau, créneler, creusement,
creuser, creux, crosne, cuculle, cul, culasse, culbute, culbuter, culot, culotte.
Daille (faux), daim, daraise, dard (poisson), darne, dartre, dartreux, déballage, débal ler, déblayer, débonder, débraillé, débrancher, débrayer, débris, débrouillard, décocher,
décombres, déculottée, déculotter, défrichement, défricher, dégivrage, dégivrer, dégobil ler, dégoiser, déjanter, déminer, démineur, dépecer, dépoter, désencombrer, déshabillage,
déshabiller, dessoucher, dragée, drap, draper, draperie, drapeau, drêche, drenne (oiseau),
drille, dru, druide, dune, dunette.
Éborgner, éboueur, ébrancher, ébranler, échange, échanger, écobuage, écobuer, écrémer,
éculer, égosiller (s’), emballage, emballer, emblaver, emblavure, embourber, embouteil lage, embourber, embrayer, embrouiller, embuer, encoche, encombre, encombrement,
encombrer, engouement, engouer, enjambement, enjamber, entonner, entonnoir, érable,
étain, étamage, étamer, étameur.
Falaise, friche, froissement, froisser.
Gable, gaillard, gaillarde (danse), gaillardement, gaillardise, gala, galant, galanterie, galapiat,
galbe, galber, galéjade, galéjer, galer (anc. fr. s’amuser), galet, galette, galgal, galipette,
gallon, galoche, galon, galonner, galurin, galvauder, gambader, gambe (viole de), gambette,
gambiller, gambit, garrot, garroter, gaule, gaulage, gauler, gavage, gaver, gavotte, giberne,
givre, glaise, glaiseux, glanage, glane, glaner, glaneur, glui, gobelet, gober, gogo (à), gogue nard, goguette, gosier, gouaille, gouailleur, gouet, gouge, gouvernail, gouverne, gouverner,
gouverneur, gravats, graveleux, gravelle, gravier, gravière, gravillon, gravillonner, grève,
guenille, guenon, guenuche.
Habillage, habillement, habiller.
If, imbroglio.
Jabot, jachère, jaillir, jaillissement, jalage, jalon, jalonner, jambage, jambe, jambière,
jambon, jambonneau, jante, jarret, jarretelle, jarretière, jars, jatte, jattée, javart, javeline,
javelle, javelot, javotte, joue, joufflu, jouvence, jouvenceau, jouvencelle.
Lai, laîche, lande, lauze, laie, layer, layon, lésine, lésiner, lézard, lézarde, lézarder, liage, liais,
liard, lias, lice, liche, lichette, lie, lieue, limande, limon (planche), limonier, loche, losange,
lotte, loure.
Magot, maint, maréchal, maréchaussée, marelle, marne, marner, marneur, marneux,
marnière, maroilles, marron, marronnier, martel (en tête), martre, mégot, mégoter, mègue,
méhaigne, méreau, meule, meulon, mijoter, mine, miner, minerai, mineur, moignon, môle, 253
mots français d'origine gauloise
moraine, morainique, morfondre, morgue, mornifle, motte, mouchard, mourre, mouton,
moutonnement, moutonner, moutonnier, murger, musse-pot (à).
Nâche, nant (vallée), noue.
Ogre, ogresse, oignon.
Palabre, palabrer, palefrenier, palefroi, pèlerine, petit, petitement, petitesse, pièce (de
vêtement), piécette, pinson, ponton, pontonnier, pot, potage, potasser, potée, poterie,
potier.
Quai.
Rabouiller, raie (sillon), rainure, rapiécer, rayer, rayure, reblochon, rêche, recul, reculade,
reculer, rejaillir, rembarrer, rempoter, renfrogné, rétamer, rétameur, roc, rocher, rocheux,
rote (instr. musique), rouanne, rouge, rougeâtre, rougeaud, rougeole, ruche, rucher.
Sabot, sabotier, saie, sapin, sapinière, savon, savonner, savonnette, sayon, sillage, sillon,
sillonner, soc, souche, soue, suc (sommet basaltique), suage (moulure), suie, suif.
Tacon, talus, tamis, tamiser, tan, tanche, tanière, tanin, tannage, tanner, tannerie, tanneur,
taranche, tarauder, taret, tarière, tonnage, tonne, tonneau, tonnelier, tonnelle, touque,
traille, troc, trogne, trognon, troquer, trou, trouer, truand, truander, tunnel.
Vadrouille, valet, vandoise, vanne, vassal, vassalique, vassaliser, vautrait, vautre, vavasseur,
vergobret, verne (aulne), virelai, virole, vouge.