PDA

View Full Version : Ancient V samples



JonikW
07-20-2019, 03:32 PM
There are 11 ancient V samples in the massive new Viking paper, “Population genomics of the Viking world”, by my reckoning, so I this looks like a good time to start an “ancient V” thread rather than just adding them to the old Bell Beaker one.
Hopefully we'll list plenty more ancient V samples here as they are identified in future.
For these Viking ones, I’ve included the sample number, lab ID, time period; and the Y haplogroup in the case of males.

https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/703405v1

VK65, Denmark_Tollemosegard-BQ, Late Germanic Iron Age/early Viking: V25

VK144, UK_Oxford_#8, 880-1000 CE: V1a1 (I1)

VK253, Russia_Gnezdovo 78-262, 10-11th centuries CE: V13

VK266, Sweden_Karda 19, 9-11th centuries CE: V

VK362, Denmark_Bogovej LMR 12077, 10th century CE: V7b (E1b1b1a1b1a)

VK437, Gotland_Frojel-02303, 900-1050 CE: V

VK537, Italy_Foggia-1248, 11-13th centuries CE: V

VK539, Ukraine_Shestovitsa-8870-97, 10-12th centuries CE: V

VK540, Ukraine_Shestovitsa-8871-96, 10-12th centuries CE: V (I1)

VK547, Norway_Nordland 4727, 8-11th centuries CE: V (I1a1b1a4a2)

VK550, Estonia_Salme_II-D, 8th century CE: V (N1a1a1a1a1a1a1b)

Eihwaz
07-20-2019, 11:35 PM
It's damn good to see more V samples pop up! I've yet to read the study due to IRL shit, but I'd be hard-pressed not to due to my studies regarding Early Medieval Scandinavia.

Garvan
07-22-2019, 11:50 AM
Given that we have not seen V in the aDNA record before these dates, Is it likely that V was introduced to the British Isles by Vikings?

JonikW
07-22-2019, 07:20 PM
Given that we have not seen V in the aDNA record before these dates, Is it likely that V was introduced to the British Isles by Vikings?

I believe the earliest British V was found in a late Mesolithic woman, CnocCoig_1, in the Inner Hebrides. I assume it's been here since Britain was gradually reoccupied after the last Ice Age, although of course other bearers including the Vikings have arrived since.

Kale
07-30-2019, 05:23 AM
From Reichlab 37.2 Anno file

I7290 - Czech Bell Beaker - V3
I7638 - CA/EBA England - V10b
I2626 - Scotland Neolithic - V
I0453 - Iberia Bell Beaker - V
I0413 - Iberia Early Neolithic - V
I2016 - LBK Germany - V1
I2036 - LBK Germany - V1
I2365 - Hungary Bell Beaker - V3
I4187 - Hungary Neolithic - V1a
I5014 - Germany Bell Beaker - V
I5513 - England Bell Beaker - V
I5367 - Scotland Bell Beaker - V10
AED106 - Germany Early-Medieval - V3
N19 - TRB Poland - V14
N27 - BKG Poland - V14

JonikW
11-15-2019, 11:56 AM
There are a couple of V samples in the new paper (http://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-51045-8) on human mitochondrial DNA lineages in Iron-Age Fennoscandia, which reports 103 samples from AD 300–1800.
They are:
Hollola15, 1050-1300 AD, V7a
Tuukkala7, 1200–1400 AD, V7a1

This line from the paper is of interest:
"We chose to include the haplogroup V as ‘hunter-gatherer’ while there is no direct evidence for association of hg V with the hunter-gatherers. This is assumed here because of V’s northern distribution and its high prevalence (up to 58%34) among the Saami, the archetypal nomadic population lacking many farmer-associated haplogroups."

JonikW
05-29-2020, 04:43 PM
Two new studies have featured ancient V mtDNA in recent days. Here's a summary of the findings; please let me know if I've made any errors.

The first is the Cassidy thesis "A Genomic Compendium of an Island: Documenting Continuity and Change across
Irish Human Prehistory (http://www.tara.tcd.ie/handle/2262/82960)". This is now back under embargo but features 140 ancient Irish samples, three of which are haplogroup V. (One of those V samples, Knockadoon275, turned out to belong to the Early Modern period when dated.)

The Irish V samples are:

Ballinderry6 (BLD6), Ballinderry, Co. Westmeath, Late Bronze Age. Mt haplogroup V3c. (Note: this sample from a crannóg site was excluded from the results chapter "due to low sequencing coverage (0.03-
0.14X) and lack of securely dated contexts".)

Ballyglass44 (BM44), Ballyglass Middle, Co Mayo, Late Iron Age/Early Medieval. Mt haplogroup V7a (Y haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a2c1a1a1a(1*))

Knockadoon275 (KDI275), Knockadoon, Lough Gur, Co. Limerick, 1448-1635 AD, Mt haplogroup V15a, (Y haplogroup R1b1a1a2a1a2c)

The second study is of greater significance here. Twelve V samples are among 223 new mitochondrial genomes in "Ancient genomes from present-day France unveil 7,000 years of its demographic history (http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/05/20/1918034117)" (Brunel et al).

The 12 V samples span the early to late Neolithic and early to late Bronze Age, and include one from the La Tène Iron Age. Only two of the samples appear to be male. Those are from the Early Bronze Age and La Tène periods, and both are R1b.

The French samples are:

BRE447, ZAC st Martin, (Bréviandes, Aube) Early Neolithic (LBK). Mt haplogroup V

SP1, Le Champ du Poste, (Carcassonne, Aude), Middle Neolithic 1. Mt haplogroup V

CRE34, Le Crès, (Béziers,Herault), Middle Neolithic 2. Mt haplogroup V

Pir4, Le Pirou, (Valros, Herault), Middle Neolithic 2.
Mt haplogroup V10a

BRE445C, ZAC st Martin, (Bréviandes, Aube) Late Neolithic. Mt haplogroup V

BOU15, (Aven de la Boucle, Corconne, Gard), Late Neolithic. Mt haplogroup V17

PEI10, (Dolmen des Peirières, Villedubert, Aude), Late Neolithic. Mt haplogroup V

OBE3626-2, (PAEI, Obernai, Bas-Rhin), Early Bronze Age. Mt haplogroup V

EUG11, Dolmen de Saint-Eugène, (Laure, Aude), Early Bronze Age. Mt haplogroup V9, (Y haplogroup R1b1a2a)

PIR6, Le Pirou, (Valros, Herault), Middle Bronze Age. Mt haplogroup V

MIT1059, MITRA 2 (Garons, Gard), Late Bronze Age. Mt haplogroup V

PECH3, (Pech Maho, Sigean, Aude), Second Iron Age ("La Tène"), Mt haplogroup V, (Y haplogroup R1b1a1a)

It's noteworthy that the French study's five Mesolithic samples all fall under U5b1, so neither of these new works provides evidence of any pre-Neolithic spread of V. That means the Late Mesolithic CnocCoig_1 from the Inner Hebrides ("Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain", Brace et al, 2019) is still an outlier as far as I'm aware.

JonikW
05-29-2020, 08:24 PM
V aDNA samples come along like London buses it seems. ;-) As a follow-up to my earlier post of a few hours ago: "Ancient genome-wide DNA from France highlights the complexity of interactions between Mesolithic hunter-gatherers and Neolithic farmers"; Rivollat et al.

"Here, we present genome-wide data from 101 individuals from 12 sites covering today’s France and Germany from the Mesolithic (N = 3) to the Neolithic (N = 98) (7000–3000 BCE)."

V samples are:

GRG019 (GRG019.A0102; GLN 225), Gurgy "les Noisats", Yonne, France, Neolithic. Mt haplogroup V

OBN002, (OBN002.A0101; OB 4017-1), Obernai, Bas-Rhin, France, same Neolithic site as below. Mt haplogroup V

OBN005, (OBN005.A0101; OB 4090-1), Obernai, (Bas-Rhin, France), Neolithic, Date calBCE 2σ (uncalBP): 5007-4847 (6044±25), Mt haplogroup V, (Y haplogroup I2a1a2)

This line from the paper is interesting after what I posted earlier today on lack of any new evidence regarding any Mesolithic spread: "Male individuals from OBN carry exclusively the Y chromosome haplogroups I2a1a2 and C1a2b, attributed to HG groups (text S5), providing further evidence for a greater amount of the HG contribution in this region."

Edit: here's the link (http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/6/22/eaaz5344/tab-pdf)

BalkanKiwi
05-30-2020, 01:29 AM
Thanks for posting these! Its good to see some new V studies/samples being published.

JonikW
05-30-2020, 04:54 PM
Great to see the Cnoc Coig Late Mesolithic V resurface in the latest French paper. It's inspiring to see new modelling here that shows beyond doubt that mtDNA haplogroup V was present in Europe during the Late Mesolithic. CnocCoig_1 lived right on the cusp of farming, but the modelling here with old and new samples confirms that she didn't harbour Neolithic ancestry.

A four-way comparison (Villabruna, EGG, Goyet Q2 and Anatolia Neolithic) shows she's Villabruna-like here:
37821

And here she sits within the WHG cluster on a PCA:
37822

What we don't know of course is to what extent both hunter gatherers and early farmers distributed V. And given that "Cnoc Coig, Oronsay, [is] one of the few Late Mesolithic sites with human remains known in Britain" (Charlton et al, 2016), I wonder how many potential samples are even available across Europe now. I see there were only three Mesolithic samples in the latest French paper, compared with 98 from the Neolithic, which doesn't exactly inspire hope of finding out more on that front.

The little that's been written about ancient V on the web is often plain wrong, eg: "the two most frequent maternal lineages of the Sámi people are the haplogroups V (neolithic in Europe and not found in Finland 1500 years ago)" on Wiki, and "HV0 and V start to show up in the archeological record in Neolithic cultures" in an otherwise good eupedia page. So I'm cheering this Mesolithic/Neolithic French paper for giving Cnoc Coig's importance in the history of V a fresh airing while providing so many exciting new samples.

BalkanKiwi
05-30-2020, 10:29 PM
Great to see the Cnoc Coig Late Mesolithic V resurface in the latest French paper. It's inspiring to see new modelling here that shows beyond doubt that mtDNA haplogroup V was present in Europe during the Late Mesolithic. CnocCoig_1 lived right on the cusp of farming, but the modelling here with old and new samples confirms that she didn't harbour Neolithic ancestry.

A four-way comparison (Villabruna, EGG, Goyet Q2 and Anatolia Neolithic) shows she's Villabruna-like here:
37821

And here she sits within the WHG cluster on a PCA:
37822

What we don't know of course is to what extent both hunter gatherers and early farmers distributed V. And given that "Cnoc Coig, Oronsay, [is] one of the few Late Mesolithic sites with human remains known in Britain" (Charlton et al, 2016), I wonder how many potential samples are even available across Europe now. I see there were only three Mesolithic samples in the latest French paper, compared with 98 from the Neolithic, which doesn't exactly inspire hope of finding out more on that front.

The little that's been written about ancient V on the web is often plain wrong, eg: "the two most frequent maternal lineages of the Sámi people are the haplogroups V (neolithic in Europe and not found in Finland 1500 years ago)" on Wiki, and "HV0 and V start to show up in the archeological record in Neolithic cultures" in an otherwise good eupedia page. So I'm cheering this Mesolithic/Neolithic French paper for giving Cnoc Coig's importance in the history of V a fresh airing while providing so many exciting new samples.

I also have issues with the information available on the internet regarding V. As you say, compared to bigger haplogroups especially, there is little information around, and what is around seems to be out of date/incorrect. I can't recall what description FTDNA gives for V (I haven't checked for awhile). Hopefully with new samples we start to get more answers in the coming years. The lack of Mesolithic samples may create a few more questions though.

Eihwaz
06-01-2020, 07:30 PM
I also have issues with the information available on the internet regarding V. As you say, compared to bigger haplogroups especially, there is little information around, and what is around seems to be out of date/incorrect. I can't recall what description FTDNA gives for V (I haven't checked for awhile). Hopefully with new samples we start to get more answers in the coming years. The lack of Mesolithic samples may create a few more questions though.

At the very least, Yfull is doing some work getting a ton more classified diversity on mtDNA subclades as of late, with up to "V39" recognized:

https://www.yfull.com/mtree/V/

BalkanKiwi
06-01-2020, 07:58 PM
At the very least, Yfull is doing some work getting a ton more classified diversity on mtDNA subclades as of late, with up to "V39" recognized:

https://www.yfull.com/mtree/V/

Indeed! They've put me into V33. That could change, as they previously put me into a different subclade, and then I was moved out of it, so there's a chance that could happen again as they develop it.

JonikW
06-06-2020, 04:03 PM
There's an ancient V sample in this groundbreaking new study: "The Neolithic Pitted Ware culture foragers were culturally but not genetically influenced by the Battle Axe culture herders (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.24079#ajpa24079-fig-0005)".

The sequenced V individual is a child from a Pitted Ware culture (PWC) burial in Ajvide on the island of Gotland in Sweden, and is one of 25 samples from four burial grounds belonging to this culture. It has appeared in earlier studies*, but this one brings fresh insights on the local PWC community and its genetic admixture.

Summing up the backdrop: "In Scandinavia during the third millennium , three genetically distinct groups exist; FBC [Funnel Beaker complex] with mostly farmer ancestry, PWC with mostly hunter‐gatherer ancestry and BAC [Battle Axe culture] with a steppe component in their ancestry."

What the study uncovers regarding admixture between the three groups is fascinating. The study's typical PWC individuals were buried flat on their backs in a supine position, with hunting and fishing gear, pit-decorated pottery, tooth pendants and bones from game. Some however were laid to rest in a BAC-like crouched position in locations that featured BAC-associated artefacts. The paper reveals that while there are low levels of PWC admixture with farmer‐related individuals, those BAC similarities are purely cultural.

[B]Here are the V sample's details:

Sample ID: ajv52; grave number: 52; Date (cal BCE, 2 sigma): 2,914–2,694. Child, no sex attributed, buried in the typical PWC supine position. Mitochondrial haplogroup: V

The unsupervised clustering analysis with ADMIXTURE potentially adds to our picture of the hunter gatherer vs farmer distribution of V. Our V sample is one of the lower coverage genomes at 0.08, but it only shows the hunter-gatherer component among the three in question. The farmer traces that you'll see in some of the others in the attached extract from Fig 5 indicates a "low level of gene‐flow between the FBC and PWC populations".

Here's the image. Blue = 'hunter‐gatherer' ancestry, yellow‐green = 'farmer' ancestry, and turquoise = 'herder'‐related ancestry ( the latter is not found in any PWC individuals).

37912

Incidentally, mitochondrial haplogroup U is predominant among the 11 “BAC influenced” PWC individuals here, while males from both the typical PWC and "BAC influenced" graves belonged to Y haplogroup I2.

* ajv52 was previously published by Skoglund et al (2012, 2014). EDIT: Ajv52 also appears in the Wong et al "Reconstructing genetic history of Siberian and Northeastern European populations", which finds: "Apart from Eastern European hunter-gatherers, Siberians also shared part of their ancestry with Pitted Ware Culture (PWC) 5,000-yr-old hunter-gatherers from Sweden Ire8 and Ajv52."

Eihwaz
06-07-2020, 03:54 PM
There's an ancient V sample in this groundbreaking new study: "The Neolithic Pitted Ware culture foragers were culturally but not genetically influenced by the Battle Axe culture herders (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ajpa.24079#ajpa24079-fig-0005)".

The sequenced V individual is a child from a Pitted Ware culture (PWC) burial in Ajvide on the island of Gotland in Sweden, and is one of 25 samples from four burial grounds belonging to this culture. It has appeared in earlier studies*, but this one brings fresh insights on the local PWC community and its genetic admixture.

Summing up the backdrop: "In Scandinavia during the third millennium , three genetically distinct groups exist; FBC [Funnel Beaker complex] with mostly farmer ancestry, PWC with mostly hunter‐gatherer ancestry and BAC [Battle Axe culture] with a steppe component in their ancestry."

What the study uncovers regarding admixture between the three groups is fascinating. The study's typical PWC individuals were buried flat on their backs in a supine position, with hunting and fishing gear, pit-decorated pottery, tooth pendants and bones from game. Some however were laid to rest in a BAC-like crouched position in locations that featured BAC-associated artefacts. The paper reveals that while there are low levels of PWC admixture with farmer‐related individuals, those BAC similarities are purely cultural.

[B]Here are the V sample's details:

Sample ID: ajv52; grave number: 52; Date (cal BCE, 2 sigma): 2,914–2,694. Child, no sex attributed, buried in the typical PWC supine position. Mitochondrial haplogroup: V

The unsupervised clustering analysis with ADMIXTURE potentially adds to our picture of the hunter gatherer vs farmer distribution of V. Our V sample is one of the lower coverage genomes at 0.08, but it only shows the hunter-gatherer component among the three in question. The farmer traces that you'll see in some of the others in the attached extract from Fig 5 indicates a "low level of gene‐flow between the FBC and PWC populations".

Here's the image. Blue = 'hunter‐gatherer' ancestry, yellow‐green = 'farmer' ancestry, and turquoise = 'herder'‐related ancestry ( the latter is not found in any PWC individuals).

37912

Incidentally, mitochondrial haplogroup U is predominant among the 11 “BAC influenced” PWC individuals here, while males from both the typical PWC and "BAC influenced" graves belonged to Y haplogroup I2.

* ajv52 was previously published by Skoglund et al (2012, 2014). EDIT: Ajv52 also appears in the Wong et al "Reconstructing genetic history of Siberian and Northeastern European populations", which finds: "Apart from Eastern European hunter-gatherers, Siberians also shared part of their ancestry with Pitted Ware Culture (PWC) 5,000-yr-old hunter-gatherers from Sweden Ire8 and Ajv52."

At first glance, Ajv52 seems to be fully of hunter ancestry, according to the graph. That's in similar fashion to Cnoc Cnoig.

JonikW
06-07-2020, 06:35 PM
At first glance, Ajv52 seems to be fully of hunter ancestry, according to the graph. That's in similar fashion to Cnoc Cnoig.

I agree and think this is significant. Sadly, we're unlikely to ever have much more hunter gatherer aDNA evidence, but Ajv52 and CnocCoig_1 alone are enough to demonstrate that V was seen among Mesolithic and successor hunter gatherer populations in western Europe.

The fact that U is common among PWC samples in this latest study only confirms that for me, because when we're talking low level admixture we'd arguably be more likely to see Y haplogroups introduced by outside farmers here than mtDNA.

This all makes a lot of sense when you consider V's possible spread north from the Iberian Ice Age refugium as well as its frequency among the Sámi (see the study mentioned at post #6). Of course if V originated around 13,600 years ago (FTDNA project page) it had ample time to reach Anatolia and the Near East separately only to return west with farmers too. That means that when V is found in an LBK context that had seen WHG admixture, for example, we're unlikely to ever know whether a farmer or a hunter gatherer lineage was responsible.

Once again, I wish that mtDNA mutations were more datable, but at least the picture is a bit clearer now regarding V in hunter gatherer western Europe.