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RCO
10-19-2019, 02:20 PM
Rare human mitochondrial HV lineages spread from the Near East and Caucasus during post-LGM and Neolithic expansions
Michel Shamoon-Pour, Mian Li & D. Andrew Merriwether
Scientific Reports volume 9, Article number: 14751 (2019)
Published: 14 October 2019
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-019-48596-1


Abstract
Of particular significance to human population history in Eurasia are the migratory events that connected the Near East to Europe after the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM). Utilizing 315 HV*(xH,V) mitogenomes, including 27 contemporary lineages first reported here, we found the genetic signatures for distinctive movements out of the Near East and South Caucasus both westward into Europe and eastward into South Asia. The parallel phylogeographies of rare, yet widely distributed HV*(xH,V) subclades reveal a connection between the Italian Peninsula and South Caucasus, resulting from at least two (post-LGM, Neolithic) waves of migration. Many of these subclades originated in a population ancestral to contemporary Armenians and Assyrians. One such subclade, HV1b-152, supports a postexilic, northern Mesopotamian origin for the Ashkenazi HV1b2 lineages. In agreement with ancient DNA findings, our phylogenetic analysis of HV12 and HV14, the two exclusively Asian subclades of HV*(xH,V), point to the migration of lineages originating in Iran to South Asia before and during the Neolithic period. With HV12 being one of the oldest HV subclades, our results support an origin of HV haplogroup in the region defined by Western Iran, Mesopotamia, and the South Caucasus, where the highest prevalence of HV has been found.
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Important article.
Post-Glacial migration from the Near East to Europe
Neolithic expansion into Europe
Expansion into Africa
The non-European HV*(xH,V) subclades point at a pre-Neolithic migration from Iranian plateau to South Asia
HV1b2 is an Ashkenazi Jewish subclade with links to Northern Mesopotamia
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Of course we can try to associate original autosomal components, Y-DNA and languages. I would guess haplogroup J (J1,J2), CHG-Iran complex and PIE languages in the cradle

Kristiina
10-20-2019, 07:10 AM
The ancient Neolithic HV samples in Europe belong to HV0 subclade. Moreover, HV* has also been detected in the pre-Neolithic Europe, and many Asian HV clades made it to Europe only during the metal periods.

The oldest European HV samples are these: Magdalenian Spain La Pasiega HV/H (?), Late Epigravettian Grotta d’Oriente Čgadi Sicily OrienteB ca 8500 BCE HV, British Early Mesolithic SW England Aveline_3 I6745 8750-8459 cal. BCE H13 / HV.

The Neolithic HV0 samples are these:
HV0: Starčevo NE Vinkovci Nama Croatia VINK3 HV0, NL Trypillians V3.16.1 3600 BC Ukraine HV0, Rössen NE Oberweiderstedt Germany OSH10 HV0, Lengyel NE Brześć Kujawski Poland O.26 HV0, Rössen NE Wittmar Germany Witt26 + Witt27 + Witt46 HV0, MN Bom Santo Cave Portugal #06 HV0, Late NE Calden Germany HV0, MN Odagsen Germany KI116 + KI168 + Kl186 HV0, MN Treilles Aveyron573 + Aveyron609 France HV0 x2
HV0+195: Cardial Neolithic Cueva de Chaves NE Catalonia CHA001_MT 5308–5057 BCE HV0+195, Ballynahatty MN/LN HV0 (195), Scotland Neolithic Raschoille Cave Oban c. 3600 BCE I3137 HVO+195
HV0a: Balcan Neolithic Vinča Vc6 5400 BC HV0a, MN Hungary ALPc Tiszadob Bükk Tiszadob-Ókenéz I2376 HV0a, LN Hungary Sopot Fajsz-Garadomb I1890 HV0a, LNE Cueva de los Cuarenta/South Spain 40331 3600 BC HV0a, TRB Neolithic Ansarme dolmen Gotland ans017 3330 BC HV0a

There are some HV* samples in LBK but the amount of HV* is small compared to J1c, T2b and H. The only HV clade that is typical for Neolithic farmers is HV0.
LBKT NE Balatonszárszó Hungary BSZ19 HV, Balcan Neolithic Lepenski Vir I5405/Lepi_17 5700 BCE HV, Epicardial NE Paternabidea Navarra PAT-3E2 HV, LBK NE Derenburg Germany DEB4 + DEB5 + DEB20 HV, LBK NE Karsdorf Germany KAR17 HV, French Alsace LBK Obernei OB 4089 HV, French Alsace LBK Obernei OB 4015 4688-4505 cal. BC HV, Rössen NE Oberweiderstedt Germany OB4015 HV, Schöningen NE Salzmünde Germany SALZ24 HV, Regional TRB Salzmünde Germany SALZ48 HV, MN Hungary ALPc Mezőkövesd-Mocsolyás I3537 HV, Late NE Paimogo Portugal PM13514 HV/L3

Excluding HV0, ancient HV samples are located mostly in West Asia and on the steppe and these arrive in Europe during the Bronze Age. HV12 has been detected in Trypillians but it is almost non-existant in Europe: Eneolithic trypillians Vertebra Cave Ukraine VC001 Site 7 HV12b (356C), Eneolithic trypillians Vertebra Cave Ukraine VC038 HV12b.

Here below you find the other Neolithic era HV samples located in Europe:
LBK NE Viesenhäuser Hof Germany S0019/LBK1254 HV6’17, MN Germany Baalberge Quedlinburg IX I0559/QLB15D 3600 BC HV6’17 (y line R1b1a)

I have not noted any HV1b in ancient Europe, but these two samples outside of Europe are of interest: Kanaan BA Sidon EGAN00001390965 HV1b1,
Pastoral Neolithic Gishimangeda Cave Karatu District Tanzania I13980 2738-2490 BP HV1b

As HV is pretty old, 40-50 kya, it has had plenty of time to spread around.

Ebizur
10-20-2019, 08:15 AM
As HV is pretty old, 40-50 kya, it has had plenty of time to spread around.At least one carrier of HV1a1a has somehow spread to eastern Siberia or Mongolia, where members of this clade have been observed among Yakut, Khamnigan, Buryat, and Barghut as I recall.

According to Eliška Musilová, Verónica Fernandes, Nuno M. Silva, et al. (2011) ("Population history of the Red Sea—genetic exchanges between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa signaled in the mitochondrial DNA HV1 haplogroup"), the TMRCA of HV1a1 is estimated to be 10,268 (3,602–17,194) years. As usual when it comes to TMRCA estimates of clades of mtDNA, the confidence interval is too large for this estimate to be very useful.

The geographical distributions of members of HV1a1a and its nearest outgroups (HV1a1*, HV1a1b) suggest that HV1a1 might have originated in Upper Mesopotamia or the territory of (Greater) Armenia.

How might members of this haplogroup have spread to Tunisia, Yemen, Siberia, and Mongolia? I would like to see some more detailed research regarding the HV clade and especially HV1a1.

Radboud
10-20-2019, 09:46 AM
The ancient Neolithic HV samples in Europe belong to HV0 subclade. Moreover, HV* has also been detected in the pre-Neolithic Europe, and many Asian HV clades made it to Europe only during the metal periods.

The oldest European HV samples are these: Magdalenian Spain La Pasiega HV/H (?), Late Epigravettian Grotta d’Oriente Čgadi Sicily OrienteB ca 8500 BCE HV, British Early Mesolithic SW England Aveline_3 I6745 8750-8459 cal. BCE H13 / HV.

The Neolithic HV0 samples are these:
HV0: Starčevo NE Vinkovci Nama Croatia VINK3 HV0, NL Trypillians V3.16.1 3600 BC Ukraine HV0, Rössen NE Oberweiderstedt Germany OSH10 HV0, Lengyel NE Brześć Kujawski Poland O.26 HV0, Rössen NE Wittmar Germany Witt26 + Witt27 + Witt46 HV0, MN Bom Santo Cave Portugal #06 HV0, Late NE Calden Germany HV0, MN Odagsen Germany KI116 + KI168 + Kl186 HV0, MN Treilles Aveyron573 + Aveyron609 France HV0 x2
HV0+195: Cardial Neolithic Cueva de Chaves NE Catalonia CHA001_MT 5308–5057 BCE HV0+195, Ballynahatty MN/LN HV0 (195), Scotland Neolithic Raschoille Cave Oban c. 3600 BCE I3137 HVO+195
HV0a: Balcan Neolithic Vinča Vc6 5400 BC HV0a, MN Hungary ALPc Tiszadob Bükk Tiszadob-Ókenéz I2376 HV0a, LN Hungary Sopot Fajsz-Garadomb I1890 HV0a, LNE Cueva de los Cuarenta/South Spain 40331 3600 BC HV0a, TRB Neolithic Ansarme dolmen Gotland ans017 3330 BC HV0a

There are some HV* samples in LBK but the amount of HV* is small compared to J1c, T2b and H. The only HV clade that is typical for Neolithic farmers is HV0.
LBKT NE Balatonszárszó Hungary BSZ19 HV, Balcan Neolithic Lepenski Vir I5405/Lepi_17 5700 BCE HV, Epicardial NE Paternabidea Navarra PAT-3E2 HV, LBK NE Derenburg Germany DEB4 + DEB5 + DEB20 HV, LBK NE Karsdorf Germany KAR17 HV, French Alsace LBK Obernei OB 4089 HV, French Alsace LBK Obernei OB 4015 4688-4505 cal. BC HV, Rössen NE Oberweiderstedt Germany OB4015 HV, Schöningen NE Salzmünde Germany SALZ24 HV, Regional TRB Salzmünde Germany SALZ48 HV, MN Hungary ALPc Mezőkövesd-Mocsolyás I3537 HV, Late NE Paimogo Portugal PM13514 HV/L3

Excluding HV0, ancient HV samples are located mostly in West Asia and on the steppe and these arrive in Europe during the Bronze Age. HV12 has been detected in Trypillians but it is almost non-existant in Europe: Eneolithic trypillians Vertebra Cave Ukraine VC001 Site 7 HV12b (356C), Eneolithic trypillians Vertebra Cave Ukraine VC038 HV12b.

Here below you find the other Neolithic era HV samples located in Europe:
LBK NE Viesenhäuser Hof Germany S0019/LBK1254 HV6’17, MN Germany Baalberge Quedlinburg IX I0559/QLB15D 3600 BC HV6’17 (y line R1b1a)

I have not noted any HV1b in ancient Europe, but these two samples outside of Europe are of interest: Kanaan BA Sidon EGAN00001390965 HV1b1,
Pastoral Neolithic Gishimangeda Cave Karatu District Tanzania I13980 2738-2490 BP HV1b

As HV is pretty old, 40-50 kya, it has had plenty of time to spread around.

The first documented HV1 sample in Europe is present in MBA Banbino, Ukraine (paper can be found
here.
(https://www.nature.com/articles/jhg201712#MOESM431)) All sorts of southern stuff may have got onto the Banbino area at that stage.


At least one carrier of HV1a1a has somehow spread to eastern Siberia or Mongolia, where members of this clade have been observed among Yakut, Khamnigan, Buryat, and Barghut as I recall.

According to Eliška Musilová, Verónica Fernandes, Nuno M. Silva, et al. (2011) ("Population history of the Red Sea—genetic exchanges between the Arabian Peninsula and East Africa signaled in the mitochondrial DNA HV1 haplogroup"), the TMRCA of HV1a1 is estimated to be 10,268 (3,602–17,194) years. As usual when it comes to TMRCA estimates of clades of mtDNA, the confidence interval is too large for this estimate to be very useful.

The geographical distributions of members of HV1a1a and its nearest outgroups (HV1a1*, HV1a1b) suggest that HV1a1 might have originated in Upper Mesopotamia or the territory of (Greater) Armenia.

How might members of this haplogroup have spread to Tunisia, Yemen, Siberia, and Mongolia? I would like to see some more detailed research regarding the HV clade and especially HV1a1.

So far, there are two HV1a1 samples in the ancient Northern Caucasus and Armenia:

KDC002.A0101 from Kudachurt, MBA North Caucasus (1900-1700 BC);

arm46 from Karashamb, MBA Armenia (1800-1600 BC).

Personally, I also belong to HV1a1, but I have only (MTDNA full sequence) matches from European countries like Poland, The Netherlands, France, UK and Russia. It appears there is also a European subgroup within the HV1a1 clade.

Kristiina
10-20-2019, 12:49 PM
@ Radboud

In addition to the Babino sample, in Europe I have recorded the samples below:
EBA Bulgaria Shekerdja Mogila SM_24.2 HV1a'b'c
Iron Age Piceni from Novilara Italy NOR20 83 650 BC HV1
Longobard Hungary Hegykő LHHEG2 400-500 AD HV1a2
Proto-Bulgarian Nojarevo Bulgaria 700-800 AD NJ 77 HV1

Kristiina
10-20-2019, 01:16 PM
I disagree on this:

Despite the remarkably old age inferred for certain HV*(xH,V) subclades in this region7, ancient DNA (aDNA) studies fail to provide evidence for the presence of haplogroup HV*(xH,V) in pre-Neolithic Italy. In fact, haplogroup HV*(xH,V) is not very common among ancient European individuals studied so far, with the oldest case belonging to a 7,000 year-old Linear Pottery Culture (LBK) individual from Central Europe9.

How can you say that ancient DNA studies have failed to provide evidence for the presence of haplogroup HV*(xH,V) in pre-Neolithic Italy when the post-LGM samples are only three (or four?) one being Villabruna 13 kya, U5b2b, one Grotta d’Oriente sample I2158 SIC2, U2’3’4’7’8’9, and the other late Epigravettian Grotta d’Oriente Čgadi Sicily OrienteB ca 8500 BCE is precisely HV. Of course, the status of Magdalenian Spain La Pasiega HV/H is disputed, and British Early Mesolithic SW England Aveline_3 I6745 8750-8459 cal. BCE has been assigned to H13 / HV. These two could be early H samples.

This is the paper: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233840729_Origin_and_Diet_of_the_Prehistoric_Hunte r-Gatherers_on_the_Mediterranean_Island_of_Favignana _Egadi_Islands_Sicily
It is argued that the Italian sample is HV1.

StillWater
10-21-2019, 08:53 AM
On the one hand, they say:

"supports a postexilic, northern Mesopotamian origin for the Ashkenazi HV1b2 lineages"

meanwhile, they also say: "MtDNA data from the ancient Near East is limited, however, aDNA studies have revealed the presence of HV*(xH,V) lineages in Iran (HV), Levant (HV*, HV1b2)"

digital_noise
10-21-2019, 04:08 PM
My daughter is HV9c

SUPREEEEEME
10-27-2019, 03:16 PM
HV1b2 has also been found in 2 ancient Egyptian mummies.

Jan_Noack
11-02-2019, 04:50 AM
already posted in another thread HV0 (T195C) for father's mtDNA can be traced back to only around 1800 i Essex, Engalnd

Shamash
12-13-2019, 01:36 PM
I wonder where my subclade HV1a'b'c fits in this paper.

http://https://www.yfull.com/mtree/HV1a'b'c/

Mine is part of the South Italian branch.

It has been found in the Peqin cave in Israel in a Late Chalcolithic context, 4500–3900/3800 BCE:

I1165:
mtDNA: HV1a'b'c
Y-DNA: T1a1a1b2

And in one of the Abusir mummies.

Is the Levantine branch ancestral to the South Italian one and if yes when do you think it arrived in Italy?

StillWater
12-14-2019, 01:50 AM
I wonder where my subclade HV1a'b'c fits in this paper.

http://https://www.yfull.com/mtree/HV1a'b'c/

Mine is part of the South Italian branch.

It has been found in the Peqin cave in Israel in a Late Chalcolithic context, 4500–3900/3800 BCE:

I1165:
mtDNA: HV1a'b'c
Y-DNA: T1a1a1b2

And in one of the Abusir mummies.

Is the Levantine branch ancestral to the South Italian one and if yes when do you think it arrived in Italy?

It sounds like you got them from 23andMe and they just gave you the general one. HV1a'b'c is very general and is thus more of a superclade than a subclade. Try Jameslick MTDNA predictor. What's your matrilineal background?

Shamash
12-14-2019, 04:06 AM
It sounds like you got them from 23andMe and they just gave you the general one. HV1a'b'c is very general and is thus more of a superclade than a subclade. Try Jameslick MTDNA predictor. What's your matrilineal background?

Nope. I did the full mitochondrial sequence by FTDNA and still am HV1a'b'c according to FTDNA. My mother's from South Italy, from the Molise region and I only got (HVR1, HVR2, Coding Regions) match that also is from Southern Italy. I am among the HV1a'b'c* samples in the Yfull-tree. According to Yfull all the other HV1a'b'c* samples are also Italian and there is one English and one Iranian sample. That's the reason I asked the above question.

These are my mutations as per Yfull:

Matches: G73A, C146T, C152T, T182C!, C195T, A247G, A769G, A825T, A1018G, A2758G, C2885T, T3594C, G4104A, T4312C, G7146A, T7256C, A7521G, A8014T, T8468C, T8655C, G8701A, C9540T, G10398A, T10664C, A10688G, C10810T, C10873T, C10915T, A11719G, A11914G, T12705C, G13105A, G13276A, T13650C, T14766C, A15218G, A15301G!, C16067T, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T
Mismatches: G13708A, T16362C
Extras: G750A, A7569G, G9755A
On MTree: L1'2'3'4'5'6 ► C146T C182T T4312C T10664C C10915T A11914G G13276A G16230A ► L2'3'4'5'6 ► C152T A2758G C2885T G7146A T8468C ► L2'3'4'6 ► C195T A247G A825T T8655C A10688G C10810T G13105A T13506C G15301A A16129G T16187C C16189T ► L3'4'6 ► G4104A A7521G ► L3'4 ► T182C! T3594C T7256C T13650C T16278C ► L3 ► A769G A1018G C16311T ► N ► G8701A C9540T G10398A C10873T A15301G! ► R ► T12705C T16223C ► R0 ► G73A A302AC T310TC C522CAC A11719G T16362C C16519T ► HV ► A2758T T14766C ► HV1 ► T310TC T310C C522CAC A8014T G13708A C16067T C16519T ► HV1a'b'c ► A15218G
Not in MTree: G750A, A7569G, G9755A, A13708G!, C16362T!

StillWater
12-14-2019, 04:17 AM
Nope. I did the full mitochondrial sequence by FTDNA and am HV1a'b'c according to FTDNA. My mother's from South Italy, from the Molise region and I got only (HVR1, HVR2, Coding Regions) match that also is from Southern Italy. I am among the HV1a'b'c* samples in the Yfull-tree. That's the reason I asked the question...

Should've said you were HV1a'b'c*, otherwise you could be any subclade of HV1a'b'c.

This might help: http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/hv1_genbank_sequences.htm

Shamash
12-14-2019, 01:35 PM
35323

I found my subclade in the Supplemental Figure S1. It is that of Italian sample AY738943. I just wonder why this subclade has never been named? It seems to be a sister clade of HV1a, HV1b, and HV1c or am I wrong? The closest Near Eastern sample is Armenian KX231659 and my clade seems to fit in the general scenario of Italian HV* flares that expanded to Italy after the Last Glacial Maximum.

tchekitchek
12-14-2019, 07:03 PM
I'm HV0, I feel exotic now.

StillWater
12-15-2019, 03:42 AM
35323

I found my subclade in the Supplemental Figure S1. It is that of Italian sample AY738943. I just wonder why this subclade has never been named? It seems to be a sister clade of HV1a, HV1b, and HV1c or am I wrong? The closest Near Eastern sample is Armenian KX231659 and my clade seems to fit in the general scenario of Italian HV* flares that expanded to Italy after the Last Glacial Maximum.

Is that from Derenko's study?

Shamash
12-15-2019, 08:12 AM
Nope, it's from the above actual study. The figure belongs to the supplementary information.

ph2ter
02-07-2020, 07:28 AM
already posted in another thread HV0 (T195C) for father's mtDNA can be traced back to only around 1800 i Essex, Engalnd
Does anybody else here has it?

I have it.

Is it rare and exotic?

tchekitchek
02-07-2020, 09:20 AM
Does anybody else here has it?

I have it.

Is it rare and exotic?

what's the background of your mother?

ph2ter
02-07-2020, 09:43 AM
what's the background of your mother?
Earliest known maternal ancestor has lived at the beginning of the 18th century in Croatia just northwest of Zagreb.

My closest matches are from England and Italy.