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View Full Version : Adal sultanate/"Gragn" Ahmed a Somali, or Harari?



Muslim-Arbegna
11-06-2019, 04:19 AM
Both Hararis, and Somalis claim this sultanate. Hararis claim that the harari territory was big it was after the adal fall their land shrunk and taken over by Somalis, and southeastern Oromos. While Somalis claim that Imam Ahmed was born in a city of Somalia (which name i don't remember right now). But the Hararis one seem more convincing.

drobbah
11-06-2019, 04:37 AM
The capital of Adal (for the majority of it's existence) was the city of Zeila in modern Somaliland before it was moved to Dakkar.The vast majority of the army was made up of nomadic Somalis from various confederations that exist today and were mentioned by the Yemeni chronicler in Futuuh Al Habasha.The Hararis unlike the Somalis were not mentioned once in the book unless these Hararis claim to descend from the Harla.Adal was a kingdom that belonged to the Harla and Somalis.

As for the ethnicity of the Imam, it is still widely debatable.In my opinion Imam Ahmed and Ahmed Gurey were two different individuals with the later belonging to the Habar Magaadle (Garxajis + Habar Awal +Arap +Ayub) branch of the Isaaq clan.I have no clue what the ethnicity of the Imam was nor do I think he would care as his struggle wasn't based on nationalism but rather on religious fervor.He despised anyone who wasn't a good follower of Islam.He's favorite friend and someone who he praised a lot was the chief of the Geri koombe tribe who was a fervent muslim like the Imam and brought many soldiers from his clan to his side.

Muslim-Arbegna
11-06-2019, 04:45 AM
The capital of Adal (for the majority of it's existence) was the city of Zeila in modern Somaliland before it was moved to Dakkar.The vast majority of the army was made up of nomadic Somalis from various confederations that exist today and were mentioned by the Yemeni chronicler in Futuuh Al Habasha.The Hararis unlike the Somalis were not mentioned once in the book unless these Hararis claim to descend from the Harla.Adal was a kingdom that belonged to the Harla and Somalis.

As for the ethnicity of the Imam, it is still widely debatable.In my opinion Imam Ahmed and Ahmed Gurey were two different individuals with the later belonging to the Habar Magaadle (Garxajis + Habar Awal +Arap +Ayub) branch of the Isaaq clan.I have no clue what the ethnicity of the Imam was nor do I think he would care as his struggle wasn't based on nationalism but rather on religious fervor.He despised anyone who wasn't a good follower of Islam.He's favorite friend and someone who he praised a lot was the chief of the Geri koombe tribe who was a fervent muslim like the Imam and brought many soldiers from his clan to his side.

Harari land use to be vast, how do you explain modern Hararis (minority even in harar city itself), the fall of Adal seem to have catastrophic effect on Hararis than Somalis.

Maybe there were different types of leves in Adal, Hararis (also Argobbas) dominate the elite,where Somalis in Adal were mostly soldiers.

drobbah
11-06-2019, 05:18 AM
Hararis were never mentioned in the Futuh so how can they be elites or have vast land? You might have had a case if there were mythical Hararis living in Somalia because Adal's capital for the most part was Saylac (Zeila).

Adal was an emirate for the most part that consisted of Somalis,Harla and Afars.The elite seem to have spoken Arabic as their mother tongue although I don't think they were Arabs.You have no evidence of Hararis being part of Adal or having vast land.

drobbah
02-04-2022, 05:17 AM
The capital of Adal (for the majority of it's existence) was the city of Zeila in modern Somaliland before it was moved to Dakkar.The vast majority of the army was made up of nomadic Somalis from various confederations that exist today and were mentioned by the Yemeni chronicler in Futuuh Al Habasha.The Hararis unlike the Somalis were not mentioned once in the book unless these Hararis claim to descend from the Harla.Adal was a kingdom that belonged to the Harla and Somalis.

As for the ethnicity of the Imam, it is still widely debatable.In my opinion Imam Ahmed and Ahmed Gurey were two different individuals with the later belonging to the Habar Magaadle (Garxajis + Habar Awal +Arap +Ayub) branch of the Isaaq clan.I have no clue what the ethnicity of the Imam was nor do I think he would care as his struggle wasn't based on nationalism but rather on religious fervor.He despised anyone who wasn't a good follower of Islam.He's favorite friend and someone who he praised a lot was the chief of the Geri koombe tribe who was a fervent muslim like the Imam and brought many soldiers from his clan to his side.
The Futuh does mention the Imam's father of being from the Balaw tribe.I found this passage recently in a paper called "Arabic and Cushitic Toponymy: One Coast with Two Maps" which clarifies who the Balaw were:



In the case of the Bejas, according to their anchorite way
of life, the name ᵓarab was converted to their exclusive benefit, since they
considered themselves the “true Bedouins” and used the term balawi for the
Arabs of the towns. The name (with a possible joke with Ar. balāᵓ, “evil”)
refers to the Balaw, an Arabized, potent urban class of Beja origin that lived
in the vicinity of Sawākin before extending to the south

The Futuh mentioning the Imam's father:

Returning to his country, Sultan Muhammad was murdered by his in-law
Muhammed bin Abu Bakre bin Mahfuz, a prominent person in the country,
who ruled the country after him for one year. Then, Muhammad bin Abu
Bakre bin Mahfuz was in turn murdered. His killer was Ibrahim bin Ahmed,
ruler of the country of Hubat of the tribe of Balaw, a prominent person in
the country who ruled the country for three months.
52

Whale
05-09-2022, 10:52 PM
The Futuh does mention the Imam's father of being from the Balaw tribe.I found this passage recently in a paper called "Arabic and Cushitic Toponymy: One Coast with Two Maps" which clarifies who the Balaw were:




The Futuh mentioning the Imam's father:


I think he was some sort of Argobba (they use too be traders for long distance and had present in Zelia), or central-Cushitic speaker (pre oromos) from south central Ethiopia. I just don't buy that idea he was a Somali, i don't understand, Somalis got no "beef" with Ethiopian Christians, it make sense that it was Muslims from Central Ethiopia, who were being force converted to Christianity and Muslims just retaliated, against Christian aggression, and there were plenty (pre Oormos). The Orthodox not only want to force convert Muslims in the highland but want to kill off the Muslims in its peripheral:

https://www.persee.fr/doc/ethio_0066-2127_2015_num_30_1_1592

https://www.persee.fr/doc/ethio_0066-2127_2000_num_16_1_971

https://twitter.com/ThatEthiopian/status/1158486251164569600/photo/1