View Full Version : Why We do Dumb or Irrational Things

Michalis Moriopoulos
08-04-2012, 11:13 PM
Revisiting ten milestone studies in psychology, Jeremy Dean of PsyBlog, a pHD candidate in Psychology at University College London, attempts to give an account of why people who should know better often do things that are irrational, stupid, or even evil.

Link: http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/11/10-piercing-insights-into-human-nature.php

Why We do Dumb or Irrational Things: 10 Brilliant Social Psychology Studies
by Jeremy Dean

A wealth of psychological insights from ten more key social psychology studies.

"I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures. Why do good people sometimes act evil? Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?" --Philip Zimbardo

Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author of The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I'm also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people - something social psychologists have comprehensively shown.

Over the past few months I've been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology studies. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day.

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/halo_angel2_thumb.jpg 1. The Halo Effect: When Your Own Mind is a Mystery

The 'halo effect' is a classic finding in social psychology. It is the idea that global evaluations about a person (e.g. she is likeable) bleed over into judgements about their specific traits (e.g. she is intelligent). Hollywood stars demonstrate the halo effect perfectly. Because they are often attractive and likeable we naturally assume they are also intelligent, friendly, display good judgement and so on.

Read on about the halo effect - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/10/halo-effect-when-your-own-mind-is.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/serious_face_thumb.jpg 2. How and Why We Lie to Ourselves: Cognitive Dissonance

The ground-breaking social psychological experiment of Festinger and Carlsmith (1959) provides a central insight into the stories we tell ourselves about why we think and behave the way we do. The experiment is filled with ingenious deception so the best way to understand it is to imagine you are taking part. So sit back, relax and travel back. The time is 1959 and you are an undergraduate student at Stanford University...

Read on about cognitive dissonance - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/10/how-and-why-we-lie-to-ourselves.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/dive_thumb.jpg 3. War, Peace and the Role of Power in Sherif's Robbers Cave Experiment

The Robbers Cave experiment, a classic study of prejudice and conflict, has at least one hidden story. The well-known story emerged in the decades following the experiment as textbook writers adopted a particular retelling. With repetition people soon accepted this story as reality, forgetting it is just one version of events, one interpretation of a complex series of studies.

Read on about Sherif's Robbers Cave experiment - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/09/war-peace-and-role-of-power-in-sherifs.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/cells_thumb.jpg 4. Our Dark Hearts: The Stanford Prison Experiment

The famous 'Stanford Prison Experiment' argues a strong case for the power of the situation in determining human behaviour. Not only that but this experiment has also inspired a novel, two films, countless TV programs, re-enactments and even a band.

Read on about Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiment - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/09/our-dark-hearts-stanford-prison.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/plug_thumb.jpg 5. Just Following Orders? Stanley Milgram's Obedience Experiment

What psychological experiment could be so powerful that simply taking part might change your view of yourself and human nature? What experimental procedure could provoke some people to profuse sweating and trembling, leaving 10% extremely upset, while others broke into unexplained hysterical laughter?

Read on about Milgram's obedience studies - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/02/stanley-milgram-obedience-to-authority.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/faceless_thumb.jpg 6. Why We All Stink as Intuitive Psychologists: The False Consensus Bias

Many people quite naturally believe they are good 'intuitive psychologists', thinking it is relatively easy to predict other people's attitudes and behaviours. We each have information built up from countless previous experiences involving both ourselves and others so surely we should have solid insights? No such luck.

Read on about the false consensus bias - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/11/why-we-all-stink-as-intuitive.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/strange_group_thumb.jpg 7. Why Groups and Prejudices Form So Easily: Social Identity Theory

People's behaviour in groups is fascinating and frequently disturbing. As soon as humans are bunched together in groups we start to do odd things: copy other members of our group, favour members of own group over others, look for a leader to worship and fight other groups.

Read on about why groups and prejudices form so easily - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/11/why-groups-and-prejudices-form-so.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/threatening_fist_thumb.jpg 8. How to Avoid a Bad Bargain: Don't Threaten

Bargaining is one of those activities we often engage in without quite realising it. It doesn't just happen in the boardroom, or when we ask our boss for a raise or down at the market, it happens every time we want to reach an agreement with someone. This agreement could be as simple as choosing a restaurant with a friend, or deciding which TV channel to watch. At the other end of the scale, bargaining can affect the fate of nations.

Read on about how communication and threats affect bargaining - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/10/how-to-avoid-bad-bargain-dont-threaten.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/hands_tied_thumb.jpg 9. Why We Don't Help Others: Bystander Apathy

In social psychology the 'bystander effect' is the surprising finding that the mere presence of other people inhibits our own helping behaviours in an emergency. John Darley and Bibb Latane were inspired to investigate emergency helping behaviours after the murder of Kitty Genovese in 1964.

Read on about bystander apathy - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/10/why-we-dont-help-others-bystander.php)

http://www.spring.org.uk/images/rubbing_eyes_thumb.jpg 10. I Can't Believe My Eyes: Conforming to the Norm

We all know that humans are natural born conformers - we copy each other's dress sense, ways of talking and attitudes, often without a second thought. But exactly how far does this conformity go? Do you think it is possible you would deny unambiguous information from your own senses just to conform with other people?

Read on about Asch's classic conformity study - (http://www.spring.org.uk/2007/11/i-cant-believe-my-eyes-conforming-to.php)

God Child
08-06-2012, 04:15 AM
Short Answer:

Basically..... because we're "human". :)

08-06-2012, 12:46 PM
I didn't see a mention of this but I know that, at least for myself, many poor choices are incredibly impulsive and are motivated by a very basic want or need.

08-06-2012, 02:19 PM
I didn't see a mention of this but I know that, at least for myself, many poor choices are incredibly impulsive and are motivated by a very basic want or need.

Yeah I thought it might've mentioned impulsions and compulsions. Usually when I do something irrational or stupid I know that what I'm doing is irrational or stupid. I'm well aware of what I'm doing, it's just that in those moments I'm likely being driven by a very intense emotion. Fortunately it doesn't happen too often but it does happen.

08-07-2012, 01:33 AM
The Stanford Prison and Milgren Experiments especially are scary. Looks like "Oh No! I (or my community, nation, etc) would NEVER do a thing like that" is indeed a bit hasty - even in the most so-called civilized nations.I saw a 2008 or '09 repeat of the experiment several years ago, and the same thing happened. This has a lot of relevance for fraternities and sororities (or any tight-knit group for that matter - formal or informal). Proof positive that you should be VERY careful when choosing what kind of groups to associate with - choose groups who reflect civilized, humane values even toward those that are easy to despise for petty reasons.

The Robbers Cave experiment (cooperation and conflict between two groups), not too much of a surprise. It shows that groups will compete against each other unless faced with a common threat. The Bad Bargain experiment tends to reinforce the notion.