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Finn
01-10-2020, 11:03 AM
There is a new very interesting paper about the Dutch population structure.


Dutch population structure across space, time and GWAS design (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/10.1101/2020.01.01.892513v2)
Ross P. Byrne, Wouter van Rheenen, Project MinE ALS GWAS Consortium, Leonard H. van den Berg, Jan H. Veldink, Russell L. McLaughlin

Abstract
We studied fine-grained population genetic structure and demographic change across the Netherlands using genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data (1,626 individuals) with associated geography (1,422 individuals). We applied ChromoPainter/fineSTRUCTURE, identifying 40 haplotypic clusters exhibiting strong north/south variation and fine-scale differentiation within provinces. Clustering is tied to country-wide ancestry gradients from neighbouring lands and to locally restricted gene flow across major Dutch rivers. Despite superexponential population growth, north-south structure is temporally stable, with west-east differentiation more transient, potentially influenced by migrations during the middle ages. Within Dutch and international data, GWAS incorporating fine-grained haplotypic covariates are less confounded than standard methods.


A comment mostly in the form of some pictures.....

1. Not the rivers but mainly the Dutch Bible Belt endogamy

The authors twittered:

'Nice to see our hypothesis on 3 major rivers in the Netherlands as a migration barrier that stimulated genetic differentiation".

Picture from the paper.
https://www.mupload.nl/img/bqitwd.21.57.png

But actually is my impression that it follows almost perfectly the shape of the Dutch Bible Belt, see this picture:
https://www.mupload.nl/img/dllhzyyjvn.25.58.png

This is a zone containing the outmost pietistic protestants in the Netherlands, they are famous for their endogamy. South and east wards of this zone is Catholic area. Westwards is more 'liberal' just like the outmost NW and NE.

2. The Dutch are on a fault line between the Atlantic (West-Europe) and Nordic (North German Plain) world.

As earlier shown by Lao et al (2013) and Abdellaoui et al (2013) there is significant divide between the North and the South.

The North is part of the Nordic/ North German Plain, see the congruence with Germany
Picture from the paper:
https://www.mupload.nl/img/ucl41oajo86t.15.39.png

The South is part of Central-West Europe and is more connected with Belgium.
Picture from the paper:
https://www.mupload.nl/img/xfx222x.16.31.png

This division is very old, archeologist Fokkens has made the following illustration from the Bronze Age period.
https://www.mupload.nl/img/s5ic36g77oyl.00.26.png


3. Not Viking but pre-Viking migration time Jutish influence.

There is also a Danish connection in the N(W) part of the Netherlands.

From the paper:
https://www.mupload.nl/img/4nn2vh063.19.08.png

The researchers state:
'a major Danish source was inferred between 759 and 1290 CE in the NHFG cluster group (representing Dutch
115 northern seaboard provinces); this period spans a historical period of recorded Danish Viking contact and rule in
116 northern Dutch territories'

Imo they are a few centuries too late. The biggest Jutish influence was during migration times in the (fifth and) sixth century. This is attested by archeologist Nicolay. Here a picture about the Jutish influence:

https://www.mupload.nl/img/4jvepki.png

And also a picture of the power zones of the migration times, Friesland/North Dutch area is on the outskirt of an embryonic Danish (sea) kingdom.....
https://www.mupload.nl/img/hlmkkb.png

Please feel free to share your thoughts.

Kellebel
01-10-2020, 12:00 PM
I have to say, I have only skimmed it through, but there are already some points to be taken.

The mention of foreign ancestral influence in southern Limburg being equally split by Belgium and Germany is quite on point, as I have witnessed myself with my own family tree, but also those of others.

The placement of eastern North Brabant vs Limburg is also quite interesting and I think it may have something to do with Belgium being the major source instead of both Belgium and Germany. I have also noticed how quite some Brabanders have Walloon/French surnames, some of which visible in my very own family tree, once again.

And what about the mention of possible Viking ancestry being the probable source of Danish-like ancestry in the North? Oh my dad is gonna love that! :bounce:

I wish the Ancestry assignment would go further than K4 though.

Finn
01-10-2020, 12:06 PM
I have to say, I have only skimmed it through, but there are already some points to be taken.

The mention of foreign ancestral influence in southern Limburg being equally split by Belgium and Germany is quite on point, as I have witnessed myself with my own family tree, but also those of others.

The placement of eastern North Brabant vs Limburg is also quite interesting and I think it may have something to do with Belgium being the major source instead of both Belgium and Germany. I have also noticed how quite some Brabanders have Walloon/French surnames, some of which visible in my very own family tree, once again.

And what about the mention of possible Viking ancestry being the probable source of Danish-like ancestry in the North? Oh my dad is gonna love that! :bounce:

I wish the Ancestry assignment would go further than K4 though.

Indeed!! And it's probably older than the Viking ages, the migration ages are a better candidate. See^^^
Although in the North there were since Swifterbant and Funnelbeaker times already kind of circulations.

Pylsteen
06-28-2020, 04:52 PM
Oh wow, there is a thread on this paper. I wonder what exactly the clusters GER(5), GER(8), GER(9) and FRA(8) signify.

Finn
06-28-2020, 04:55 PM
Oh wow, there is a thread on this paper. I wonder what exactly the clusters GER(5), GER(8), GER(9) and FRA(8) signify.
Yes just like for example Lao et al (2013) they make categories without a very clear explanation, these kind of studies can be improved by an interdisciplinary approach.....

Pylsteen
06-28-2020, 05:00 PM
Yes just like for example Lao et al (2013) they make categories without a very clear explanation, these kind of studies can be improved by an interdisciplinary approach.....

I have seen similar notations in studies on England and Ireland, but whether these are the same clusters or created within the study is unclear to me.