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Lancer
06-27-2020, 06:17 PM
Haplogroup H is the most common and most diverse maternal lineage in Europe, in most of the Near East and in the Caucasus region. The Saami of Lapland are the only ethnic group in Europe who have low percentages of haplogroup H, varying from 0% to 7%. The frequency of haplogroup H in Europe usually ranges between 40% and 50%. The lowest frequencies are observed in Cyprus (31%), Finland (36%), Iceland (38%) as well as Belarus, Ukraine, Romania and Hungary (all 39%). The only region where H exceeds 50% of the population are Asturias (54%) and Galicia (58%) in northern Spain, and Wales (60%).




https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_H_mtDNA.shtml#health

Coldmountains
06-27-2020, 07:01 PM
Haplogroup H is the most common and most diverse maternal lineage in Europe, in most of the Near East and in the Caucasus region. The Saami of Lapland are the only ethnic group in Europe who have low percentages of haplogroup H, varying from 0% to 7%. The frequency of haplogroup H in Europe usually ranges between 40% and 50%. The lowest frequencies are observed in Cyprus (31%), Finland (36%), Iceland (38%) as well as Belarus, Ukraine, Romania and Hungary (all 39%). The only region where H exceeds 50% of the population are Asturias (54%) and Galicia (58%) in northern Spain, and Wales (60%).




https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_H_mtDNA.shtml#health

H itself is around 30000 years old so just looking at total frequencies of mtdna H is not telling very much because most H mtdna clades share only a common ancestor in the Paleolithic/Mesolithic. Neverthless it seems that mtdna H was absent in Pre-EEF Europe at least the huge majority of modern day H clades arrived from Neolithic Anatolia. A minority arrived with PIE groups it seems. For example mtdna H2a was carried by PIEs but related clades also existed among EEFs and in Pre-IE Central Asia i think, so ultimately this clade has probably a EEF or CHG origin too.

It seems mtdna H became after the Neolithic or even only after the Bronze Age so dominant in Europe. I think founder effects played a big role and the fact that much of the EEF susbstrate of modern day Europeans is derived from Globular Amphora-like groups, who were unlike other EEF groups rather rich in mtdna H

Lancer
09-27-2020, 07:27 PM
H itself is around 30000 years old so just looking at total frequencies of mtdna H is not telling very much because most H mtdna clades share only a common ancestor in the Paleolithic/Mesolithic. Neverthless it seems that mtdna H was absent in Pre-EEF Europe at least the huge majority of modern day H clades arrived from Neolithic Anatolia. A minority arrived with PIE groups it seems. For example mtdna H2a was carried by PIEs but related clades also existed among EEFs and in Pre-IE Central Asia i think, so ultimately this clade has probably a EEF or CHG origin too.

It seems mtdna H became after the Neolithic or even only after the Bronze Age so dominant in Europe. I think founder effects played a big role and the fact that much of the EEF susbstrate of modern day Europeans is derived from Globular Amphora-like groups, who were unlike other EEF groups rather rich in mtdna H

Thanks,
Interesting Analysis. Had to inform myself of EEF and substrate.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Early_European_Farmers

GailT
09-28-2020, 04:18 AM
In their 2012 paper, A “Copernican” Reassessment of the Human Mitochondrial DNA Tree from its Root, Behar et al. estimates H to be about 13,000 years old. Earlier studies had older age estimates that were likely influenced by smaller sample sizes and flawed assumptions about the origins of H.

Ebizur
09-28-2020, 12:58 PM
Haplogroup H is the most common and most diverse maternal lineage in Europe, in most of the Near East and in the Caucasus region. The Saami of Lapland are the only ethnic group in Europe who have low percentages of haplogroup H, varying from 0% to 7%. The frequency of haplogroup H in Europe usually ranges between 40% and 50%. The lowest frequencies are observed in Cyprus (31%), Finland (36%), Iceland (38%) as well as Belarus, Ukraine, Romania and Hungary (all 39%). The only region where H exceeds 50% of the population are Asturias (54%) and Galicia (58%) in northern Spain, and Wales (60%).




https://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_H_mtDNA.shtml#healthAlthough the Uralic-speaking Saami appear to have both the lowest frequency of mtDNA haplogroup H in Europe and the highest proportion of genome-wide Eastern Eurasian ancestry in all of Europe, haplogroup H is the most common mtDNA haplogroup of Western Eurasian origin among Turkic peoples (e.g. Kazakhs, Yakuts). MtDNA haplogroup H is, in fact, one of the three most frequently observed haplogroups among Kazakhs; the others are northern East Asian mtDNA haplogroup D4 and Siberian mtDNA haplogroup C.

palamede
10-06-2020, 06:23 PM
Probably, the first expansion of haplogroup was along the Mediterranean coasts during the end of Paleolithic ans Mesolithic from a population of fishermen, collecting of shellfish, trade of shells. numerous branches of H could come from Oriental Med. and Black Sea, but H1a, H3 and some other branches seem originated from Occidental Med (and H3 more specially from Iberian Peninsula). Don't forget the presence of H1 and H3 in North West Africa and H1a is majority in some Touareg tribes, the specially in Fezzan/Lybia and is greatly present in the Touareg populations of Mali, Niger and Burkina Fasso in the Sahel south of Sahara.

If it is difficult to imagine some selective qualities for the great majority of mutations which make possible the masculine haplotree . the mutation of mitochondrial DNA are more effective to give selective advantage . The expansion of haplogroup H doesnt seem to follow the itineraries of migrations known by archeology and Y haplogroups. The expansion of H seems to be against the current sometimes and prove an selective advantage , a little similar to the expansion of the mutations of lactase persistence.

The european regional averages going from 38% to 55% (more frequently from 40% to 50%) seem due to some biological balances (about epidemics, famines, .. ?) , probably due to common constraints on the European population than to the a probability of distribution dispersion due to the chance.

I remind you that until now the most old great frequency of H (about 25-30% , specially H1 and H3, if no mistake from my part) is a old neolithic cemetery in France at Gurgy near Auxerre in Burgundy . The tombs are dated from about 5000-4500BC, a litle before the birth of Michelsberg culture (4400-4300BC) in South-East of Paris Basin and Gurgy is in South-East of Paris Basin along the superior Seine river. The Michelsberg culture expanded eastwards in the west and center of Germany; the wives of derived cultures of Michelsberg contributed to a genetic part of the Bell Beaker population.

But by instance, H5 and H13 came from the coasts of Black Sea and we

Kristiina
10-07-2020, 05:00 AM
Saami mtDNA is very drifted, and/or, modern Saami stem from a small Fennoscandian population set.
Swedish Sami: 26.5% U5b, 68.4% V
Norwegian Sami: 56.8% U5b, 33.1% V
Finnish Sami: 40.6% U5b, 37.7% V

V and H both split from HV, and the oldest ancient V is as basal as possible: Natufian I1069/Nat5 Raqefet Cave Israel 11500 BCE V.

Apart from a high frequency of H, the French Neolithic sites have also yielded high frequencies of V. This means that the Saami mtDNA is based on a line stemming from European Neolithic and U5b1b1a which is the main mtDNA of Saami-like Levänluhta people of early Middle Ages.

Squad
03-02-2021, 05:47 AM
H was no doubt mostly introduced in Europe during the neolithic. But the high almost uniform distribution we observe today is no doubt linked to the spread of IE throughout the continent. Because this is the only explanation possible that could explain how a lineage came to be so frequent everywhere in Europe. The steppe invaders probably brought some H as well but it is fair to say that most was picked up from the Globular Amphora folks before the massive expansion which also made R1b and R1a dominate the whole area with the exception of Finland and the south east, though both the south east and Finland had their own sets of founder effects mostly observed in V13 and the south slavic I2 variant as well as N1c for Finland and to a lesser extent the baltic states. Scandinavia and Sardinia are two other regions with localized founder effects as well.