PDA

View Full Version : Some Malagasy gedmatch results



Tsakhur
09-18-2020, 08:52 AM
1. Probably ethnic Merina. They are one of the most East Asian shifted ethnic group in Madagascar being around 70-75% East Eurasian and 25-30% SSA on average

HarappaWorld: He is almost 30% African and 4% West Eurasian here (Baloch+NE Euro+Caucasian+Med). Don't know if he has distant Euro or West Asian admixture.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 SE-Asian 49.64
2 W-African 21.17
3 NE-Asian 8.51
4 S-Indian 5.71
5 E-African 4.01
6 Pygmy 2.24
7 Papuan 2.01
8 Baloch 1.69
9 Siberian 1.54
10 NE-Euro 1.21
11 Caucasian 1.16
12 San 1.02
13 Mediterranean 0.06
14 American 0.02

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 thai (xing) 25.8
2 khmer-cambodian (xing) 27.48
3 cambodian (hgdp) 30.46
4 singapore-malay (sgvp) 31.29
5 kinh (1000genomes) 35.25
6 lahu (hgdp) 35.63
7 dai (hgdp) 35.7
8 dai-chinese (1000genomes) 35.74
9 vietnamese (xing) 36.69
10 khasi (chaubey) 39.86
11 samoan (xing) 42.85
12 iban (xing) 43.01
13 burmanese (chaubey) 45.23
14 tongan (xing) 46.27
15 garo (chaubey) 48.38
16 great-andamanese (reich) 54.72
17 onge (reich) 55.45
18 miao (hgdp) 55.79
19 siddi (reich) 56.79
20 dominican (bryc) 57.3

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 72.1% cambodian (hgdp) + 27.9% kaba (henn2012) @ 4.1
2 72.4% cambodian (hgdp) + 27.6% fang (henn2012) @ 4.67
3 73.1% cambodian (hgdp) + 26.9% kongo (henn2012) @ 5.06
4 71.7% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 28.3% kaba (henn2012) @ 5.39
5 70.6% cambodian (hgdp) + 29.4% african-american (1000genomes) @ 5.46
6 73.7% cambodian (hgdp) + 26.3% bamoun (henn2012) @ 5.58
7 72% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 28% fang (henn2012) @ 5.86
8 69.5% cambodian (hgdp) + 30.5% bantukenya (hgdp) @ 6.04
9 73.2% cambodian (hgdp) + 26.8% african-caribbean (1000genomes) @ 6.05
10 71.1% cambodian (hgdp) + 28.9% bantusouthafrica (hgdp) @ 6.13
11 70.9% cambodian (hgdp) + 29.1% pedi (xing) @ 6.21
12 72.7% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 27.3% kongo (henn2012) @ 6.23
13 70.7% cambodian (hgdp) + 29.3% nguni (xing) @ 6.27
14 75.7% thai (xing) + 24.3% kaba (henn2012) @ 6.32
15 70.1% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 29.9% african-american (1000genomes) @ 6.34
16 69.6% cambodian (hgdp) + 30.4% luhya (hapmap) @ 6.43
17 74.7% cambodian (hgdp) + 25.3% hausa (henn2012) @ 6.43
18 74.5% cambodian (hgdp) + 25.5% mandenka (hgdp) @ 6.44
19 76.6% thai (xing) + 23.4% kongo (henn2012) @ 6.48
20 69.6% cambodian (hgdp) + 30.4% luhya (1000genomes) @ 6.56


PuntDNAL K15: He is around 29.61% African here (the Horner component he score might contain some West Eurasian admixture) though and almost 4% West Eurasian. The S_Indian might absorb some West Eurasian as well.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 E_Asian 51.06
2 W_African 21.31
3 S_Indian 10.43
4 Wht_Nile_River 4.06
5 Oceanian 3.11
6 Caucasian 2.53
7 S_African 2.27
8 Siberian 1.97
9 Horn_Of_Africa 1.76
10 Mediterranean 0.92
11 NE_European 0.37
12 Omo_River 0.21

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Burmese 26.69
2 Singaporean 31.91
3 Cambodian 33.33
4 Filipino 35.05
5 Mongolian 37.49
6 Vietnamese 38.97
7 Uyghur 41.38
8 Hazara 41.84
9 Chinese 42.52
10 Japanese 49.12
11 Uzbek 52.51
12 Somali_Benadiri 53.99
13 Koryak 54.76
14 Turkmen 55.57
15 Nogai 57.73
16 Sandawe 58.32
17 Dominican 59.71
18 Bashkir 60.55
19 Tadjik 61.22
20 Puerto_Rican 61.73

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 69.9% Singaporean + 30.1% NE_Bantu @ 4.61
2 69.5% Singaporean + 30.5% African_American @ 4.78
3 69% Singaporean + 31% Luhya @ 4.94
4 71.6% Singaporean + 28.4% Bamoun @ 5.49
5 71.9% Singaporean + 28.1% Hausa @ 5.68
6 69.1% Cambodian + 30.9% NE_Bantu @ 5.87
7 68.2% Cambodian + 31.8% Luhya @ 5.96
8 72.2% Singaporean + 27.8% Igbo @ 6.09
9 72.3% Singaporean + 27.7% Bambaran @ 6.24
10 68.7% Cambodian + 31.3% African_American @ 6.34
11 73% Singaporean + 27% Brong @ 6.83
12 70.8% Cambodian + 29.2% Bamoun @ 6.84
13 70.6% Singaporean + 29.4% SA_Bantu @ 7.04
14 71.2% Cambodian + 28.8% Hausa @ 7.05
15 67.1% Filipino + 32.9% Luhya @ 7.27
16 73.4% Singaporean + 26.6% Mandinka @ 7.35
17 68.1% Filipino + 31.9% NE_Bantu @ 7.36
18 71.4% Cambodian + 28.6% Igbo @ 7.42
19 71.5% Cambodian + 28.5% Bambaran @ 7.59
20 75.9% Burmese + 24.1% Hausa @ 7.68


Dodecad K12b: He is almost 30% African and approx 4.2% West Eurasian.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Southeast_Asian 49.44
2 Sub_Saharan 23.8
3 East_Asian 9.88
4 South_Asian 7.23
5 East_African 5.26
6 Gedrosia 2.15
7 North_European 1.56
8 Atlantic_Med 0.67

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 PANIYA (Behar) 34.93
2 Lahu (HGDP) 41.5
3 Khasi (Chaubey) 41.77
4 KHV30 (1000Genomes) 42.17
5 Burmanese (Chaubey) 43.46
6 MAS30 (SGVP) 46.01
7 Garo (Chaubey) 46.13
8 CDX30 (1000Genomes) 46.48
9 Cambodians (HGDP) 47.46
10 Dai (HGDP) 47.58
11 Miaozu (HGDP) 51.11
12 CHS30 (SGVP) 51.27
13 She (HGDP) 52.86
14 Han (HGDP) 56.14
15 Tujia (HGDP) 59.1
16 CHD30 (Metspalu) 60.22
17 Uygur (HGDP) 65.16
18 BONDA (Chaubey) 67.09
19 Hazara (HGDP) 67.18
20 Juang (Chaubey) 67.34

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 68% Lahu (HGDP) + 32% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 7.53
2 67.7% Lahu (HGDP) + 32.3% LWK30 (Behar) @ 7.63
3 70% Lahu (HGDP) + 30% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) @ 8.47
4 69.2% Lahu (HGDP) + 30.8% ASW30 (HapMap3) @ 9.26
5 70.8% Lahu (HGDP) + 29.2% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) @ 9.27
6 67.8% KHV30 (1000Genomes) + 32.2% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 9.37
7 67.5% KHV30 (1000Genomes) + 32.5% LWK30 (Behar) @ 9.44
8 65.2% CDX30 (1000Genomes) + 34.8% LWK30 (Behar) @ 9.78
9 65.5% CDX30 (1000Genomes) + 34.5% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 9.82
10 64.7% Dai (HGDP) + 35.3% LWK30 (Behar) @ 10.04
11 65% Dai (HGDP) + 35% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 10.11
12 69.8% KHV30 (1000Genomes) + 30.2% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) @ 10.21
13 69% KHV30 (1000Genomes) + 31% ASW30 (HapMap3) @ 10.83
14 70.6% KHV30 (1000Genomes) + 29.4% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) @ 10.91
15 65.6% MAS30 (SGVP) + 34.4% LWK30 (Behar) @ 11.01
16 65.9% MAS30 (SGVP) + 34.1% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 11.03
17 72.3% Lahu (HGDP) + 27.7% Mandenka (HGDP) @ 11.2
18 67.7% CDX30 (1000Genomes) + 32.3% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) @ 11.37
19 72.9% Lahu (HGDP) + 27.1% Yoruba (HGDP) @ 11.49
20 72.9% Lahu (HGDP) + 27.1% YRI30 (HGDP) @ 11.49


2. Also likely ethnic Merina. She has 32% African and only 1% West Eurasian admixture.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 SE-Asian 50.9
2 W-African 25.41
3 NE-Asian 7.72
4 S-Indian 4.04
5 E-African 3.17
6 Papuan 2.39
7 San 1.87
8 Pygmy 1.5
9 Siberian 1.07
10 Mediterranean 0.92
11 American 0.46
12 Beringian 0.32
13 Caucasian 0.25

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 thai (xing) 29.63
2 khmer-cambodian (xing) 31.03
3 cambodian (hgdp) 33.18
4 singapore-malay (sgvp) 33.8
5 dai (hgdp) 37.94
6 kinh (1000genomes) 37.98
7 dai-chinese (1000genomes) 38.07
8 lahu (hgdp) 38.62
9 vietnamese (xing) 39.45
10 samoan (xing) 43.99
11 khasi (chaubey) 44.11
12 iban (xing) 44.18
13 tongan (xing) 47.36
14 burmanese (chaubey) 48.86
15 garo (chaubey) 51.85
16 siddi (reich) 56.26
17 dominican (bryc) 57.05
18 miao (hgdp) 58.3
19 great-andamanese (reich) 58.32
20 onge (reich) 58.84

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 69.7% cambodian (hgdp) + 30.3% kaba (henn2012) @ 5.07
2 71.2% cambodian (hgdp) + 28.8% bamoun (henn2012) @ 5.1
3 70.7% cambodian (hgdp) + 29.3% kongo (henn2012) @ 5.11
4 70% cambodian (hgdp) + 30% fang (henn2012) @ 5.19
5 69.3% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 30.7% kaba (henn2012) @ 5.34
6 72% cambodian (hgdp) + 28% mandenka (hgdp) @ 5.36
7 72.2% cambodian (hgdp) + 27.8% hausa (henn2012) @ 5.37
8 70.3% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 29.7% kongo (henn2012) @ 5.44
9 69.6% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 30.4% fang (henn2012) @ 5.46
10 70.8% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 29.2% bamoun (henn2012) @ 5.49
11 72.6% cambodian (hgdp) + 27.4% igbo (henn2012) @ 5.69
12 70.7% cambodian (hgdp) + 29.3% african-caribbean (1000genomes) @ 5.73
13 71.7% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 28.3% mandenka (hgdp) @ 5.8
14 72.7% cambodian (hgdp) + 27.3% bambaran (xing) @ 5.82
15 71.9% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 28.1% hausa (henn2012) @ 5.83
16 72.8% cambodian (hgdp) + 27.2% brong (henn2012) @ 5.86
17 73% cambodian (hgdp) + 27% dogon (xing) @ 6.01
18 70.3% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 29.7% african-caribbean (1000genomes) @ 6.02
19 72.3% singapore-malay (sgvp) + 27.7% igbo (henn2012) @ 6.17
20 73.4% cambodian (hgdp) + 26.6% yoruba (1000genomes) @ 6.17


PuntDNAL K15: She is approx 32% African (the Horner might contain minor West Eurasian) and 2% West Eurasian. Keep in mind that the S_Indian might contain some West Eurasian alleles as well.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 E_Asian 50.21
2 W_African 25.5
3 S_Indian 8.84
4 Oceanian 4.12
5 Wht_Nile_River 3.74
6 S_African 1.87
7 Siberian 1.24
8 Mediterranean 1.21
9 Amerindian 0.79
10 Beringian 0.75
11 Omo_River 0.74
12 Caucasian 0.56
13 Horn_Of_Africa 0.27
14 NE_European 0.17

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Burmese 30.96
2 Singaporean 35.26
3 Cambodian 36.5
4 Filipino 38.05
5 Mongolian 40.36
6 Vietnamese 41.79
7 Uyghur 44.18
8 Hazara 44.73
9 Chinese 45.15
10 Japanese 51.48
11 Uzbek 54.76
12 Somali_Benadiri 55.18
13 Koryak 55.86
14 Sandawe 57.67
15 Turkmen 57.73
16 Dominican 58.36
17 Nogai 59.68
18 Puerto_Rican 60.84
19 Bashkir 62.01
20 Tadjik 63.28

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 68.3% Singaporean + 31.7% Bamoun @ 3.22
2 68.6% Singaporean + 31.4% Hausa @ 3.4
3 66.1% Singaporean + 33.9% African_American @ 3.69
4 68.9% Singaporean + 31.1% Igbo @ 3.84
5 69% Singaporean + 31% Bambaran @ 3.99
6 66.7% Singaporean + 33.3% NE_Bantu @ 4.19
7 67.5% Cambodian + 32.5% Bamoun @ 4.28
8 67.9% Cambodian + 32.1% Hausa @ 4.51
9 69.7% Singaporean + 30.3% Brong @ 4.66
10 65.9% Cambodian + 34.1% NE_Bantu @ 4.75
11 65.4% Cambodian + 34.6% African_American @ 4.78
12 68.2% Cambodian + 31.8% Igbo @ 4.89
13 68.3% Cambodian + 31.7% Bambaran @ 5.09
14 70.2% Singaporean + 29.8% Mandinka @ 5.29
15 65.8% Singaporean + 34.2% Luhya @ 5.67
16 69.1% Cambodian + 30.9% Brong @ 5.71
17 66.7% Filipino + 33.3% Bamoun @ 5.78
18 65% Filipino + 35% NE_Bantu @ 5.82
19 71% Singaporean + 29% Yoruban @ 5.84
20 64.5% Filipino + 35.5% African_American @ 5.89


Dodecad K12b: Around 32% African and 1.67% West Eurasian

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Southeast_Asian 51.34
2 Sub_Saharan 27.6
3 East_Asian 7.94
4 South_Asian 6.61
5 East_African 4.71
6 North_European 1.38
7 Caucasus 0.29
8 Siberian 0.13

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 PANIYA (Behar) 38.1
2 Lahu (HGDP) 44.06
3 KHV30 (1000Genomes) 44.95
4 Khasi (Chaubey) 46.57
5 MAS30 (SGVP) 47.41
6 CDX30 (1000Genomes) 48.41
7 Burmanese (Chaubey) 48.62
8 Cambodians (HGDP) 48.7
9 Dai (HGDP) 49.29
10 Garo (Chaubey) 51.04
11 Miaozu (HGDP) 55.27
12 CHS30 (SGVP) 55.43
13 She (HGDP) 57.05
14 Han (HGDP) 60.34
15 Tujia (HGDP) 63.3
16 CHD30 (Metspalu) 64.43
17 Uygur (HGDP) 69.8
18 BONDA (Chaubey) 69.91
19 Juang (Chaubey) 70.15
20 Hazara (HGDP) 71.79

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 67.9% Lahu (HGDP) + 32.1% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) @ 7.63
2 68.8% Lahu (HGDP) + 31.2% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) @ 8.02
3 63.4% Dai (HGDP) + 36.6% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 8.05
4 66.3% MAS30 (SGVP) + 33.7% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) @ 8.09
5 64.3% MAS30 (SGVP) + 35.7% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 8.16
6 63.1% Dai (HGDP) + 36.9% LWK30 (Behar) @ 8.34
7 65.4% Dai (HGDP) + 34.6% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) @ 8.39
8 66.1% Lahu (HGDP) + 33.9% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 8.41
9 64.1% MAS30 (SGVP) + 35.9% LWK30 (Behar) @ 8.5
10 63.9% CDX30 (1000Genomes) + 36.1% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) @ 8.52
11 65.9% CDX30 (1000Genomes) + 34.1% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) @ 8.66
12 67.2% MAS30 (SGVP) + 32.8% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) @ 8.76
13 63.6% CDX30 (1000Genomes) + 36.4% LWK30 (Behar) @ 8.82
14 65.8% Lahu (HGDP) + 34.2% LWK30 (Behar) @ 8.82
15 67.1% Lahu (HGDP) + 32.9% ASW30 (HapMap3) @ 8.91
16 64.5% Dai (HGDP) + 35.5% ASW30 (HapMap3) @ 9.11
17 65.4% MAS30 (SGVP) + 34.6% ASW30 (HapMap3) @ 9.12
18 66.3% Dai (HGDP) + 33.7% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) @ 9.2
19 66.7% CDX30 (1000Genomes) + 33.3% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) @ 9.36
20 65% CDX30 (1000Genomes) + 35% ASW30 (HapMap3) @ 9.43


3. Also not sure about his ethnic group. This is the most African shifted Malagasy individual I ever saw which is at 75% SSA. Oddly, he also score the highest West Eurasian admixture among the three Malagasy individuals I posted at 6-8%. His Western ancestry is either Euro or Arab but I am not certain.

HarappaWorld: He is almost 74% African and 8% West Eurasian here. The rest of his genome is East Asian at approx 18%.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 W-African 58.04
2 SE-Asian 15.13
3 E-African 9.23
4 Pygmy 4.12
5 NE-Asian 2.46
6 Caucasian 2.18
7 San 2.15
8 Baloch 1.57
9 SW-Asian 1.36
10 S-Indian 1.2
11 Mediterranean 0.77
12 Papuan 0.72
13 Siberian 0.6
14 Beringian 0.33
15 NE-Euro 0.14

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 siddi (reich) 22.12
2 african-american (1000genomes) 24.33
3 bantukenya (hgdp) 24.43
4 fulani (henn2012) 24.43
5 luhya (hapmap) 25.48
6 luhya (1000genomes) 25.7
7 nguni (xing) 26.58
8 pedi (xing) 26.8
9 bantusouthafrica (hgdp) 27.31
10 kaba (henn2012) 27.82
11 mada (henn2012) 28.57
12 fang (henn2012) 29.73
13 kongo (henn2012) 32.45
14 xhosa (henn2012) 32.6
15 african-caribbean (1000genomes) 33.23
16 sotho-tswana (xing) 33.43
17 bamoun (henn2012) 34.93
18 dominican (bryc) 37.15
19 alur (xing) 38.71
20 mandenka (hgdp) 38.77

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 73.3% kaba (henn2012) + 26.7% thai (xing) @ 4.64
2 73.9% kaba (henn2012) + 26.1% khmer-cambodian (xing) @ 5.23
3 74.8% kaba (henn2012) + 25.2% cambodian (hgdp) @ 5.42
4 74.9% kaba (henn2012) + 25.1% singapore-malay (sgvp) @ 5.58
5 75.6% kaba (henn2012) + 24.4% dai (hgdp) @ 6.95
6 75.5% kaba (henn2012) + 24.5% dai-chinese (1000genomes) @ 7.12
7 75% kaba (henn2012) + 25% kinh (1000genomes) @ 7.52
8 72.4% fang (henn2012) + 27.6% thai (xing) @ 7.62
9 77.4% kaba (henn2012) + 22.6% iban (xing) @ 7.82
10 72.9% fang (henn2012) + 27.1% khmer-cambodian (xing) @ 8.03
11 70.5% kongo (henn2012) + 29.5% thai (xing) @ 8.03
12 74.6% kaba (henn2012) + 25.4% lahu (hgdp) @ 8.09
13 75% kaba (henn2012) + 25% vietnamese (xing) @ 8.16
14 73.9% fang (henn2012) + 26.1% cambodian (hgdp) @ 8.25
15 74% fang (henn2012) + 26% singapore-malay (sgvp) @ 8.38
16 71.1% kongo (henn2012) + 28.9% khmer-cambodian (xing) @ 8.53
17 72.1% kongo (henn2012) + 27.9% cambodian (hgdp) @ 8.99
18 69% bamoun (henn2012) + 31% thai (xing) @ 9.14
19 72.3% kongo (henn2012) + 27.7% singapore-malay (sgvp) @ 9.14
20 76.4% kaba (henn2012) + 23.6% samoan (xing) @ 9.15


PuntDNAL K15: He is 73% African (once again, the Horner might possess minor West Eurasian) and 6.5% West Eurasian. The rest of his genomes is 20.5% East Asian. The S_Indian might contain minor West Eurasian alleles as well.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 W_African 59.02
2 E_Asian 15.54
3 Wht_Nile_River 8.36
4 S_African 4.27
5 S_Indian 2.98
6 Caucasian 2.97
7 Mediterranean 2.65
8 Oceanian 1.64
9 Horn_Of_Africa 1.06
10 SW_Asian 0.72
11 Omo_River 0.32
12 NE_European 0.23
13 Amerindian 0.19
14 Beringian 0.07

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 African_American 22.61
2 Luhya 23.88
3 NE_Bantu 24.83
4 Bamoun 29.48
5 SA_Bantu 30.55
6 Xhosa 30.74
7 Hausa 30.8
8 Igbo 31.87
9 Bambaran 32.46
10 Brong 35.5
11 Mandinka 37.49
12 Pygmy 41.09
13 Yoruban 41.12
14 Sandawe 42.92
15 Dominican 45.57
16 Puerto_Rican 53.89
17 Somali_Benadiri 54.78
18 Moroccan 61.26
19 Maasai 62.31
20 Mozabite_Berber 64.29

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 72.7% Bamoun + 27.3% Burmese @ 7.21
2 71.7% Hausa + 28.3% Burmese @ 7.37
3 79.4% African_American + 20.6% Singaporean @ 7.42
4 80.6% African_American + 19.4% Vietnamese @ 7.73
5 74.3% Bamoun + 25.7% Singaporean @ 7.76
6 79.7% African_American + 20.3% Cambodian @ 7.77
7 80% African_American + 20% Filipino @ 7.78
8 78.2% African_American + 21.8% Burmese @ 8.08
9 74.6% Bamoun + 25.4% Cambodian @ 8.1
10 73.4% Hausa + 26.6% Singaporean @ 8.13
11 71.1% Igbo + 28.9% Burmese @ 8.16
12 74.9% Bamoun + 25.1% Filipino @ 8.27
13 81.2% African_American + 18.8% Chinese @ 8.29
14 82.2% African_American + 17.8% Japanese @ 8.44
15 73.8% Hausa + 26.2% Cambodian @ 8.5
16 70.8% Bambaran + 29.2% Burmese @ 8.55
17 74.1% Hausa + 25.9% Filipino @ 8.71
18 75.8% Bamoun + 24.2% Vietnamese @ 9.05
19 72.9% Igbo + 27.1% Singaporean @ 9.05
20 78.1% NE_Bantu + 21.9% Singaporean @ 9.32


Dodecad K12b: He is 74% African and 6.2% West Eurasian (I counted NW African as it is mostly a West Eurasian component). The rest of his autosomal DNA is 20% East Asian.

Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Sub_Saharan 63.29
2 Southeast_Asian 15.12
3 East_African 10.3
4 East_Asian 2.59
5 South_Asian 2.04
6 Gedrosia 1.88
7 Caucasus 1.83
8 Atlantic_Med 1.13
9 Northwest_African 1.13
10 Siberian 0.45
11 Southwest_Asian 0.19
12 North_European 0.04

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 LWK30 (Behar) 27.14
2 Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) 27.42
3 ASW30 (HapMap3) 32.14
4 Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) 34.07
5 Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) 38.05
6 Mandenka (HGDP) 46.25
7 Yoruba (HGDP) 49.24
8 YRI30 (HGDP) 49.24
9 MKK30 (Dodecad) 74.26
10 Sandawe_He (Henn) 76.92
11 Yemenese (Behar) 80.26
12 Algerian (Dodecad) 81.15
13 Moroccans (Behar) 83.39
14 Egyptans (Behar) 83.4
15 Moroccan (Dodecad) 87.7
16 Uzbeks (Behar) 87.79
17 Turkmens (Yunusbayev) 87.79
18 Jordanians (Behar) 88.25
19 Uygur (HGDP) 88.28
20 Tajiks (Yunusbayev) 88.49

Mixed Mode Population Sharing:

# Primary Population (source) Secondary Population (source) Distance
1 73.6% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 26.4% PANIYA (Behar) @ 5.57
2 75.2% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 24.8% Lahu (HGDP) @ 6.17
3 75.3% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 24.7% KHV30 (1000Genomes) @ 6.6
4 76% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 24% MAS30 (SGVP) @ 7.12
5 76.1% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 23.9% CDX30 (1000Genomes) @ 7.32
6 76.3% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 23.7% Dai (HGDP) @ 7.5
7 76.2% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 23.8% Cambodians (HGDP) @ 7.55
8 71.5% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) + 28.5% PANIYA (Behar) @ 7.9
9 73.3% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) + 26.7% Lahu (HGDP) @ 8.88
10 72.9% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 27.1% Khasi (Chaubey) @ 9.22
11 73.4% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) + 26.6% KHV30 (1000Genomes) @ 9.22
12 79.7% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) + 20.3% Lahu (HGDP) @ 9.26
13 80.3% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) + 19.7% MAS30 (SGVP) @ 9.38
14 80.6% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) + 19.4% Dai (HGDP) @ 9.4
15 80.5% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) + 19.5% CDX30 (1000Genomes) @ 9.4
16 79.8% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) + 20.2% KHV30 (1000Genomes) @ 9.48
17 80.5% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) + 19.5% Cambodians (HGDP) @ 9.56
18 78.5% Bantu_N.E. (HGDP) + 21.5% PANIYA (Behar) @ 9.72
19 73.3% Bantu_S.E._Tswana (HGDP) + 26.7% Burmanese (Chaubey) @ 9.82
20 74.1% Bantu_S.W._Herero (HGDP) + 25.9% MAS30 (SGVP) @ 9.85


I can posted more Malagasy gedmatch results if you want. I have a few more of their kits.

Kulin
09-18-2020, 11:10 AM
The Austronesian migration to Madagascar is one of the fascinating facets of human history. It is is also interesting how just like Austronesians elsewhere, the Austronesian ancestry is greatest in highland groups like the Merina, probably indicating a smaller Bantu population in the area or stronger preference to settle there vs the coast. Given that crops like bananas, yams and taro are found on the African mainland, there is probably a chance some Austronesians had settled in East Africa as well, or at the very least had extensive trade relations with the region.

NetNomad
09-18-2020, 11:34 AM
How was the Bantu African ancestry introduced to Madagascar?

Was it through natural migration from areas around Mozambique to Madagascar or was it because of the slave trade?

Kulin
09-18-2020, 11:43 AM
How was the Bantu African ancestry introduced to Madagascar?

Was it through natural migration from areas around Mozambique to Madagascar or was it because of the slave trade?

The hypothesis is that Bantus settled the region after the arrival of the Austronesians and mixed with them circa 1000 AD, which will explain the Coastal vs Highland distribution of Bantu vs Austronesian ancestry. There's also a great chance that many also settled after trade with the Malagasy from the African mainland.

loxias
09-18-2020, 12:23 PM
It would be interesting to get in touch with them and get them some G25 coordinates as there are extensive Southeast Asian and Austronesian references now.
There is talk of the first waves of Austronesians to reach Madagascar to have been a stratified population already with Javanese/Balinese folks on top and Borneo natives as subordinates. At least that’s why linguistics seem to indicate (most vocabulary being related to Maanyan, a Borneo language, but with Javanese words related to elite topics).

Tsakhur
09-18-2020, 12:31 PM
The Austronesian migration to Madagascar is one of the fascinating facets of human history. It is is also interesting how just like Austronesians elsewhere, the Austronesian ancestry is greatest in highland groups like the Merina, probably indicating a smaller Bantu population in the area or stronger preference to settle there vs the coast. Given that crops like bananas, yams and taro are found on the African mainland, there is probably a chance some Austronesians had settled in East Africa as well, or at the very least had extensive trade relations with the region.

Fascinating. Bananas, yams, taros are originally from SE Asia and Pacific? I thought they were indigenous to Africa.

Agreed. Its very likely there is some East Asian ancestry in coastal East Africa among Swahilis and other coastal Kenyan/Tanzanian/Mozambican or even Somalian ethnicities/tribes as well.

I have seen a study that locals from the Comoros also possess approximately 20% Austronesian ancestry. Its very plausible there is some East Asian ancestry in coastal East Africa as well.

I have visited Zanzibar and apparently is the only place in Africa where SE Asian fruits such as durians, rambutans are grown. Also there is jackfruit in Tanzania when I travelled there as well. Although I don't know if its from Austronesian settlers and traders or was it only recently introduced.

Yep the first two are very likely Merina. Third is definitely some coastal tribe indeed.

Kulin
09-18-2020, 01:21 PM
Fascinating. Bananas, yams, taros are originally from SE Asia and Pacific? I thought they were indigenous to Africa.

Agreed. Its very likely there is some East Asian ancestry in coastal East Africa among Swahilis and other coastal Kenyan/Tanzanian/Mozambican or even Somalian ethnicities/tribes as well.

I have seen a study that locals from the Comoros also possess approximately 20% Austronesian ancestry. Its very plausible there is some East Asian ancestry in coastal East Africa as well.

I have visited Zanzibar and apparently is the only place in Africa where SE Asian fruits such as durians, rambutans are grown. Also there is jackfruit in Tanzania when I travelled there as well. Although I don't know if its from Austronesian settlers and traders or was it only recently introduced.

Yep the first two are very likely Merina. Third is definitely some coastal tribe indeed.

Yes, it is definitely from Southeast Asia (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10963-019-09136-x), but the context of it remains a mystery to this day. About 15 to 25% of the population of Comoros is actually Malagasy. Mwali/Moheli Island was a part of the Merina Sultanate of Moheli, and the island remains Malagasy majority to this day.

gihanga.rwanda
09-18-2020, 01:43 PM
How was the Bantu African ancestry introduced to Madagascar?

Was it through natural migration from areas around Mozambique to Madagascar or was it because of the slave trade?

The current consensus is that Bantu speakers made it to Madagascar shortly after the arrival of Austronesian speakers from SE Asia, but there is growing evidence that the island had been sparsely populated by hunter-gatherers. Bantu speakers probably island hopped from what is now Tanzania/Mozambique to Madagascar via the Comoros Islands, a final chapter of the Bantu migration.

I haven’t seen any evidence that the slave trade played a significant role in peopling Madagascar (some Malagasy people were enslaved at some point but that’s a different discussion). As someone has already mentioned, the Merina are arguably the most East Asian-shifted tribe in Madagascar yet this group is on average ~30% SSA; furthermore, exactly half of the yDNA lineages present in the Merina can be traced to Bantu speakers in East Africa, which is even more telling. The absence of sex-biased gene expression in the Malagasy suggests that their Bantu and Austronesian ancestors were more or less on equal footing.

https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article/26/9/2109/1197149


From a paternal point of view (fig. 2b, supplementary table S1, Supplementary Material online), a prevalence of African lineages was observed both in HLs and CTs, but with different proportions (HL 39:50%; CT 20:74%) and with extreme values in Antandroy (14% Indonesian, 86% African).


A basic stratification of the African-derived male pool is demonstrated by the architecture of the network (fig. 3) linking haplotypes from E1b1a, the most frequent haplogroup in all population samples (44% Merina, 69% Antandroy, 50% Antanosy, and 37.5% Antaisaka).


Analysis of Maternal Lineages. The pool of mtDNA sequences found in Malagasy samples was a clear admixture of typical Bantu and Austronesian lineages (fig. 2a, supplementary table S1, Supplementary Material online). The averaged proportion of the two linguistic–geographic components (listed henceforth as Indonesian:African) were similar in HL (63%:37%) and CT (62%:38%) subgroups. The admixture ratio in coastal groups varied from 67%:33% in Antanosy to 54%:46% in Antaisaka.

My personal theory is that Comorians were originally a Malagasy population that was later Swahili-zed through intensive contacts with the powerful Swahili city states. This would explain why Comorians have minor East Asian ancestry that is pretty much absent on the East African coast among Swahili or other Bantu speakers.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5777450/


However, the broader history of Austronesian settlement in East Africa remains unclear. The presence of Island Southeast Asians in Madagascar and the Comoros archipelago is supported by archaeological analyses of ancient crop remains, which reveal that Asian species, such as rice, dominated agricultural subsistence from the early stages of settlement on these islands.15 On the continent and nearby coastal islands, Asian crops were only identified in minor proportions at a small number of sites (mainly trading ports) and only became dominant in rare cases several centuries later. This pattern suggests that long-term Austronesian settlement could have been limited to these two insular territories. Present-day populations on Madagascar and the Comoros have genetic inheritance from Island Southeast Asia, pointing to commonality in the genetic ancestry of Malagasy and Comorian groups.

Tsakhur
09-18-2020, 02:01 PM
Yes, it is definitely from Southeast Asia (https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs10963-019-09136-x), but the context of it remains a mystery to this day. About 15 to 25% of the population of Comoros is actually Malagasy. Mwali/Moheli Island was a part of the Merina Sultanate of Moheli, and the island remains Malagasy majority to this day.

Mystery how these crops and fruits arrive? Interesting. Are the Merina Muslims themselves? But why does the island speak a language that is very Swahili-like rather than Malagasy?

Btw where do you think the West Eurasian admix in the three Malagasy individuals come from? Arab/Swahili traders, settlers or French colonists?

I will post more malagasy results later if you want.

ThaYamamoto
09-18-2020, 02:11 PM
The hypothesis is that Bantus settled the region after the arrival of the Austronesians and mixed with them circa 1000 AD, which will explain the Coastal vs Highland distribution of Bantu vs Austronesian ancestry. There's also a great chance that many also settled after trade with the Malagasy from the African mainland.

What's interesting is that archaic seafaring/nautical vocabulary in kiswahili is of proto-malay origin. Why Austronesians chose to come half way across the world, who knows.

NetNomad
09-18-2020, 02:21 PM
The current consensus is that Bantu speakers made it to Madagascar shortly after the arrival of Austronesian speakers from SE Asia, but there is growing evidence that the island had been sparsely populated by hunter-gatherers. Bantu speakers probably island hopped from what is now Tanzania/Mozambique to Madagascar via the Comoros Islands, a final chapter of the Bantu migration.

I haven’t seen any evidence that the slave trade played a significant role in peopling Madagascar (some Malagasy people were enslaved at some point but that’s a different discussion). As someone has already mentioned, the Merina are arguably the most East Asian-shifted tribe in Madagascar yet this group is on average ~30% SSA; furthermore, exactly half of the yDNA lineages present in the Merina can be traced to Bantu speakers in East Africa, which is even more telling. The absence of sex-biased gene expression in the Malagasy suggests that their Bantu and Austronesian ancestors were more or less on equal footing.

https://academic.oup.com/mbe/article/26/9/2109/1197149







My personal theory is that Comorians were originally a Malagasy population that was later Swahili-zed through intensive contacts with the powerful Swahili city states. This would explain why Comorians have minor East Asian ancestry that is pretty much absent on the East African coast among Swahili or other Bantu speakers.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5777450/

Thanks for the explanation.

I assumed because of the long history of Arab traders in the African Indian Ocean region that Black African slavery (sold to the Austronesians) took place in Madagascar. But I guess that assumption was (mostly) wrong.

Kulin
09-18-2020, 02:22 PM
Mystery how these crops and fruits arrive? Interesting. Are the Merina Muslims themselves? But why does the island speak a language that is very Swahili-like rather than Malagasy?

Btw where do you think the West Eurasian admix in the three Malagasy individuals come from? Arab/Swahili traders, settlers or French colonists?

I will post more malagasy results later if you want.

Yes, it is considered a mystery why such staple crops have been implanted in mainland Africa for so long, but how there are no traces of Austronesians left in the mainland.

The W Eurasian % is hard to say. However, given these are admixture calculators, there may be some major faults. Having said that, Arabs and Muslims from the Swahili Coast had traditionally conducted trade with the Malagasy for centuries and both of these groups probably transmitted that type of ancestry. This would also make sense looking at the highland vs coastal W Eurasian %, with the coastal (more African) sample having more W eurasian. Certain coastal groups in Madagascar remain Muslim actually to this day, and others have been previously Muslim, and having returned to animist beliefs or converted to Christianity by French missionaries. Some French administrators married into the nobility of the island, but I doubt that played any role in shifting the genetic structure.

Comorians as the poster above has said have a syncretised Swahili-Malagasy culture. The nobility of Moheli was of Merina origin, but were recent transplants from Madagascar itself. However, the island itself was/is home to a native Malagasy community. All in all, I guess the role of Islam and the Swahili language proved to be dominant in shifting the cultural ethos of the Comoros archipelago from a fully Malagasy identity to that of Swahili speakers. You should definitely post more results if you find them. Seeing the diversity of ratios of Austronesian and native African ancestry would be interesting.

loxias
09-18-2020, 02:36 PM
The current consensus is that Bantu speakers made it to Madagascar shortly after the arrival of Austronesian speakers from SE Asia, but there is growing evidence that the island had been sparsely populated by hunter-gatherers.
Where have you seen that? Could this explain the Vazimba legends? I had assumed they were archaic memories of HGs encountered in SEA transposed to Madagascar.
Tsakhur, do your Malagasy samples show an excess of African HG ancestry compared to the Bantu populations that are supposed to have contributed to them?


My personal theory is that Comorians were originally a Malagasy population that was later Swahili-zed through intensive contacts with the powerful Swahili city states. This would explain why Comorians have minor East Asian ancestry that is pretty much absent on the East African coast among Swahili or other Bantu speakers.

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5777450/

Or maybe even before the Swahili extension. Comorian languages are basal to Swahili in the Sabaki tree, and arguably Shingazidja and and Shindzuani are as different from each other as they are from Swahili.

Kulin
09-18-2020, 02:41 PM
Where have you seen that? Could this explain the Vazimba legends? I had assumed they were archaic memories of HGs encountered in SEA transposed to Madagascar.
Tsakhur, do your Malagasy samples show an excess of African HG ancestry compared to the Bantu populations that are supposed to have contributed to them?



Or maybe even before the Swahili extension. Comorian languages are basal to Swahili in the Sabaki tree, and arguably Shingazidja and and Shindzuani are as different from each other as they are from Swahili.

Interesting, never knew about that part of the folklore. I wish the original pgymy languages survived like the Khoi-san languages have for us to detect some sort of substrate in Malagasy language (or Africa as a whole). The above samples do display some pygmy ancestry, and I think it is probably legitimate given how distinct pygmy ancestry is.

davit
09-18-2020, 03:44 PM
Yes, it is considered a mystery why such staple crops have been implanted in mainland Africa for so long, but how there are no traces of Austronesians left in the mainland.

The W Eurasian % is hard to say. However, given these are admixture calculators, there may be some major faults. Having said that, Arabs and Muslims from the Swahili Coast had traditionally conducted trade with the Malagasy for centuries and both of these groups probably transmitted that type of ancestry. This would also make sense looking at the highland vs coastal W Eurasian %, with the coastal (more African) sample having more W eurasian. Certain coastal groups in Madagascar remain Muslim actually to this day, and others have been previously Muslim, and having returned to animist beliefs or converted to Christianity by French missionaries. Some French administrators married into the nobility of the island, but I doubt that played any role in shifting the genetic structure.

Comorians as the poster above has said have a syncretised Swahili-Malagasy culture. The nobility of Moheli was of Merina origin, but were recent transplants from Madagascar itself. However, the island itself was/is home to a native Malagasy community. All in all, I guess the role of Islam and the Swahili language proved to be dominant in shifting the cultural ethos of the Comoros archipelago from a fully Malagasy identity to that of Swahili speakers. You should definitely post more results if you find them. Seeing the diversity of ratios of Austronesian and native African ancestry would be interesting.

Isn't it similar to African crops in South India (namely tamirind and millets)? Trade must have been more widespread than thought.

loxias
09-18-2020, 03:58 PM
There is also evidence that Polynesians brought the sweet potato back from South America to Pacific islands. The name of the sweet potato in Maōri is very close to the one in Quechua (kumara and kumar respectively). Austronesian people played a key role in the propagation of tropical crops all around the world long before Europeans got around.

Kulin
09-18-2020, 04:07 PM
Isn't it similar to African crops in South India (namely tamirind and millets)? Trade must have been more widespread than thought.

Yes, but South India, especially Malabar coast was the epicenter of the Arab-African maritime trade route, even ages before the advent of Islam. The region includes many communities, such as the St Thomas Christians who have subcommunities with considerable Near-eastern ancestry among other groups. However, unlike communities with considerable middle-eastern ancestry in coastal South India or the Swahili coast, there appears to be no detectable Austronesian ancestry in that part of mainland Africa, despite the presence of those crops being deeply entrenched in the region. However, as theYamamoto said, there seems to be some degree of Austronesian vocabulary in seafaring terms in the Swahili language so it looks like there was a detectable cultural influence too aside from crop dispersals.

drobbah
09-18-2020, 04:13 PM
Fascinating. Bananas, yams, taros are originally from SE Asia and Pacific? I thought they were indigenous to Africa.

Agreed. Its very likely there is some East Asian ancestry in coastal East Africa among Swahilis and other coastal Kenyan/Tanzanian/Mozambican or even Somalian ethnicities/tribes as well.

I have seen a study that locals from the Comoros also possess approximately 20% Austronesian ancestry. Its very plausible there is some East Asian ancestry in coastal East Africa as well.

I have visited Zanzibar and apparently is the only place in Africa where SE Asian fruits such as durians, rambutans are grown. Also there is jackfruit in Tanzania when I travelled there as well. Although I don't know if its from Austronesian settlers and traders or was it only recently introduced.

Yep the first two are very likely Merina. Third is definitely some coastal tribe indeed.
Haven't seen ethnic Somalis with above noise level SE Asian but I've heard some Somalis in colonial times from French Somaliland (Djibouti) lived in Madagascar

gihanga.rwanda
09-18-2020, 04:29 PM
Where have you seen that? Could this explain the Vazimba legends? I had assumed they were archaic memories of HGs encountered in SEA transposed to Madagascar.
Tsakhur, do your Malagasy samples show an excess of African HG ancestry compared to the Bantu populations that are supposed to have contributed to them?

Or maybe even before the Swahili extension. Comorian languages are basal to Swahili in the Sabaki tree, and arguably Shingazidja and and Shindzuani are as different from each other as they are from Swahili.

The archeological community hasn’t reached a consensus about the presence of African hunter-gatherers in Madagascar or the timeline of their arrival, expansion, and eventual displacement. Here’s a link to a paper that explores some of the relevant evidence and the opposing views in the archeological community regarding the colonization of Madagascar.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342824894_Evidence_for_early_human_arrival_in_Mada gascar_is_robust_A_response_to_Mitchell


Just 25% of Madagascar has been arch-aeologically explored, with rigorous surveys conducted in considerably less of this hugeisland’s terrain. Most surveys have targeted surficial deposits dating to 800–1000 BP(Davis et al. 2020). Satellite data suggest that recently-identified coastal archaeologicalcontexts may yield information about early Holocene human settlement; this hypothesismust now be tested through excavations, to investigate whether limited archaeologicalevidence pre-dating 1000 BP is the product of genuine absence or low search effort(Davis et al. 2020).

We should keep in mind that we still no very little about this very unique part of the world. My view is that the island was initially colonized by Eastern or Southern African hunter-gatherers but the island remained sparsely populated until the arrival of Austronesians and Bantus. We already know that these hunter-gatherers contributed very little to contemporary Malagasy, even the Mikea and related tribes (67% Bantu + 33% Austronesian), who are the only remaining hunter-gatherers on the island.

NetNomad
09-18-2020, 04:42 PM
Haven't seen ethnic Somalis with above noise level SE Asian but I've heard some Somalis in colonial times from French Somaliland (Djibouti) lived in Madagascar

The Bajuni apparently claim partial Comorian or Malagasy roots. I have seen mtDNA B4a1a show in some studies that sampled Southerners.

There's one here (Ctrl-F Som).

https://www.yfull.com/mtree/B4a1a/

drobbah
09-18-2020, 04:43 PM
The archeological community hasn’t reached a consensus about the presence of African hunter-gatherers in Madagascar or the timeline of their arrival, expansion, and eventual displacement. Here’s a link to a paper that explores some of the relevant evidence and the opposing views in the archeological community regarding the colonization of Madagascar.

https://www.researchgate.net/publication/342824894_Evidence_for_early_human_arrival_in_Mada gascar_is_robust_A_response_to_Mitchell



We should keep in mind that we still no very little about this very unique part of the world. My view is that the island was initially colonized by Eastern or Southern African hunter-gatherers but the island remained sparsely populated until the arrival of Austronesians and Bantus. We already know that these hunter-gatherers contributed very little to contemporary Malagasy, even the Mikea and related tribes (67% Bantu + 33% Austronesian), who are the only remaining hunter-gatherers on the island.
If they did colonize the Island,did the EA HGs or South African HGs create canoes/boats? Or was there a land bridge or small islands in between SE Africa & Madagascar thousands of years ago?

drobbah
09-18-2020, 04:55 PM
The Bajuni apparently claim partial Comorian or Malagasy roots. I have seen mtDNA B4a1a show in some studies that sampled Southerners.

There's one here (Ctrl-F Som).

https://www.yfull.com/mtree/B4a1a/
Makes sense since Bajunis are a Swahili people, there would be no barrier to intermarriage with other Swahilis.Are they indigenous to Southern Somalia?

ThaYamamoto
09-18-2020, 04:57 PM
Evidence for early Malay and Malagasy loanwords in Swahili (https://www.academia.edu/34889485/Evidence_for_early_Malay_and_Malagasy_loanwords_in _Swahili)

From Borneo to Bantu: How the Malagasy third person genitive pronoun
*-ni may have become a locative suffix in Swahili (https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/41886361.pdf)

The Austronesians in Madagascar and Their
Interaction with the Bantu of the East African
Coast: surveying the Linguistic Evidence
for Domestic and Translocated Animals - Roger Blench (http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Austronesian/Malagasy/Malagasy%20domestic%20animal%20names%20published.p df)

Two Vanished African Maritime Traditions 4
and a Parallel from South America - Roger Blench (http://www.rogerblench.info/Language/Austronesian/Malagasy/Blench%202012%20AAR.pdf)

Megalophias
09-18-2020, 05:53 PM
If they did colonize the Island,did the EA HGs or South African HGs create canoes/boats? Or was there a land bridge or small islands in between SE Africa & Madagascar thousands of years ago?

The Mozambique Channel is deep, so no land bridge. There are a few small islands today; Juan de Nova Island is in the narrowest part of the Channel. Back over 12 000 years ago when sea levels were lower there probably would have been more tiny islands, but not a lot I don't think. The channel is quite wide (420 km across at minimum) and has dangerous winds, so not trivial to cross.

Tsakhur
09-19-2020, 06:50 AM
Where have you seen that? Could this explain the Vazimba legends? I had assumed they were archaic memories of HGs encountered in SEA transposed to Madagascar.
Tsakhur, do your Malagasy samples show an excess of African HG ancestry compared to the Bantu populations that are supposed to have contributed to them?



Or maybe even before the Swahili extension. Comorian languages are basal to Swahili in the Sabaki tree, and arguably Shingazidja and and Shindzuani are as different from each other as they are from Swahili.

Sorry for the late reply. I'm not exactly sure. They do show minor HG (Pygmy/San) signals in their Gedmatch results but I am not sure if its more than the Bantu/West-Central African groups that are ancestral to them.

Would be nice if we can have some ancient dna from Madagascar.

That's interesting. I wonder if Swahili is mutually intelligible with Comorian languages?

loxias
09-19-2020, 07:11 AM
Sorry for the late reply. I'm not exactly sure. They do show minor HG (Pygmy/San) signals in their Gedmatch results but I am not sure if its more than the Bantu/West-Central African groups that are ancestral to them.

Would be nice if we can have some ancient dna from Madagascar.

That's interesting. I wonder if Swahili is mutually intelligible with Comorian languages?

It mostly isn’t afaik. Although a lot of Comorians understand Swahili because of Tanzanian TV.

Tsakhur
09-19-2020, 09:47 AM
It mostly isn’t afaik. Although a lot of Comorians understand Swahili because of Tanzanian TV.

Its the difference comparable to French and Spanish or Portuguese and Romanian?

Tanzanian TV and media is popular in Comoros? Also Kenyan media?

Tsakhur
09-19-2020, 09:54 AM
Yes, but South India, especially Malabar coast was the epicenter of the Arab-African maritime trade route, even ages before the advent of Islam. The region includes many communities, such as the St Thomas Christians who have subcommunities with considerable Near-eastern ancestry among other groups. However, unlike communities with considerable middle-eastern ancestry in coastal South India or the Swahili coast, there appears to be no detectable Austronesian ancestry in that part of mainland Africa, despite the presence of those crops being deeply entrenched in the region. However, as theYamamoto said, there seems to be some degree of Austronesian vocabulary in seafaring terms in the Swahili language so it looks like there was a detectable cultural influence too aside from crop dispersals.

Isn't it peculiar and odd that despite the lack of detectable Austronesian ancestry in the mainland, there to be some trading and linguistic influences like you have noted? Shouldn't cultural influence and trade also cause some bidirectional gene flow as well?

loxias
09-19-2020, 10:26 AM
Its the difference comparable to French and Spanish or Portuguese and Romanian?

Tanzanian TV and media is popular in Comoros? Also Kenyan media?

I was speaking from memory, so I went to check my sources. Mostly a paper from back in 1977 (https://www.persee.fr/doc/cea_0008-0055_1977_num_17_66_2451) and it mentioned Tanzanian radio (not TV) as well as the Independence struggles of East African countries as the main factors for Comorians being familiar with Swahili. So things may have changed since. Most Comorians I know were actually born after that date, I'll ask them what it's like now.

Tsakhur
09-19-2020, 02:43 PM
It would be interesting to get in touch with them and get them some G25 coordinates as there are extensive Southeast Asian and Austronesian references now.
There is talk of the first waves of Austronesians to reach Madagascar to have been a stratified population already with Javanese/Balinese folks on top and Borneo natives as subordinates. At least that’s why linguistics seem to indicate (most vocabulary being related to Maanyan, a Borneo language, but with Javanese words related to elite topics).

I can try to contact them and ask them to do G25. But the thing is I am not even their DNA matches on Gedmatch (in fact, I haven't done any DNA test yet lol but I want to in the future), I only find their kits while searching for other SE Asian matches.

Would it be a bit awkward to contact them through email to persuade them to do G25 if I am not their DNA match?

Don Felipe
09-23-2020, 01:42 PM
3. Also not sure about his ethnic group. This is the most African shifted Malagasy individual I ever saw which is at 75% SSA. Oddly, he also score the highest West Eurasian admixture among the three Malagasy individuals I posted at 6-8%. His Western ancestry is either Euro or Arab but I am not certain.


Great thread! I am sharing with a couple of Malagasy persons as well as 1 Comorian on Ancestry. The regional labeling is different of course and not to be taken too literally when referring to modernday countries ;-). Stilll pretty much a similar range and variation in admixture. Only one of them is most likely Merina (with some minor Vietnamese?) while the other two are from coastal areas. First one has a combined African total of 86%, which is also the highest I have seen otherwise for Malagasy people. But quite similar to the Comorian sample.

I have actually received detailed confirmation about his background. His family being from the northeastern coastal area of Madagascar. And very interestingly also including one Makoa, a.k.a Masombika grandparent. Both terms referring to Mozambican Makuas (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makua_people) who arrived in great numbers as enslaved captives in the late 1800’s in Madagascar. Not always actually being ethnically Makua individuals, as it was more used as an umbrella term. But obviously related to the inflow of Mozambican captives also in neighbouring Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius, Réunion and Seychelles. This internal Indian Ocean slave trade circuit is often not known about among the general public in the West. While it can still be a sensitive topic for Malagasy themselves. Quite likely this particular background may account for the overall higher total African score for this person. And possibly it might also explain the relative proportions within his African breakdown between so-called western, eastern and southern Bantu. Especially a greater shift towards "Cameroon, Congo & Western Bantu" it seems when compared with the possibly Merina person.

See also:

Makoa people in Madagascar (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makoa) (Wikipedia)
Slavery and Post-Slavery in Madagascar: An Overview (https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01519506/document)


MADAGASCAR (Northeast)


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/mada-pv.jpg



MADAGASCAR (Southwest)

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/mada-hc.jpg



MADAGASCAR (Merina?)

Intriguingly also with some distant Vietnamese lineage. Which is very likely to be recent given the specification by Ancestry's genetic community tool (based on DNA matches beyond a certain threshold). Plus I have not seen such "Vietnam" scores on other Malagasy sofar.

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/mada-nr.jpg



COMOROS

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/com.jpg







I assumed because of the long history of Arab traders in the African Indian Ocean region that Black African slavery (sold to the Austronesians) took place in Madagascar. But I guess that assumption was (mostly) wrong.

Slavery certainly played a big role in Madagascar's history, however not per se along strictly racially defined lines. See also the reference I gave above. According to another source (https://afropop.org/audio-programs/pirates-slavery-and-kings-in-madagascar-an-interview-with-pier-larson):


"There was a slave trade in both directions across the Mozambique Channel, on the basic principle that a captive became more valuable as a slave the further they are taken away from their homes and their point of capture. So Malagasy were taken as slaves up the East African coast, and East African captives were traded to Madagascar during the 19th century in quite significant numbers. In Madagascar they were called Mozambican typically. They were not necessarily from what we know now as Mozambique, although some of them were. "


In fact there was also a small flow of Madagascar captives being transported to the Americas. And it seems that especially among African Americans this may have lead to a disproportionately widespread even if greatly diluted genetic legacy. Based on DNA matches, haplogroups and Southeast Asian trace admixture such connections are clearly indicated. Intriguingly these DNA matches also include other people of partial Malagasy descent: South African Coloureds and Indian Ocean Islanders (Mauritius, Réunion, Comoros, Seychelles)! I am currently performing research on this topic and will blog about my findings eventually. See also:

Slave Trade statistics for Madagascar & Mozambique (https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/maps/southeast-africa/)

Tsakhur
10-27-2020, 07:33 PM
Great thread! I am sharing with a couple of Malagasy persons as well as 1 Comorian on Ancestry. The regional labeling is different of course and not to be taken too literally when referring to modernday countries ;-). Stilll pretty much a similar range and variation in admixture. Only one of them is most likely Merina (with some minor Vietnamese?) while the other two are from coastal areas. First one has a combined African total of 86%, which is also the highest I have seen otherwise for Malagasy people. But quite similar to the Comorian sample.

I have actually received detailed confirmation about his background. His family being from the northeastern coastal area of Madagascar. And very interestingly also including one Makoa, a.k.a Masombika grandparent. Both terms referring to Mozambican Makuas (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makua_people) who arrived in great numbers as enslaved captives in the late 1800’s in Madagascar. Not always actually being ethnically Makua individuals, as it was more used as an umbrella term. But obviously related to the inflow of Mozambican captives also in neighbouring Indian Ocean islands of Mauritius, Réunion and Seychelles. This internal Indian Ocean slave trade circuit is often not known about among the general public in the West. While it can still be a sensitive topic for Malagasy themselves. Quite likely this particular background may account for the overall higher total African score for this person. And possibly it might also explain the relative proportions within his African breakdown between so-called western, eastern and southern Bantu. Especially a greater shift towards "Cameroon, Congo & Western Bantu" it seems when compared with the possibly Merina person.

See also:

Makoa people in Madagascar (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makoa) (Wikipedia)
Slavery and Post-Slavery in Madagascar: An Overview (https://hal.archives-ouvertes.fr/hal-01519506/document)


MADAGASCAR (Northeast)


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/mada-pv.jpg



MADAGASCAR (Southwest)

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/mada-hc.jpg



MADAGASCAR (Merina?)

Intriguingly also with some distant Vietnamese lineage. Which is very likely to be recent given the specification by Ancestry's genetic community tool (based on DNA matches beyond a certain threshold). Plus I have not seen such "Vietnam" scores on other Malagasy sofar.

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/mada-nr.jpg



COMOROS

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2020/09/com.jpg








Slavery certainly played a big role in Madagascar's history, however not per se along strictly racially defined lines. See also the reference I gave above. According to another source (https://afropop.org/audio-programs/pirates-slavery-and-kings-in-madagascar-an-interview-with-pier-larson):




In fact there was also a small flow of Madagascar captives being transported to the Americas. And it seems that especially among African Americans this may have lead to a disproportionately widespread even if greatly diluted genetic legacy. Based on DNA matches, haplogroups and Southeast Asian trace admixture such connections are clearly indicated. Intriguingly these DNA matches also include other people of partial Malagasy descent: South African Coloureds and Indian Ocean Islanders (Mauritius, Réunion, Comoros, Seychelles)! I am currently performing research on this topic and will blog about my findings eventually. See also:

Slave Trade statistics for Madagascar & Mozambique (https://tracingafricanroots.wordpress.com/maps/southeast-africa/)

Hey really sorry for the very late reply. Hope you would still answer back.

Thanks for sharing those Malagasy AncestryDNA results. Yep indeed, the coastal ones seem to be predominantly SSA genetically while its the vice versa for highland ethnic groups like the Merina. What's the lowest African and highest East Asian you have seen for a Malagasy? How about vice versa?

Also can you asked these individuals to do a G25 test? It would be great to have G25 Malagasy samples.

ThaYamamoto
10-27-2020, 09:56 PM
Hey really sorry for the very late reply. Hope you would still answer back.

Thanks for sharing those Malagasy AncestryDNA results. Yep indeed, the coastal ones seem to be predominantly SSA genetically while its the vice versa for highland ethnic groups like the Merina. What's the lowest African and highest East Asian you have seen for a Malagasy? How about vice versa?

Also can you asked these individuals to do a G25 test? It would be great to have G25 Malagasy samples.

I have 50+ Malagasy sequenced genomes. If you know someone that will convert them to a single plink bed file I can request Davidski to upload them.

gihanga.rwanda
10-27-2020, 11:10 PM
I have 50+ Malagasy sequenced genomes. If you know someone that will convert them to a single plink bed file I can request Davidski to upload them.

It would be helpful and informative if we could group the sequenced genomes by their tribal affiliation (Merina vs. Sakalava), given the variation in African / SE Asian ancestry across the island. Would you happen to have this information for most of these genomes?

ThaYamamoto
10-27-2020, 11:31 PM
It would be helpful and informative if we could group the sequenced genomes by their tribal affiliation (Merina vs. Sakalava), given the variation in African / SE Asian ancestry across the island. Would you happen to have this information for most of these genomes?

Yep they're all grouped by affiliation I shoulda just linked em first time round: E-GEOD-53445 - Genome wide evidence of Austronesian-Bantu admixture and cultural reversion in a hunter-gatherer group of Madagascar (https://www.ebi.ac.uk/arrayexpress/experiments/E-GEOD-53445/?query=malagasy)

Both my Linux and Windows partitions are messed up so I can't run R,PLINK etc at the moment or I'd give it a go myself. Strangely the samples are in .txt format like you would get commercial raw data results so just need PLINK'ing. I would ask the guy I normally do but I've requested him too many times...

Tsakhur
10-28-2020, 02:58 AM
I have 50+ Malagasy sequenced genomes. If you know someone that will convert them to a single plink bed file I can request Davidski to upload them.

I don't really know anyone but maybe I can ask the user Tomenable/Litvin (in Apricity) to convert them.