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Sokoski
03-20-2021, 03:04 AM
I am wondering what the general origins of Cubans and Venezuelans are?

passenger
03-20-2021, 04:47 AM
For Cuba I found these two studies:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109857/
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-29851-3

The first of them (an older study) found that Cubans were on average 72% "European", 20% "African" and 8% "Indigenous" in population-wide autosomal terms , but with considerable variation between provinces (and of course percentages for individuals could range widely). The range for European is 51-84 percent, African is 11-40 percent and Indigenous is 4-15 percent. The European portion of that ancestry is probably overwhelmingly Spanish, but Wikipedia tells me that Cuba also received smaller numbers of French, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Greek, British, and Irish immigrants. There were also some East Asian, Lebanese and Jewish immigrants. I'm not sure what impact emigration following the revolution has had, though.

Offhand I can't find a good study focusing on Venezuela. The most commonly cited statistic appears to come from a 2008 Brazilian study which I can't find a working link for. The figures from that study were 60.6% European, 23% Native American and 16% African for the population-wide autosomal makeup. This seems reasonable given Venezuela's history. I'd imagine that the impact of 19th-21st century immigrant groups from Europe and Asia is probably greater than in Cuba in terms of overall diversity, though (at least until the last few years). Besides a variety of different European immigrant communities, Venezuela has (or had) a huge Syrian-Lebanese community, for instance.

Sokoski
03-20-2021, 04:50 AM
For Cuba I found these two studies:

https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4109857/
https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-018-29851-3

The first of them (an older study) found that Cubans were on average 72% "European", 20% "African" and 8% "Indigenous" in population-wide autosomal terms , but with considerable variation between provinces (and of course percentages for individuals could range widely). The range for European is 51-84 percent, African is 11-40 percent and Indigenous is 4-15 percent. The European portion of that ancestry is probably overwhelmingly Spanish, but Wikipedia tells me that Cuba also received smaller numbers of French, Portuguese, Italian, Russian, Dutch, Greek, British, and Irish immigrants. There were also some East Asian, Lebanese and Jewish immigrants. I'm not sure what impact emigration following the revolution has had, though.

Offhand I can't find a good study focusing on Venezuela. The most commonly cited statistic appears to come from a 2008 Brazilian study which I can't find a working link for. The figures from that study were 60.6% European, 23% Native American and 16% African for the population-wide autosomal makeup. This seems reasonable given Venezuela's history. I'd imagine that recent that the impact of 19th-21st century immigrant groups from Europe and Asia is probably greater than in Cuba, though (at least until the last few years). Besides a variety of different European immigrant communities, Venezuela has (or had) a huge Syrian-Lebanese community.

That is really interesting-i will have to take a look at the studies. I do remember hearing about alot of Venezuelans seeking refuge in Syria-perhaps this is due to ancestral connection? If you can find the Brazilian study I would be interested! thanks

Caius Agrippa
03-23-2021, 01:33 AM
I found that study on Venezuela: (https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/18027815/)

https://i.imgur.com/CVf3fpb.png

The admixture seems to be heavily class based like in most of Latin America with private clinic attendants being 75% European on average while the public clinic attendants being only 32.8% European and having more Amerindian ancestry than European and almost the same levels of European and African. Considering that the latter group likely represents the majority of Venezuelans, the average admixture for the whole country likely is around 50% European, 30% Amerindian and 20% African.

Like most Latin American nations there are degrees of admixture, with fully Indigenous, European or African individuals being almost absent. If in Brazil not even 10% of the population is monoracial from a genetic standpoint, I think in Venezuela the number might be even lower, perhaps much lower (1% or less). But of course self-reported race, phenotypic expression and actual genetic ancestry are not the same thing in a Latin American context.

Northern Adriatic
03-23-2021, 09:56 PM
Venezuela had an Italian community as well (not as strong as in Argentina, Uruguay or Brazil but still significant). Most of them, or their children, are now in other countries in LatAm (mostly Chile, Mexico, Colombia) or in Spain, except for those who went back to Italy much earlier before the 90s.