PDA

View Full Version : "Human burials at the Kisese II rockshelter, Tanzania" - Laird et al 2021



Brandon S. Pilcher
03-31-2021, 09:06 PM
New craniodental paper on remains from Tanzania dating back ~7.1 kya:

Human burials at the Kisese II rockshelter, Tanzania
(https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.24253)


Results
Our results suggest a minimum of six individuals from the Kisese II collections with two adults and four juveniles. While the dating for most of the burials is uncertain, one individual is directly radiocarbon dated to ~7.1 ka indicating that at least one burial is early Holocene in age. Craniodental metric comparisons indicate that the Kisese II individuals extend the amount of human morphological diversity among Holocene eastern Africans.

Conclusions
Our findings contribute to a growing body of evidence that Late Pleistocene and early Holocene eastern Africans exhibited relatively high amounts of morphological diversity. However, the Kisese II individuals suggest morphological similarity at localized sites potentially supporting increased regionalization during the early Holocene.

Interestingly, the dimensions of these ancient Tanzanians' nasal apertures appear more similar to those of late dynastic Lower Egyptians from the Howells database than to modern "SSA" groups:


Cranial metrics from KNM‐KX 2, the only complete undistorted skull, were compared to published data from 476 adults from five recent African populations: the San (n = 82) and Zulu (n = 101) from southern Africa, the Taita (n = 83) from Kenya, a sample from Egypt (n = 111), and the Dogon (n = 99) from Mali (Howells, 1973, 1989, 1995; https://web.utk.edu/~auerbach/HOWL.htm).

Cranial measurements from KNM‐KX 2 were compared to early Holocene/LSA (~10.04.0 ka), Pastoral Neolithic (~3.52.0 ka), and modern African groups (Figure 4). The nine cranial measurements included in the comparative sample varied significantly across the population groups (Kruskal‐Wallis: χ2 = 51.96202.27, df = 7, p < 0.01). Pairwise tests were not used for the cranial metric analyses because the Kisese II sample only consisted of one individual. The Taita, Early Holocene/LSA, Pastoral Neolithic, and KNM‐KX 2 all had a similar ratio of maximum cranial breadth and length compared to the other modern African populations. Dimensions of the nasal aperture for KNM‐KX 2 were smaller than most of the modern African populations but overlapped with Egyptian individuals. Kruskal‐Wallis tests for all cranial measurements across individual sites within the early Holocene/LSA and Pastoral Neolithic samples were not significant (all p > 0.05).

Cabaon
03-31-2021, 10:36 PM
no suprise I suppose it's still the case today, differences shouldn't be too big between egyptians and horners in terms of nasal aperture

drobbah
03-31-2021, 10:45 PM
no suprise I suppose it's still the case today, differences shouldn't be too big between egyptians and horners in terms of nasal aperture
What does this have to do with Horners? Cushites didn't arrive in Tanzania for another 3-4000 years...This sample is of a local hunter-gatherer

Cabaon
03-31-2021, 11:44 PM
What does this have to do with Horners? Cushites didn't arrive in Tanzania for another 3-4000 years...This sample is of a local hunter-gatherer

that doesn't mean there wasn't any west eurasian influx into the region, such type of admixture predates the arrival of cushites that's also well known

drobbah
03-31-2021, 11:57 PM
that doesn't mean there wasn't any west eurasian influx into the region, such type of admixture predates the arrival of cushites that's also well known
You think this individual was heavily Eurasian? How come there's no evidence to suggest an early large influx of Eurasians in Tanzania?

Cabaon
04-01-2021, 01:21 AM
You think this individual was heavily Eurasian? How come there's no evidence to suggest an early large influx of Eurasians in Tanzania?


Well if it reached the horn during the pleistocene I don't see why tanzania wouldn't be at least slightly impacted :


However, the high population differentiation found in the AMOVA and population tree analyses (Figure 5) suggests that admixture within the last few thousand years is a poor explanation for the majority of non-African ancestry in the HOA.


In combination, these data suggest that the Ethio-Somali ancestors admixed with African-origin HOA ancestors sometime after 23 ka, but before the Middle Eastern admixture during the last few thousand years.


In addition to verifying that most HOA populations have substantial non-African ancestry, which is not controversial [11]–[14], [16], we argue that the non-African origin Ethio-Somali ancestry in the HOA is most likely pre-agricultural. In combination with the genomic evidence for a pre-agricultural back-to-Africa migration into North Africa [43], [61] and inference of pre-agricultural migrations in and out-of-Africa from mitochondrial and Y chromosome data [13], [32]–[37], [47], [99]–[102], these results contribute to a growing body of evidence for migrations of human populations in and out of Africa throughout prehistory [5]–[7] and suggests that human hunter-gatherer populations were much more dynamic than commonly assumed.

https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393#s2

drobbah
04-01-2021, 01:30 AM
Well if it reached the horn during the pleistocene I don't see why tanzania wouldn't be at least slightly impacted :







https://journals.plos.org/plosgenetics/article?id=10.1371/journal.pgen.1004393#s2
So you have no evidence, all you posted is an outdated lousy study.It is well established that the ancestry found in Horners were brought by the Cushitic herders 6k years ago in the Horn and these herders arrived much later in SE Africa.We have ancient Kenyan & Tanzanian Pastoralists that proves it as well.

There's no such thing of an Ethio-Somali component that branched off the heavy EEF/IBM maghrebis nor is there any evidence of substantially Eurasian admixed hunter-gatherers existing in Tanzania.