View Full Version : Z156 (DF96/98) the missing Bronze Age Link!?

10-09-2021, 06:39 PM
Recently my nephew (mother's line) is tested, this is the result, a short analysis by Iain Mc Donald (with thanks!):

Your matches at the R-S15585 level include Germans, who dominate much of the R-L1 continental testers, plus a scattering of Scaninavians from Sweden and Finland. The existence of Germans (and indeed Dutch!) can be fairly readily explained by our understanding of what happened during the Bronze Age. We think that R-Z156 and later R-Z304 and R-DF96, arose from the Unetice Culture around modern Prague in the period 2300-1700 BC.

Many of the R-Z156 men migrated from the Unetice Culture into the Tumulus Culture, which peaked around 1300 BC in modern southern Germany. This probably corresponds to the period around R-S11515 and/or R-L1. The expansion from R-L1 to R-S15585 hasn't been well researched, but it was fairly rapid. Whether this represents a rise during the Celtic period or not, I can't presently say. Equally, we see a lot of R-Z156 in Scandinavian countries, which remains unexplained. Hence, we don't have the complete story of all the haplogroups here, and there is quite a lot that remains unknown.

First of all, I want to underline what an amazing job Iain has done to make R1b U106 insightful. And also in particular the DF96/98. In that sense, only modesty suits me. Still, I think I have a potentially important addition to his story.

Elbe/Oder but what about Rhine/Weser?
I think there is a missing link in his story. Namely on the point: 'Many of the R-Z156 men migrated from the Unetice Culture into the Tumulus Culture.' The spread of the Unetice culture mainly took place along the Elbe and the Oder. However, those are not the areas that are the DF96/98 hotspot now, but probably also then. They are located more to the west, namely around the Rhine and the Weser.

Danubian Eba (about 2100-1600 BC)
I think the missing link is in the Danubian EBA. Volker Heyd has made a magnificent paper about this. In the add the picture is about the 'subcultures' of Danubian EBA. Both Unetice and Danubian must have touched each other. But besides that the Danubian EBA with it's core in Austria had a typical outlier namely the Maros culture in Eastern Hungary, with a mixture of Yamna and Balkan influences. Intrigue. But may be not without effect on Z156, DF 98/96 etc.

https://i.postimg.cc/t4SrwpKz/Schermafbeelding-2021-10-05-om-21-40-36.png (https://postimg.cc/zyhSRZXL)

Anyhow the 'proto Tumulus' Danubian EBA culture was extremely expansive it 'climbed' unto the middle Rhine and the sources of the Weser.

Tumulus: Rhine-Main and Fulda-Werra groups (1600-1300 BC)
Especially in these areas the Tumulus cultures of southwest Germany developed. There were two distinctive cultures: the Rhine Main culture and the Fulda Werra culture. Iain figured out that the Rhine Main area was a major hub for DF98. Besides that there was also an offshoot to the Rhône area (from the east Swiss group ^^^). And from the Rhine-Main area there is a very clear connection with the Hilversum culture (Central and South Dutch). It wouldn't surprise me if this also has a link with the Wessex culture? DF96, as Iain has shown is sometimes a bit more Northern than DF98 that the Fulda Werra culture (Hessen) spread to the North Dutch and NW German area up to the North Sea coast of Jutland. That last one is called the Sögel-Wohlde/ Elp culture. R-S11515 and/or R-L1. could be typical Sögel-Wohlde/ Elp subclades.

Bergerbrant added by me
https://i.postimg.cc/x14Rggmx/Schermafbeelding-2021-09-20-om-13-58-36-1.png (https://postimg.cc/tsFW432W)

Urnfield (1300–800 BC)
The last phase in the spread of Z156 (DF96/98) to the NW was in the Urnfield period. Here we see the Bronze Age end picture, I think in the areas that are classified under the Urnfield culture clearly more Z156 (DF96/98) lines can be found:

Bergerbrant LBA
https://i.postimg.cc/Vvg9tF1F/Schermafbeelding-2021-10-09-om-17-07-45.png (https://postimg.cc/30yD5mky)

Spreaders of the Bronze Age?
I think we can see the lion's share of Z156 (DF96/98) literally and figuratively as disseminators or spreaders of “the Bronze”.
Literally because they were the middle man between the sources of copper in the Italian Alps and the Nordic Bronze Age people.

Johan Ling et al (2019):

Archaeological evidence shows how trade network emerged between Jutland and the Tumulus culture during this phase (Randsborg, 1968). The most frequent copper source for Scandinavian groups appears to be the Italian Alps from which around 70% of the analyzed swords derive, according to the current study, while North German groups seem to have obtained copper foremost from the copper sources in the Slovakian Ore Mountains and Mitterberg in Austria (Fig. 20, Fig. 21, Table 3). We can explain this divergence through a scenario of three different riverine/maritime trade routes from the north to the south (or vice versa), that were potentially operated and controlled by different groups: one along the Weser to south Germany, another along the Rhine and a third from North Germany along the Elbe leading down to the Austrian Alps and Slovakia. An interesting difference can also be noted within the Scandinavian area since a non-negligible number of swords from Denmark were made of copper from Mitterberg and Slovakia, but in Sweden these sources seem to be comparatively rare, and copper from the Italian Alps predominates. A major part of the Elbe river was probably controlled by groups related to the Lüneburg culture in Northen Germany. The Elbe river has its source in the Karkonosze/Krkonoše mountains, located in the north of the Czech Republic and not far from the aforementioned copper sources in Slovakia. Moreover, the distance to the mines in Mitterberg in Austrian Alps is not long from where Elbe has its source. This may indicate that the North German groups primarily used the Elbe route, while the Scandinavian groups used Weser or Rhine. In this context it is intriguing that the mentioned two rivers were used by the Scandinavian Vikings; not the rivers of Elbe or Oder (Sawyer, 1983).

Hence, it is perhaps more logical to assume that copper from the Italian Alps was transferred by Tumulus middle men, at the southern branch of Weser, and from there they could have used the copper to trade Baltic amber with the riverine traveling Scandinavians. Another potential scenario was that Tumulus groups transported the copper to the river mouth of either Weser or Rhine for further exchange with other groups from Northern Europe.

And figuratively archeologist Bergerbrant:

It is possible that it is a merger between these two cultures – the non-fixed, exploring Valsømagle area with the organized, regulated and institutionalized Sögel-Wohlde culture – that led to what became the so-called Nordic Bronze Age culture. The institutions of the Sögel-Wohlde region were slowly accepted in the Valsømagle region and the experimentation with form and shape in the Valsømagle area led to the new style of bronze objects that is so characteristic for southern Scandinavia.

The Z156 (DF96/98) man most likely played a crucial role in this. Please feel free to comment or to add. Thank in advance!

10-12-2021, 03:02 PM
Heyd is underlined by a lucide paper of Przemysław Makarowicz, some key fragments:

Despite its pan-European scope, the culture was homogenous, but not devoid of peculiarities (differences) that were local in nature. In a very short period of time – only a few generations – the identifiers of this formation spread from its heartland in the upper Danube and upper Rhine basin to the east, towards the Carpathian Basin, and to the north-east – as far as the area between the Odra and the middle Vistula basin in present-day Poland.

The attractive ideology would then have spread to the west and north-west and be adapted by the ‘post-Early-Bronze’, de-centralized and mobile communities (most likely based on kinship) of animal farmers inhabiting the upper Danube basin and the upper Rhine basin, as well as by the peoples of the Nordic regions (Vandkilde 2014, Fig. 5). This process went hand in hand with the dissemination of the custom of tumulus-building and the associated religious concepts, funerary practices, and territorial behaviour.

The success of the new model lay in the favourable combination of three elements: the power of hierarchized, de-centralized, and mobile kinship-based social structures (military aristocracy-warriors, their clients and families), control over resources and long-distance trade routes, and the dissemination of metallurgy techniques (especially methods of casting).

A relationship between male warriors and Y-DNA is close of course. Iain Mc Donald:

When I have done this, it looks like there is a period of time, approximately between 1900 and 1600 BC, where the haplotree stops dividing, indicating the population has contracted. At the same time, we see branches with no western or central Europeans, but instead comprised of people from places like Finland, Poland, the Ukraine and further afield. It is difficult to get this without a mass exodus from the R-DF98 homeland during this period of time.

The same is the case with a line like R-L1 under DF96 that is pretty frequent in nowadays Germany.

Conclusion: the Tumulus expansion goes most probably hand in hand with the expansion of some R1b U106 lines.

Of course are ancient samples the definite proof of the pudding....

https://www.academia.edu/36278706/The_birth_of_a_new_world._Barrows_warriors_and_met allurgists