View Full Version : Ewenic (North Tungusic) genetics

06-24-2022, 12:43 PM
Agdzhoyan A.T., Bogunov Y.V., Bogunova А.А., Kamenshikova E.N., Zaporozhchenko V.V., Pylev V.Yu., Korotkova N.A., Utrivan S.А., Skhalyakho R.A., Koshel S.M., Balanovsky O.P., and Balanovska E.V., "The mosaic of the Evenks gene pool: Transbaikalian and Amur segments." Moscow University Anthropology Bulletin (Vestnik Moskovskogo Universiteta. Seria XXIII. Antropologia), 2019; 3/2019; с. 67-76. DOI: 10.32521/2074-8132.2019.3.067-076.

Materials and methods. The gene pool of two eastern Evenk groups, Transbaikalian and Amur ones,
has been studied using detailed panel including 60 Y-chromosomal SNP markers. The frequencies of
haplogroups identified have been analyzed by multidimensional statistics and genegeography methods. The
venous blood was sampled in the course of expeditions in 2010-2015 from unrelated males. No less than
three generations of male ancestors identified themselves as belonging to the given Evenk population and
were born in the studied region. The sampling was performed with the voluntary written informed consent.

Results. In spite of considerable geographic distance between the ranges of Transbaikalian and Amur
Evenks there is a pronounced similarity in their Y-chromosomal gene pools: haplogroups C2-M48(xSK1066),
N-M2118 and R1a-M198 account for more than 2/3 of their gene pools. In the Siberian multidimensional
genetic space, Transbaikalian and Amur Evenks, together, with the Evenks of Okhotsk coast and Kamchatka,
formed the Amur region cluster, considerably removed from Buryats, Mongols, Yakuts and South Siberian
groups – Tuvans, Altaians and Khakass. Maps of genetic distances from both the Transbaikalian and Amur
Evenks display their close relation to Amur region and Kamchatka gene pools, and a noticeable remoteness
from gene pools of Siberia, East and Central Asia. When the data from literature are included into consideration,
the differences become clear between West and East Evenk gene pools, which may be attributed to their
geographic position in different regions of Siberia: the West Evenks are closer to Yakuts and partly to South
Siberian peoples, and the Eastern Evenks – to populations of the Far East.

Conclusion. No genetic traces of assimilation of Evenk tribes by Buryats, nor Buryat tribe inclusion into
Evenks have been found. The results obtained give grounds for the hypothesis about “East Tungusic” genetic
component being preserved in Transbaikalian and Amur Evenks. The component occurs mostly between
Baikal Lake and Okhotsk coast and is included to the Far East gene pool system either as a part of a wider
“Amur region” constituent, or along with the latter.

Keywords: human population genetics; gene pool; Far East; Evenks; Y-chromosome; haplogroups
Transbaikalian (Zabaykal'ya) Evenki Y-DNA
7/50 = 14.0% N-М2118
2/50 = 4.0% R1a-M198

Priamurian (Priamur'ya) Evenki Y-DNA
7/81 = 8.6% N-M2118
16/81 = 19.8% N-B479
8/81 = 9.9% R1a-M198

More than half of each sample of Evenks belongs to C-M48(xSK1066). (C-SK1066 is a very young subclade that has an estimated TMRCA of 1100 [95% CI 1300 <-> 950] ybp according to YFull; it is found mainly among present-day populations of Central Asia, such as Western Mongols/Oirats/Kalmyks, Kazakhs, and Uzbeks.)

N-M2118, which is the Y-DNA haplogroup to which most present-day Yakut males belong, is found in both samples of Evenks, but with somewhat greater frequency among the central (Transbaikalian) Evenks.

N-B479 is a subclade of N-CTS6967 (the same clade in which the Y-DNA of the kra01 specimen has been placed on the YFull tree) that has been found in 43.8% (57/130) of a sample of Eastern Siberian Nanai people with a TMRCA that should be approximately 4250 ybp (cf. Ilumäe et al. 2016, "Human Y Chromosome Haplogroup N: A Non-trivial Time-Resolved Phylogeography that Cuts across Language Families"). The present study has found N-B479 in approximately 20% of a sample of eastern (Priamurian) Evenks, but this haplogroup is absent from the sample of central (Transbaikalian) Evenks.

Haplogroup I2-P37.2 has been found in at least one individual in each sample of Evenks; I would guess 2/50 = 4% of the sample of Transbaikalian Evenks and 1/81 = 1.2% of the sample of Priamurian Evenks should belong to I2-P37.2 judging from the pie charts in Figure 1. Haplogroup R1a-M198 also has been found in both samples, but with greater frequency among the Priamurian Evenks.

Haplogroup I1-M253 has been found only in the sample of Transbaikalian Evenks; I would guess that either 4/50 = 8% or 5/50 = 10% of the sample of Transbaikalian Evenks should belong to I1-M253.

Approximately 10% of each sample of Evenks belong to haplogroups that have been grouped together as "drugiye" (i.e. "others"), but precisely which haplogroups these are is unclear.