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View Full Version : The bronze age cultures of pushte-kuh.



Arbogan
06-04-2014, 12:53 AM
In around the early 20th century sites in mountains regions of west-iran (Lorestan province, Pushte-kuh) were excavated for artefacts. These artefacts are dated to the bronze age(2900-2000 B.C) aswell as the Iron age(1250-650 B.C). They were dug up from burial sites by joint-teams of Iranian and European/north-American archaeologists during the 20th century. The artefacts included a large collection of swords and armaments, bracelets, pick-axes etc. A series of unrelated iron-age artefacts were also found on sites in the same area. What is peculiar about these findings is the lack of finding any form of scripture, and the lack of the cultures leaving written records. Some of the items indicated trade and contact with Mesopotamians. The only known records, is that of Assyrians, who called the people in the area "Parnakians", their fierce enemies from mountainous Loorestan. There were even some supposed incursions into the region by Assyrian military expeditions. It's highly interesting as besides elamites and some post-neolithic sites, there are very few records of pre-iranian civilizations. Even the recorded ones, such as kassaites, lullubis, have scant records and are mostly based off Assyrian accounts. The mysterious elamites are the only ones to leave any significant records. Besides the pre-iranian archaeological sites, there are numerous ruins from various Iranian empires in the region(with the latest being the Sassanian-age). Some academics claim that the later Iron age artefacts belonged to the indo-iranians, but there is scant evidence of this.

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/2/2e/Locator_map_Iran_Lorestan_Province.png

http://www.iranicaonline.org/uploads/files/poshte_kuh_fig_1.jpg

zagros mountains:

http://media-2.web.britannica.com/eb-media/02/43802-004-CADC6FC8.jpg

http://i1.trekearth.com/photos/38140/ilam-zagros.jpg

https://mw2.google.com/mw-panoramio/photos/medium/51136223.jpg

Loorestan bronze artefacts:

https://encrypted-tbn3.gstatic.com/images?q=tbn:ANd9GcRgtvXzzQV4u3na2pW6wAC8aZcADnt5H 09Drci6yzE8lNV4SJrC

Loorestan bronze in louvre:
http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/9/94/Luristan_Bronze_1.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/thumb/c/c5/Luristan_Bronze_2.jpg/1024px-Luristan_Bronze_2.jpg

http://www.anaviangallery.com/images/orange002.jpg



Anyone interested in further reading, should take a look at these two links:
http://greatermesopotamia.be/data/papers/2013-Overlaet-Luristan%20during-libre.pdf (Chapter excerpt on the loorestan cultures, from oxford handbook of history of ancient Iran)

Wiki-link:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lorest%C4%81n_bronze


I wonder if Lurs, Feyli kurds (I'm related to both the former and latter) and Laks are modern day representatives of these cultures. The areas which compose their homeland is roughly where these cultures came into being. According to Academic texts on Indo-Iranians, the pre-iranians least affected were, supposed to be from west-central and south-western iran. Who had definitive high-cultures and contact with other high-cultures(assyrians, babylonians, sumerians). What we know from the scant studies of lurs and haplogroups, is that R1b, J2 and J1 (signatures of neolithics) were present, while R1a1 was nearly absent. The region itself seems to be defined by rural pastoralists and rural famers. Baktiyaris( A sub-group of southern lurs) inhabit north-khuzestan and parts of lurestan, are the most typical examples of indo-iranian speaking pastoralists in west-iran. They're famous for their periodical immigration over the zagros mountains. They have a high frequency of J2, G F, K, and R1a1 is supposedly present.

From what I've seen of Lurs and Feyli Kurds aswell on admixture tests, is that they cluster south of other west-Iranians, like Azeris and Sorani speaking kurds. They also have fairly low northern euro scores on admixture tests, while higher south-Asian, Gedrosian, and Caucasus score(signatures of near-easterners) than their neighbors and cousins. All feylis had the paternal lineage of J1. It would be highly interesting if some of the skeletons found in these would be graves would be sequenced.