View Full Version : N9a Haplogroup

06-08-2014, 10:12 AM
Haplogroup N9a

Haplogroup N9a is characteristic of eastern Asian populations, where it is detected at a highest frequencies in Japan (4.6%), China (2.8%), Mongolia (2.1%) and Korea (3.9%) [8], [21], [32], [34]. Haplogroup N9a is rare in Taiwan (1.2%) and Island southeastern Asia (1.1%) [22], [30], but appears at greater frequencies in Mainland southeastern Asia (1.5–4.5%) [24], [33]. With the comparable frequencies this haplogroup is detected in several populations of northern (0.9%–4.6%) and central Asia (1.2–2.5%), but it is virtually absent in western and southern Asia [8], [32], [35], [36]. Interestingly, haplogroup N9a is rarely found in the Volga-Ural region Tatars (~1%) and Bashkirs (1.5%) as well as in some eastern Europeans, like Russians from southwestern Russia (1.5%) and Czechs (0.6%) [37]–[40].

In the current study we have reconstructed the phylogeny of haplogroup N9a based on 59 complete mtDNA genomes including ten newly sequenced samples and revised the classification of this haplogroup that was defined earlier as having seven main branches – N9a1'3; N9a2'4'5; N9a6–N9a10 [18]. Information from complete mtDNA sequencing reveals that Buryat sample (Br_623) and previously published Japanese sample (HNsq0240) from Tanaka et al. [21] share mutations at nps 11368 and 15090 and therefore belong to a rare N9a8 haplogroup (Figure S3). It should be noted that these two sequences showed deep divergence with each other being characterized by unique sets of seven and six mutations respectively. As follows from phylogenetic analysis data, our Barghut sample (Bt_81) shares transversions at nps 4668 and 5553 with two published Japanese samples [21] and therefore can be ascribed to a previously reported subcluster N9a2a3, Tatar sample (Tat_411G) which is identical to Japanese sample KAsq0018 [21] is a part of N9a2a2, Khamnigan (Khm_36) and Korean (Kor_87) mtDNAs belong to N9a1, whereas Korean (Kor_92) and Buryat (Br_433) variants can be identified as members of N9a3. Interestingly, Russian (Rus_BGII-19) and Czech (CZ_V-44) samples bearing transitions at nps 4913 and 12636 apparently belongs to a new subbranch N9a3a within haplogroup N9a3. Despite the low coalescence time estimates obtained for N9a3a (~1.3–2.3 kya) it is quite probable that its founder had been introduced into eastern Europe much earlier taking into account the age of a whole N9a3 estimated as 8–13 kya and the discovery of a N9a haplotypes in a Neolithic skeletons from several sites, located in Hungary and belonged to the Körös Culture and Alföld Linear Pottery Culture, which appeared in eastern Hungary in the early 8th millennium B.P. [41], [42].

Complete Mitochondrial DNA Analysis of Eastern Eurasian Haplogroups Rarely Found in Populations of Northern Asia and Eastern Europe (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0032179)

Analysis of mitochondrial mutations in the HVS-I region is an effective method for ancient human populational studies. Discontinuous haplotype data between the first farmers and contemporary Europeans has been described before. Our contribution is based on a survey initiated on the Neolithic skeletons from Hungarian archaeological sites in the Alföld. This Lowland, the Hungarian Plain, is well excavated as an important region for spread of Neolithic culture from Near East and Balkans toward Central and Western Europe, started circa 8000 years ago. HVS-I sequences from nt15977 to nt16430 of 11 such specimens with sufficient mitochondrial DNA preservation among an extended Neolithic collection were analysed for polymorphisms, identifying 23 different ones. After assigning all single-nucleotide polymorphisms, a novel, N9a, N1a, C5, D1/G1a, M/R24 haplogroups were determined. On mitochondrial control mutations at nt16257 and nt16261, polymorphic PCRs were carried out to assess their distribution in remains. Neolithic data set was compared with contemporary Vác samples and references, resulting in higher frequency of N9a in Alföld as a remarkable genetic discontinuity. Our investigation is the first to study mutations form Neolithic of Hungary, resulting in an outcome of Far Eastern haplogroups in the Carpathian Basin. It is worth further investigation as a non-descendant theory, instead of a continuous population history, supporting genetic gaps between ancient and recent human populations.

HVS-I polymorphism screening of ancient human mitochondrial DNA provides evidence for N9a discontinuity and East Asian haplogroups in the Neolithic Hungary (http://www.nature.com/jhg/journal/v56/n11/full/jhg2011103a.html)

N9a is a rare haplogroup, which having originated in East Asia about 23,000 years ago, later migrated westward into central Asia. The haplogroup is widespread in Asia today, but extremely rare. Though it may have arrived in East Asia prior to the spread of agriculture, its presence in Southeastern Asia may be the result of the spread of rice agriculture from China 10,000 years ago.


Bogratsky region, Abakano-Pérévoz I, burial [S36]
Blue or green eyes, blond or light brown hair, fair or medium skin
100–400 AD
16223T, 16257A, 16261T
Keyser 2009


Vác mummy 179

16223T, 16257A, 16261T, partial
Guba 2011


Women With Mitochondrial Haplogroup N9a Are Protected Against Metabolic Syndrome (http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org/content/56/2/518.long)

06-08-2014, 11:15 AM
We have a few N9a matches, most likely they are Ashkenazi, as iknow they have N9a in their genepool.

05-12-2019, 03:24 PM
We have a few N9a matches, most likely they are Ashkenazi, as iknow they have N9a in their genepool.

Same, I match paternally with an N9a3 woman who is half-Ashkenazi.

A lot has been written about East Asian influx into the Ashkenazi population, and I won't get into the details because it invaribly leads to discussion of the very controversial Khazarian theory.

05-12-2019, 04:56 PM
The above discussion of N9a's presence in Eastern Europe makes me think Ashkenazi N9a3 is a different story than Ashkenazi M33c (i.e., the former likely came via Slavic or Turkic admixture; the latter is a stranger case of direct far East Asian/Chinese admixture).