PDA

View Full Version : The genetic ancestry of African, Latino, and European Americans (23andme study)



Don Felipe
10-06-2014, 09:59 PM
Don't think this has been posted yet? Pretty large sample size B)

Link to paper (http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/early/2014/09/18/009340.full.pdf)
Link to supplement (http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/suppl/2014/09/18/009340.DC1/009340-1.pdf)


The genetic ancestry of African, Latino, and European Americans across the United States.

Katarzyna Bryc, Eric Durand, J Michael Macpherson, David Reich, Joanna Mountain

Over the past 500 years, North America has been the site of ongoing mixing of Native Americans, European settlers, and Africans brought largely by the Trans-Atlantic slave trade, shaping the early history of what became the United States. We studied the genetic ancestry of 5,269 self-described African Americans, 8,663 Latinos, and 148,789 European Americans who are 23andMe customers and show that the legacy of these historical interactions is visible in the genetic ancestry of present-day Americans. We document pervasive mixed ancestry and asymmetrical male and female ancestry contributions in all groups studied. We show that regional ancestry differences reflect historical events, such as early Spanish colonization, waves of immigration from many regions of Europe, and forced relocation of Native Americans within the US. This study sheds light on the fine-scale differences in ancestry within and across the United States, and informs our understanding of the relationship between racial and ethnic identities and genetic ancestry.


I'm just going to post some quotes/charts i found particularly interesting but there's much more if you read the whole paper/supplement.


*************AFRICAN AMERICANS**********************

Much was known already but still nice to see confirmation, good to keep in mind though that despite the huge sample size there might still be some sampling bias as also pointed out by the authors themselves. Also there's always individual variation, shown clearly in the distribution graphs.


Genome-wide ancestry estimates of African Americans show average proportions of 73.2% African, 24.0% European, and 0.75% Native American ancestry.



Unlike previous estimates of the mean proportion of African ancestry, which typically have ranged from 77% to 93% Africanancestry our estimates, depending on exclusions, are 73% or 75%. There are several possible explanations for our low mean African ancestry. If our ancestry composition estimates are were downward biased, then the African Americans may have similar levels of African ancestry consistent with other studies, and our results are simply underestimates. However, our ancestry composition estimates are extremely well calibrated for African Americans from the 1000 Genomes Project and their consensus estimates, and see no evidence of a downward bias




Even excluding individuals with no African ancestry, which are likely the result of survey errors, we still estimate a higher European, and corresponding lower African, mean genetic ancestry proportion in 23andMe African Americans compared to previous studies of African Americans. A significant difference between the 23andMe cohort of African Americans and many groups previously studied is geographic sampling location. Our cohort reflects heavier sampling from California and New York, likely driven by population density as well as awareness of genetic testing or 23andMe. Both are regions where African Americans have lower mean African ancestry than other studies of African Americans, which are often drawn from locations in the South. However, participation in 23andMe is not free and requires online access, therefore it is important to note that other social, cultural, or economic factors may interact to affect ancestry proportions of those individuals who choose to participate in 23andMe.


Notice there's a few self-identified African Americans with African ancestry being as low as 0-2%! I'm guessing there might also be some biracials included. On the other end the range also includes people of "pure" African ancestry in between 98-100%!


http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/DistributionSSApercentagesforAframs_zps2418c517.jp g~original







On average the highest levels of African ancestry are found in African Americans from the South, especially South Carolina and Georgia(Figure 1A). We find lower proportions of African ancestry in the Northeast, the Midwest, the Pacific Northwest and California.



http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/DistributionSSApercentagesforGAandDC_zpsacb2ace4.j pg~original



http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/Aframregions_zps81689e3a.jpg~original






Though mean estimates of Native American ancestry are low, many African Americans carry detectable levels of Native American ancestry. Over 5% of African Americans are estimated to carry at least 2% Native American ancestry genome-wide... Using a lower threshold of 1% Native American ancestry, we estimate that about 22% of African Americans carry some Native American ancestry, which implies that more than 1 in 5 African Americans may have a Native American ancestor in their genealogy within the last 11 generations.

Oklahoma shows the highest proportion of African Americans with substantial Native American ancestry, where over 14% of African Americans from Oklahoma carry at least 2% Native American ancestry.


http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/aa_zps4c31abac.jpg~original


This is probably the most surprising finding of the study and may also have implications on how African American feel about their minor European admixture.



A sex bias in African American ancestry, with greater male European and female Africancontributions, has been suggested through mtDNA, Y chromosome, and autosomal studies. Through comparison of estimates of X chromosome and genome-wide African and European ancestry proportions, we estimate that approximately 6% of ancestors of African Americans were European females, while 19% were European males. On average across African Americans, we estimate that the X chromosome has a 5% increase in African ancestry and 18% reduction in European ancestry relative to genome-wide estimates (see Table 1). Sex bias in ancestry contributions may have been driven by unbalanced sex ratios in immigration frontier settings, exploitation, or other social factors.




We find that our estimates of sex bias in ancestry contributions in African Americans, withgreater male European ancestry and greater female African contributions, support over three times as many European male ancestors as female European ancestors in African Americans. Sex bias in ancestry contributions has been suggested to stem from interactions with male European slave-owners and female African slaves. However, our estimates of admixture dates, with a mean admixture date of 4 generations, implies that the majority of admixture events between Europeans and African ancestry has taken place much more recently than 1865, and in particular, may have taken place after slavery. Taken together, these datapoints suggest that sex biased admixture may also reflect post-slavery social and cultural influences.






*************EUROPEAN AMERICANS**********************

Interesting outcomes, seem to correlate with known migration patterns pretty well and also the current self-identification of migrant origins among European Americans as shown in this map (http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/45/Census-2000-Data-Top-US-Ancestries-by-County.jpg)



Inferred British/Irish ancestry is found in European Americans from all states at mean proportions of above 20%, and represents a majority of ancestry, above 50% mean proportion, in states such as Missisippi, Arkansas, and Tennessee. We note that these states are similarly highlighted in the map of the self-reported “American” ethnicity in the US census survey1, which may reflect regions with lower subsequent migration from other parts of Europe.


Inferred Eastern European ancestry is found at its highest levels in Illinois, Michigan, and Pennsylvania, potentially stemming from immigration during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, settling in metropolitan areas in the Northeast and Midwest.

Inferred Iberian ancestry, found overall at lower mean proportions, still represents a measurable ancestry component in Florida, Louisiana, California, and Nevada, and may point to the early Spanish rule and colonization of the Americas.

Scandinavian ancestry in European Americans is highly localized; most states show only trace mean proportions of Scandinavian ancestry, while it comprises a significant proportion, upwards of 10%, of ancestry in European Americans from Minnesota and the Dakotas.


http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/Eurospecified1_zps18cf8c94.jpg~original

http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/Eurospecified2_zpsfb7ac0cd.jpg~original

http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/Eurospecified3_zpsb4c79ca3.jpg~original

http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/Eurospecified4_zps1a06eb36.jpg~original




Non-European admixture is detectable for only a small minority and seems to be at lower %'s than reported in previous studies


Though the majority of European Americans in our study did not carry Native American or African ancestry, even a small proportion of this large population that carry non-European ancestry translates into millions of European Americans who carry African and Native American ancestry. Our results suggest that the early US history, beginning in the 17th century (or around 12 generations ago), may have been a time of many population interactions resulting in admixture.


Applying these estimates to self-reported ethnicity data from the 2010 US Census suggests that over 6 million Americans, who self-identify as European, may carry African ancestry. Likewise, as many as 5 million Americans who self-identify as European may have at least 1% NativeAmerican ancestry.


Though the average levels of Native American ancestry are trace, if we examine the frequency with which European Americans carry at least 2% Native American ancestry, we see that Native American ancestry occurs most frequently in Louisiana, North Dakota, and other states in the West. We estimate that 4% of self-reported European Americans living in Louisiana and North Dakota carry segments of Native American ancestry.


We estimate that a substantial fraction, at least 1.4%, of self-reported European Americansin the US carry at least 2% African ancestry. Using a less conservative threshold, approximately 3.5% of European Americans have 1% or more African ancestry (Figure S9). Consistent with previous anecdotal results, the frequency of European American individuals who carry African ancestry varies strongly by state and region of the US (Figure 3A). In particular, individuals with African ancestry are found at much higher frequencies in states in the South than in other parts of the US: about 5% of self-reported European Americans living in South Carolina and Louisiana have at least 2% African ancestry. Lowering the threshold to at least 1% African ancestry (potentially arising from one African genealogical ancestor within the last 11 generations), European Americans with African ancestry comprise as much as 12% of European Americans from Louisiana and South Carolina and about 1 in 10 individuals in other parts of the South (Figure S9).


http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/ea_zpsa23021ef.jpg~original




*************LATINO AMERICANS**********************


Not much text on them but this quote seems to suggest they didn't find any strictly Zambo (Amerindian/African mixed) persons among their samples.


Latinos encompass nearly all possible combinations of African, Native American, and European ancestries, with the exception of individuals who have a mix of African and Native American ancestry without European ancestry.


This map seems to make sense given the concentration of Carribean Hispanics on the East Coast and mostly Mexicans on the West Coast and along the border. But not sure why Lousiana seems to have Latino's with the highest African %'s.

http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/latinos_zps8948775f.jpg~original



This is a very useful breakdown according to nationality as of course Latino's are not a single ethnicity. In fact each population is showing up as triracial to some degree but of course in varying proportions. Also fascinating how the selfidentified black Latino's actually are showing an average African ancestral contribution below 50%! Would have been nice if they had provided some more stats though like minimum and maximum value for each component to give a better indication of the range.


http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/Latnospecified_zps431ea391.jpg~original

Don Felipe
10-08-2014, 09:58 AM
In order to check how significant Amerindian & African admixture levels among European Americans might be they also compared with results for about 15.000 selfidentified (4GP) Europeans among their client database. When excluding Spain, Portugal and a couple of other countries it's hardly detectable though. They also found 21 Amerindian maternal haplogroups among their European samples :D But most of them in Spain.


To this end, we generated a cohort of 15, 289 23andMe customers who reported that all four of their grandparents were born in the same European country. The use of four grandparent birth-country has been utilized as a proxy for assessing ancestry, see for example 78, 79. We then examined ancestry composition results for these individuals, and calculated how at what rate we detected at least 1% African and at least 1% Native American ancestry. Overall, we find very low levels of African and Native ancestry, with 0.98% of Europeans showing African ancestry, and 0.26% of Europeans carry Native American ancestry. These levels are substantially lower than the 3.5% and 2.7% of European Americans that carry African and Native American ancestry, respectively.


Excluding countries that had major and minor ports in the Atlantic with strong connections to the slave trade (namely, Portugal, Spain, France, United Kingdom) and Malta, which has been the site of migrations from Africa and the Middle East (from Phoenicia and Carthage) and served as a major port since the completion of the Suez Canal. Excluding these countries, we obtain a dataset of 9, 701 Europeans, where we find African and Native American ancestry is virtually absent, with only 0.04% of individuals carrying 1% or more African ancestry, and 0.01% carrying 1% or more Native American ancestry, within the margins of survey error estimates


We find that the frequency of Native American haplogroups correlates with our estimates of genome-wide ancestry in European Americans and African Americans, and are found at appreciable fractions of individuals who are estimated to carry Native American ancestry. The frequencies of aplogroups are shown in Table S7. Furthermore, these haplogroups are virtually absent in individuals with four grandparents from a European country (21 individuals out of 15,651). Furthermore, the majority of these haplogroups are found in individuals from Spain, suggesting the possibility of geneflow returning from the Americas into Spain, which may also be reponsible for driving higher levels of genetic diversity in Europeans from the Iberian peninsula. Excluding Spain, overall Native American specific haplogroups are detected in less than 0.05% of individuals with four grandparents from Europe

http://i989.photobucket.com/albums/af18/oditous2/Amerindianmaternalhaplos_zps65972929.jpg~original

Táltos
10-08-2014, 02:06 PM
I like being able to see my state of Pennsylvania has some of the highest percentages of my known ancestry. :)

Pfeifer
02-15-2015, 09:53 PM
Interesting that 50 million Americans claim mostly German ancestry, but the average German admixture is quite small when compared to British an Iriish

Rick
02-15-2015, 10:11 PM
Interesting that 50 million Americans claim mostly German ancestry, but the average German admixture is quite small when compared to British an Iriish
Most of the English immigration to America was 12-14 generations back, whereas immigration from many other countries, including much of the German was much more recent. The main foundation of the US population was English, thanks to the big head start - a founder effect if you will. The others were more recent, more readily documented, more readily remembered, and thus self-reported on census forms. Back when it was easy to query ftdna and ysearch databases the English to german ratio of ydna origins was something like 5 to 1. Genealogists tend to know their ancestry back more than 2 or 3 generations. The vast majority of folk don't. I have a German great grandmother by the way, but this German ancestry business is a canard.

tamilgangster
02-16-2015, 01:08 AM
The latino ancestry is skewed to more european ancestry. 23 and me mostly has people from wealthier backgrounds, thus people with more european ancestry take them. For latin America its hard to get proper representitive samples, due to the genetic diversity. THere is no way the average central american is predominantly european.

Morges
03-27-2015, 01:45 AM
Most of the English immigration to America was 12-14 generations back, whereas immigration from many other countries, including much of the German was much more recent. The main foundation of the US population was English, thanks to the big head start - a founder effect if you will. The others were more recent, more readily documented, more readily remembered, and thus self-reported on census forms. Back when it was easy to query ftdna and ysearch databases the English to german ratio of ydna origins was something like 5 to 1. Genealogists tend to know their ancestry back more than 2 or 3 generations. The vast majority of folk don't. I have a German great grandmother by the way, but this German ancestry business is a canard.

Yes, altough the Germans had an important contribution to the Us nation as well.

Rick
03-27-2015, 02:14 AM
Agreed....

xKeleix
03-30-2015, 12:31 AM
The latino ancestry is skewed to more european ancestry. 23 and me mostly has people from wealthier backgrounds, thus people with more european ancestry take them. For latin America its hard to get proper representitive samples, due to the genetic diversity. THere is no way the average central american is predominantly european.

Which shouldn't come as a surprise and is actually mentioned as a possible reason in the text. It's no coincidence that every group mentioned has a greater European mean, though another possibility is that something is wrong with the method. That seems unlikely though, as 23andme has made revisions in the past, and as far as African admixture is concerned, it has gotten much better. I trust 23andme more than the other tests, though I do like parts of the Genographic Project's test.

Also, I'd bet money that the majority of biracials, or at least a good portion, claim black and fall within the African American category. It seems unlikely that that many black Americans would be 50% African. That degree of admixture is very apparent and I wouldn't say it's as common as what is truly representative of the population here in the mid-Atlantic.

MitchellSince1893
03-30-2015, 01:13 AM
Interesting that 50 million Americans claim mostly German ancestry, but the average German admixture is quite small when compared to British an Irish

According to the United States Historical Census Data Base-USHCDB (2002),

Populations in the American Colonies of 1775
Ancestry Percentage
English 48.7%
African 20.0%
Scots-Irish 7.8 %
German 6.9%
Scottish 6.6 %
Dutch 2.7%
French 1.4%
Swedish 0.6%
Other 5.3%
Note - If the Scottish and Ulster Scots
(known as Scotch-Irish) are added together they form 14.4%.


Estimated origin - 1790 United States Census
European American Ancestry only Percentage
English 60.9%
Scots-Irish/Scottish 14.3%
German 8.7%
Dutch/French/Swedish 5.4%
Irish 3.7%
Unidentifiable 7.0 %
Total 100%
African Americans were some 19.3% of the total U.S population.

Kabah
06-15-2017, 04:24 AM
The latino ancestry is skewed to more european ancestry. 23 and me mostly has people from wealthier backgrounds, thus people with more european ancestry take them. For latin America its hard to get proper representitive samples, due to the genetic diversity. THere is no way the average central american is predominantly european.


Why skewed? It seems it bothers some people specially White americans for Hispanics to have huge amounts of European ancestry 23andme does not ship to Latin America those Results are from Hispanics whose families come mostly from poor backgrounds thats why they are in the US

Speaking for Mexican americans they have roots from the most Euro admixed of Mexico

Genetically as a whole, northerners Western Mexican mestizos are at most 65% European. Genetically they are 62-65% Euro, 32-35% Amerind and 2-3% African or even 68%-70 Euro but those regions are barely 1/4 of Mexico population Central Mexican Mestizos are barely 50% European.
Most Mexican american Mestizos have roots in Mexico where the Southern European ancestry is predominant and thats what they been showing in there 23andme results which is not surprice to me.

crossover
06-15-2017, 06:26 AM
Why skewed? It seems it bothers some people specially White americans for Hispanics to have huge amounts of European ancestry 23andme does not ship to Latin America those Results are from Hispanics whose families come mostly from poor backgrounds thats why they are in the US

Speaking for Mexican americans they have roots from the most Euro admixed of Mexico

Genetically as a whole, northerners Western Mexican mestizos are at most 65% European. Genetically they are 62-65% Euro, 32-35% Amerind and 2-3% African or even 68%-70 Euro but those regions are barely 1/4 of Mexico population Central Mexican Mestizos are barely 50% European.
Most Mexican american Mestizos have roots in Mexico where the Southern European ancestry is predominant and thats what they been showing in there 23andme results which is not surprice to me.

i think that study was done several years ago, because now the average range of amerindian in mexican americans is between 30-46%. and i've seen mexican americans get higher than 46% before

Kabah
06-15-2017, 08:23 AM
i think that study was done several years ago, because now the average range of amerindian in mexican americans is between 30-46%. and i've seen mexican americans get higher than 46% before


46% Native american yeah is not impossible for a Mexican american Mexicans living in Mexico are more European less native than the Mexican americans


Mexico has a lot regions where "mestizos" are very European but all those pred Euro regions of Mexico are like 40% of Population of Mexico Northern Eastern Mexico is extremly European like 78% European admixture i thoutg it was ridicolous but yeah people wee indeed around the range when i traveled there.


Mexico city and Southern areas are very amerindian like 65%+ on average.

geebee
06-15-2017, 09:10 AM
Interesting that 50 million Americans claim mostly German ancestry, but the average German admixture is quite small when compared to British an Iriish

That's partly because 23andMe is better at detecting British & Irish than it is French & German. For the former, the numbers for precision and recall were 0.90 and 0.39 -- meaning that 90% of the time an ancestry was identified as British & Irish in their test runs, that's actually what it was; but only 39% of British & Irish ancestry was actually found, even when it was known to exist.

By contrast, precision and recall for French and German were 0.78 and 0.08. So nearly a quarter of the time an ancestry was identified as French & German, it actually wasn't; and known French & German ancestry was only detected 8% of the time!

In addition, I know the "50 million Americans claim mostly German ancestry" has been widely reported, but that isn't exactly right. In 1990 and 2000, people were directed to put down their ancestry -- or actually, they could report up to two ancestries. What that means is that if someone was aware that they had some German ancestry, even if it wasn't their only or even their primary ancestry, they were allowed to put that.

So all we really know is that 50 million Americans claim to have some German ancestry. In my case, I may very well have more British ancestry than German, despite having an Americanized German surname. But I don't believe my British ancestry is over 50%. 23andMe says 43.5% British & Irish, while Ancestry says 25% British Isles and 9% Irish. I also have a whole bunch of other ancestries. Since the census limited me to naming two, it made sense for me to put both British and German.

And how would the census have reported this, as a half for each? No, actually they would have put "1" in the "British" column, and "1" in the "German" column. They did not even try to figure out proportions for those who put down more than one ancestry. (They couldn't have done so, since they didn't even ask for proportions.)

EDIT: It's interesting how differently ancestries are reported for me at 23andMe versus Ancestry. As I mentioned, 23andMe says I have 43.5% British & Irish. They only report 22.4% French & German, but keep in mind how lousy their recall is for French & German.

Ancestry says -- again, as I previously noted -- that I have 25% British Isles and 9% Irish. That's a combined total of just 34%. At the same time, they report 44% for something they call Europe West -- which seems pretty close to what 23andMe is calling French & German.

So when did my ancestors actually arrive in America? Another poster mentioned that folks with British ancestry may go back 12 generations, which I don't believe is necessarily true for most. On my surname line I certainly can't do that with my German ancestry, since my 5th great grandfather didn't get to America until 1749.
That makes me only an 8th generation American on that line.

Of course, some of my other German ancestors arrived even earlier. In fact, I believe I have a couple of German ancestors who settled among the Dutch in New Amsterdam or New Holland prior to 1700.

As far as I can tell, though, my earliest European ancestors to arrive on this continent settled in French Canada. The earliest of them arrived prior to 1650, since I have ancestors who were born in French Canada earlier than that. Some of the French Canadians later migrated to the Gulf coast. At least one of them married -- well, father a child with -- a Native American woman, and I'm basically part of that group of "self-identified Europeans from Louisiana".

I'm not actually from Louisiana; but part of my ancestry was. Or more precisely, from French colonial Louisiana, which included what is now southern Mississippi, which is where the maternal side of my mother's family was from.

This part of my ancestry may be slightly over-represented in my DNA, thanks to the number of cousin marriages. The closest was between 1st cousins once removed, but there were several marriages between 2nd cousins.

In fact, my great grandmother married her 2nd cousin. But, she ended up divorcing him for desertion, and my great grandfather is her second husband. To the best of my knowledge, they were not related. However, both of their fathers did immigrate, along with their parents and siblings, from the same 30-mile long Mediterranean island of Minorca. I don't think their families knew each other, but I can't really know what connections there might have been back in Spain.

My grandmother took things a step further and married a man who was from at least two states away; and then my mother really broke with tradition, and married a Yankee from Pennsylvania!

crossover
06-15-2017, 02:30 PM
46% Native american yeah is not impossible for a Mexican american Mexicans living in Mexico are more European less native than the Mexican americans


Mexico has a lot regions where "mestizos" are very European but all those pred Euro regions of Mexico are like 40% of Population of Mexico Northern Eastern Mexico is extremly European like 78% European admixture i thoutg it was ridicolous but yeah people wee indeed around the range when i traveled there.


Mexico city and Southern areas are very amerindian like 65%+ on average.

well my mexican born grandma got 43% amerindian on ftdna myorigins 2.0 (and 45% on dna.land) and she is from jerez, zacatecas(which is like north-central mexico).i've seen one mexican american with one parent predominantly of north mexican origin and the other from silao, guanajuato who got 52% amerindian, and another who has recent anctral origins in zacatecas and san luis potosi who got 72% amerindian(not sure if this person was born in Mexico or USA)

lilac9
06-15-2017, 05:56 PM
Why skewed? It seems it bothers some people specially White americans for Hispanics to have huge amounts of European ancestry 23andme does not ship to Latin America those Results are from Hispanics whose families come mostly from poor backgrounds thats why they are in the US

Speaking for Mexican americans they have roots from the most Euro admixed of Mexico

Genetically as a whole, northerners Western Mexican mestizos are at most 65% European. Genetically they are 62-65% Euro, 32-35% Amerind and 2-3% African or even 68%-70 Euro but those regions are barely 1/4 of Mexico population Central Mexican Mestizos are barely 50% European.
Most Mexican american Mestizos have roots in Mexico where the Southern European ancestry is predominant and thats what they been showing in there 23andme results which is not surprice to me.

I am not Mexican but I totally agree with you. I am by no means a wealthy Puerto Rican. These are just middle-class Puerto Ricans that are being sampled like me. I am 78% Euro, 9% Native and 9% African with North Africa at 1.4% and Ashkenazi Jewish at 1.5% and 2.4% unassigned at 23andme. I am not the whitest Puerto Rican nor am I the darkest. The truth is that Latinos in general vary very much in how admixed they are. I have seen Puerto Ricans with more admixture than me and others with less admixture than me. So those averages for Puerto Ricans seem very much in line with the "average" PR. I don't think there is anything that you can call an "average" PR since there is so much variation. Also different areas of PR have more admixture than others. If you only go to a town called Loiza you will conclude incorrectly that all PR's are African because that town was specifically created by African slaves. If you go to the west coast, you will see that most PR's are like my composition.

If a small island like Puerto Rico can vary so much in admix, imagine such a big country as Mexico.

ArmandoR1b
06-15-2017, 07:03 PM
Averages, min, max, sample sizes, and source of samples are all important details. The nice thing about admixture graphs is that each individual in a sample set is represented by an individual line, which can be seen by each spike, but at the same time averages can be estimated for the whole sample set and sample sets are larger than anecdotal results that get mentioned at times. So the Moreno-Estrada et al. 2014 (http://science.sciencemag.org/content/344/6189/1280.full) study of over 1000 individuals representing 20 indigenous and 11 mestizo populations in Mexico is really nice.


B Global
ancestry proportions at K = 3 (top) and K = 9 (bottom) estimated
with ADMIXTURE, including African, European, Native Mexican, and
cosmopolitan Mexican samples (tables S1 and S2). From left to right,
Mexican populations are displayed north-to-south.

https://i.imgur.com/7gPbGSp.png

https://i.imgur.com/XZa2ONi.png

ArmandoR1b
06-15-2017, 07:13 PM
Figure 10 of the Supplementary file (https://www.nature.com/article-assets/npg/ncomms/2017/170207/ncomms14238/extref/ncomms14238-s1.pdf) of the 2017 AncestryDNA study (https://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14238?error=cookies_not_supported) just provides averages which doesn't give an idea of min and max amounts of ethnicities of individuals. They do have a really good sample size though but birth locations of Mexicans aren't mentioned even though the region of their ancestry is.

https://i.imgur.com/kE9gBLH.png

http://i.imgur.com/wcgzrsW.png

http://i.imgur.com/FK1EIZA.png

http://i.imgur.com/YnitZgs.png

goradd
07-17-2017, 03:51 AM
46% Native american yeah is not impossible for a Mexican american Mexicans living in Mexico are more European less native than the Mexican americans


Mexico has a lot regions where "mestizos" are very European but all those pred Euro regions of Mexico are like 40% of Population of Mexico Northern Eastern Mexico is extremly European like 78% European admixture i thoutg it was ridicolous but yeah people wee indeed around the range when i traveled there.


Mexico city and Southern areas are very amerindian like 65%+ on average.

I was born in the US, but my grandparents were born in Northeastern Mexico and My DNA results showed me to be 46% Native American. My father who was also born in the US showed similar results...so it is possible

JDay
07-18-2017, 05:52 AM
Interesting to me that Cuban-Americans are significantly more European than other Hispanic American groups. My guess is that the average person in Cuba would have at least twice the percentage of African ancestry than a Cuban-American would.

Trixster
08-28-2017, 10:28 PM
Interesting to me that Cuban-Americans are significantly more European than other Hispanic American groups. My guess is that the average person in Cuba would have at least twice the percentage of African ancestry than a Cuban-American would.

Yes. My family averages roughly 4% African and 8% Amerindian with the rest being European plus several other groups. Not sure where we fall in the spectrum for US Cubans. But most white identified Cubans are from my experience highly European. Some are 100%.

I love my culture. It's pretty varied.

Dream
09-11-2017, 03:05 AM
There's a New Mexico heritage web site that shows that those in NM who identify as Hispanic, Spanish or New Mexican are above 70% European and under 30% Native American (African is commonly 1-2 percent at most). Whereas those who identified with labels like Mexican-American, Mexican or Latino had closer to 60% European and 40% Native (sometimes 4% African). I suspect those are more recent immigrants from Mexico whereas the former group have colonial roots in NM.

It may seem a minor difference, but when it comes to identity, apparently when mixed people hit about 70-75% or so of one racial groups then that's how they identify (not as mixed). NM families having a strong Spanish / European identity is not surprising then. They don't identify much if at all with their Native roots, as the mixing happened hundreds of years ago and then those with a Spanish identity just kept intermarrying. Lumping all NM Hispanics with Mexicans becomes problematic then....Some are from old colonial era families, but others are more recent transplants from Mexican. The Native American heritage may differ in these groups too. I'm not surprised my mtDNA is a Native American type strongly associated with SouthWest USA tribes and not indigenous Mexicans.

I'll be honest though, 23andme attributed about twice as much Native American DNA to me than I would've guessed. I got 12% and my New Mexican grandma got 22% (and my grandma is probably the same as my grandma as he is from NM too and probably distantly related to her, haha). People never think we are Mexican (well, we technically aren't...) because we take after the Southern European heritage in our looks, so it was surprising to see it come back that high. Of course, I have met Mexicans with a white appearance too, and yes, they're usually from the North.

Anyhow is there any possibility 23andme overestimates Native American ancestry?
If it's sampling modern populations and so many Native Americans are heavily mixed with European, how is that sorted out? They say the use people from non-colonial nations with all four grandparents being the same background, but that's pretty much impossible for Native Americans in many regions....