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V-X
11-03-2015, 09:10 AM
Lunulae are considered to be something akin to a priestly pectoral that would be passed on to the next incumbent of a role, perhaps religious. In this they are distinct from torcs which were personal and people were buried wearing them.

Though it could just as well be evidence for a development in the religion. Either way it looks like torcs are a later version of lunulae. They just look so similar.

Jean M
11-03-2015, 01:34 PM
Either way it looks like torcs are a later version of lunulae. They just look so similar.

Not really. Lunulae cannot have been worn in the same way as torcs. The latter have an opening at the front and fit around the neck. The lunula would have stuck out horizontally from the back of the neck if worn like that! Here is a chap wearing a replica lunula.

6514

Here is the Dying Gaul wearing a torc: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dying_Gaul#/media/File:Dying_GaulDSCF6738.jpg

Jean M
11-03-2015, 01:38 PM
Archaeology session, 2nd speaker:
Peter Bray (Oxford): Biographies or prosopographies: narratives of metal movement and use in 3rd Millennium BC Atlantic Europe

The key point of this lecture was that metallurgists had spent a long time trying simply to identify the source of the ore used in metal objects. However metal gets recycled. As it is re-smelted it can change its chemical composition. So one can follow the “histories” of metal objects.
[For the technical details, it would be best to await publication, as I could not note them fast enough. Below are just a few points of interest to me, which I cannot guarantee to be completely accurate.]

Copper and Bronze

Ross Island copper has a recognisable chemical composition. It includes arsenic, but also trace amounts of antimony, silver and cobalt. [See O'Brien, W. 2004. Ross Island: Mining, Metal and Society in Early Ireland (Bronze Age Studies 6.) Galway: National University of Ireland, Department of Archaeology.]
Iberia is full of arsenic-copper ore. [The use of arsenic to harden copper is characteristic of the metallurgy that stemmed from the Caucasus and was taken up by Yamnaya. So metal-prospectors could have been particularly keen on locating arsenic-copper ores.]
In Britain, daggers of this period are half from Ross Island copper and half from Iberic copper. Personal objects moved across the Channel.
There was a flow of metal from the Alps north to Scandinavia.
Britain was the first place (in Europe?) to move completely to the use of tin-bronze in place of copper. [Is this from C. F. E. Pare 2000?].


Gold

A huge number of gold objects have been metallurgically analysed, creating a massive dataset.
An element of tin is indicative of British and Irish gold.
An element of platinum is indicative of Iberian gold.


Question time
Prof. Kristiansen mentioned cases in Scandinavia where copper and tin were brought in separately and mixed on the site.

V-X
11-03-2015, 01:44 PM
Not really. Lunulae cannot have been worn in the same way as torcs. The latter have an opening at the front and fit around the neck. The lunula would have stuck out horizontally from the back of the neck if worn like that! Here is a chap wearing a replica lunula.

6514

Here is the Dying Gaul wearing a torc: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dying_Gaul#/media/File:Dying_GaulDSCF6738.jpg

Yes you are right, when he is wearing it then it looks more Egyptian than torc-like.

Krefter
11-03-2015, 02:10 PM
List of Bronze Age hoards in Great Britain (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Bronze_Age_hoards_in_Great_Britain)
List of Iron Age hoards in Great Britain (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Iron_Age_hoards_in_Great_Britain)

There are lots of Torcs and most are made with some gold. Unetice had Torcs.

Jean M
11-03-2015, 04:21 PM
Archaeology session: last speakers
Kerri Cleary & Catriona Gibson (CAWCS): Beaker to Early Bronze Age burial in Atlantic Europe: questions of shared ideologies?

There was so little time for this lecture that Gibson gabbled her way through her section with barely a pause for breath. I managed to note very little.

Diversity of burial contexts in Iberia (Gibson)
Recent work reveals the diversity of burial contexts. She used Perdigões as an example of Portuguese enclosures. It is a multiple concentric ditched enclosure. Inner ditches 3200-3000 BC; outer ditches 2300-2100 BC. There are anthropomorphic figurines in ivory and stone. [See A. C. Valera and Lucy S. Evangelista, Anthropomorphic figurines at Perdigões Enclosure: naturalism, body proportion and canonical posture as forms of ideological language, European Journal of Archaeology, 17(2), 2014: 286-300 and A.C. Valera et al., Ivory in the Chalcolithic enclosure of Perdigões (South Portugal): the social role of an exotic raw material, World Archaeology, 47 (3) 2015: 390-413 and http://portugueseenclosures.blogspot.co.uk/]

6515


Hypogeum in ditched enclosures.
Tholos tombs
At Porto Torrão, Beja is a mega site, with human remains in the lower ditch-fills. Now seen as deliberate deposits.
Iberia has a greater individualisation in burials in the Bronze Age, not the Bell Beaker period.


Ireland (Cleary)

Early Continental Bell Beakers appear just before 2400 BC, mainly in settlements. It is rare to find actual Bell Beaker pottery in burials. The burial rite is approximately 50% cremation.
There are burials in older monuments, continuing Neolithic practices. Fourknocks II Meath: a re-used Middle Neolithic passage tomb.
Classical Bell Beaker inhumation in Ireland starts c. 2200 BC.


Conclusions (Gibson)

Gibson goes for the idea of a cultural melting pot as Bell Beaker came in contact with Corded Ware in the Rhine region. [Proposed e.g. by Humphrey Case in Czebrezuk (ed.), Similar but Different: Bell Beakers in Europe (2004). What this otherwise astute scholar failed to see was that the influences on eastern BB were not CW but Mako etc from the Carpathian Basin. Very clear in the “accompanying pottery”.] She sees this melting pot as the possible source of Celtic [But Proto-Celtic developed either close to Italic or from a common ancestor with same.].

From 2200 BC there was more standardization in Bell Beaker, possibly in association with the development of tin-bronze. Influences north to south in Ireland and from Scotland (?) to Galicia.

Jean M
11-05-2015, 04:22 PM
Linguistics session

Peter R. Kitson: Movements of great waters and the genesis of Indo-European
[A place-name scholar, formerly of the University of Birmingham. He hasn't published much since the 1990s. He provided a handout, with a full page of references, so I merely scribbled a sentence or two on the back of it. I omit here his ideas on the PIE homeland which are lunatic fringe.]

Certain hydronyms in Britain (such as Humber, Thame and Derwent) were taken over by Celtic-speakers from a previous IE language, Alteuropaisch. It probably took millennia to replace earlier non-IE names with IE ones. He believes that Bell Beaker people brought Alteuropaisch to Britain. [Thus far he was in agreement with Blood of the Celts, but I date this to early BB in Britain, and propose that Celtic arrived a couple of centuries later with eastern BB via the Rhine route.]

John T. Koch & Fernando Fernández Palacios (CAWCS): Some third-millennium questions: PIE > PC — where? when? how?
[Although two speakers are named, only Prof. Koch spoke. The slides included a number from the set in the Mini-Library as Koch 2015, some of the most interesting of which I quote below.]

Recent ancient DNA discoveries are consistent with a Pontic-Caspian Indo-European (IE) homeland. Bell Beaker originated in the Tagus area c. 2800/2750 BC and spread out of Iberia with a subsequent reflux.

Atlantic Europe in the Metal Ages (AEMA) project has explored the archaeological and linguistic evidence for the formation of the Celtic branch of IE. Was Celtic integrated with BB from the start or the result of a collision with Yamnaya on the Hungarian Plain and/or Corded Ware?

Claims that Celtic is closest to the ancient pre-IE languages of Iberia (which he sees as Iberian and Basque): loss of initial 'p'; five rather than four vowels. [See discussion below or Blood of the Celts, p. 95 for a problem with this.]

Soles of feet appear on Iberian anthropomorphic stelae. [Also feature in Yamnaya stelae.]

Hispano-Celtic preserves the Western European word for bow and/or arrow. The word was generally lost in the other Celtic languages. Prof. Koch thought he had made this discovery himself, until he found that Syr John Rhŷs said this over a century ago.


The name Arquius probably meant one who had to do with a bow, that is to say, an archer, and was derived from a Celtic word cognate with Latin arquus and arcus, a bow or arch ..
Arrows and archery wrist guards were essential components of the Beaker package of Copper Age western Europe and north Morocco. After the Early Bronze Age, there is little trace of archery in later prehistoric Britain or Ireland. It is thus not surprising that the vocabulary for archery consists of later borrowings in the attested Insular Celtic languages: MIr. boga and Welsh bwa from Old Norse, Oir. saiget ‘arrow’, Welsh saeth from Latin.

As Parker Pearson (2005, 28) has argued, this gap can be explained as an effect of the rise of the ‘pan-European warrior cult’ (during the Middle Bronze Age), which valued hand-to-hand engagements between high-status combatants and equipment suitable for such activity: leather shields, leather armour, spears, rapiers, and later swords.

Archery survived in Iberia. Thus exceptionally, in the Iberian Peninsula, bows and arrows are one of the recurrent motifs of the Late Bronze Age warrior stelae, where they occur together with other items of the high-status warrior’s panoply: shields, spears, swords, helmets, chariots, brooches, mirrors, combs (Harrison 2004, 144, 146).

Alteuropaisch place-names appear in Iberia as elsewhere – this language represents Late PIE at the stage of entropy. [I like this definition.]

He presented his usual case for the corpus of inscriptions in the South-Western Palaeohispanic script being written in a Celtic language. This drew a protest from Fernando Fernández in the following discussion, as this lecture was supposed to be a joint effort, and he does not subscribe to Koch's view on the matrix language. Both are agreed that Celtic personal names are embedded in these inscriptions. [So it doesn't really matter what the matrix language is. The evidence remains of Celts in the vicinity.]

Jean M
11-05-2015, 04:26 PM
Closing discussion led by Barry Cunliffe (Oxford)

Kristian Kristiansen brought up the recent new evidence for the El Argar culture as intrusive – a colonisation from the Aegean following the collapse there. [He did not elaborate, but he presumably had the same idea as myself that this could be the origin of the Iberes, who appear to be a linguistic intrusion into a previously IE territory on the eastern coast of Spain.] Koch responded that he thinks the IE substrate in the territory of the Iberes has been exaggerated, but admitted that it is there.

Someone said that Peter Schriver does not think that South-Western Palaeohispanic is Celtic. Loss of initial 'p' is found in other languages.

Sir Barry put a question to the hall: some people think that IE arrived with the Neolithic*; some think it arrived from the steppe in the Copper Age; why could it not be both? I broke my vow to remain silent and told him two reasons, both linguistic:

Languages do not stand still. A language does not remain the same for thousands of years. So you cannot have the same language in two different places millennia apart. Tried to refer to Pereltsvaig, A. and Lewis, M. 2015. The Indo-European Controversy: Facts and Fallacies in Historical Linguistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. But had forgotten both author and title!
There is a non-IE agricultural substrate in Germanic and other languages such as Greek i.e. farming words were absorbed by Indo-European languages. This had been mentioned earlier by Kristian Kristiansen. One obvious place for this to happen was Funnel Beaker when Corded Ware came in over it. [This is evidence that the IE linguistic layer was superimposed over the Neolithic languages of Europe, which were completely unrelated. A similar thing happened in Asia, with Proto-Indo-Iranian borrowing words related to irrigation farming from an otherwise unrelated language, presumed to be that of the Bactria–Margiana Archaeological Complex].


[* The number of modern linguists who support Colin Renfrew's hypothesis on the Indo-European homeland can be counted on the fingers of one badly-mutilated hand. His fall-back position when under attack is a face-saving compromise in which IE moves from Anatolia to the steppe with farmers and then from there in the Copper Age. This is no more acceptable to linguists than his first proposition. PIE has early links to Uralic and none at all to the non-IE languages of Anatolia such as Hurrian, which can be presumed to be Neolithic.]

Summing up by Sir Barry. All I recall him saying is that thinking on the Indo-Europeans had been led by linguists in the first place, as was proper, then led by archaeologists for a comparatively short time, and now genetics was taking over as the lead discipline. Or words to that effect.

Jean M
11-12-2015, 05:14 PM
The British Museum has teamed up with Google to make available online Celtic Life in Iron Age Britain: A British Museum exhibition of Iron Age objects from across the UK: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/exhibit/celtic-life-in-iron-age-britain/CAKSz1O9u3piJg

Heber
11-13-2015, 08:48 AM
The British Museum has teamed up with Google to make available online Celtic Life in Iron Age Britain: A British Museum exhibition of Iron Age objects from across the UK: https://www.google.com/culturalinstitute/exhibit/celtic-life-in-iron-age-britain/CAKSz1O9u3piJg

I got as far as the front door and no further. I will try again later to see if it gives access to the Celts exhibit.

http://www.breakingnews.ie/business/google-street-view-lets-anyone-tour-the-british-museum-from-their-computer-705359.html

Jean M
11-13-2015, 11:33 AM
I got as far as the front door and no further. I will try again later to see if it gives access to the Celts exhibit.

It is working fine for me.