View Full Version : E-M81 North African Clade

02-02-2015, 05:22 AM
E-M81 a subclade of E-M35

1) E-M81 does not date back to the Paleolithic period. TMRCA dates this lineage to 5.6 kya as per Cruciani et al. 2004. Semino et al 2004 dates it to 8.6 +/-2.4kya.

2)E-M81 shows up in high frequency in Berber North Africans but not North African Arabs. For example, Moroccan Arabs have E-M81 at ~23% ,Algerian Arabs ~45% , and Arab Tunisians at ~27.6%(Reguig et al 2014).

3)E-M81 is found in the Middle East among Lebanese 1.2–2.4%, Turkish 2.5–8.7%, Bedouins ~3.6%, and Sephardic Jews ~5%.

4) In European populations E-M81 is visible in Spain 1.6–5.3%, with the exception of Pasiegos 18% and Cantabrian non-Lebaniego 17% as per Maca-Meyer et al. 2003. The contribution in Southern Europe is thought to be at a recent arrival via Moorish period of Islamic Expansion. E-M81 is visible in Portugal, Madeira and Acores at a rate of 5-8%. Di Gaetano et al. 2009 estimated a contribution of 6% in the Sicilian gene pool

5) E-M81 ancestor is E-M35 (whose ancestor is E-M215 24kya) is dated to ~22-18 kya. It's sister clade E-M78 is posited to originate in Egypt and is dated to ~17kya.


A northeastern African origin for haplogroup E-M78 implies that E-M215 chromosomes were introduced in northeastern Africa from eastern Africa in the Upper Paleolithic, between 23.9 ky ago (the upper bound for E-M215 TMRCA in eastern Africa) and 17.3 ky ago (the lower bound for E-M78 TMRCA here estimated, fig. 1).

6) Although it is rare in the East Africa it shows up in Sudanese at ~5%,Egyptians at ~9.5% and Somalis at ~1.5% as per Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014 (http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1052&context=humbiol_preprints) .

7) In West African Sahelian countries it shows up at a frequency of Maurentania 55.6%,Mali 29.5% and Niger 9% as per Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014 (http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1052&context=humbiol_preprints) .


8) E-M81 has 2 rare descendant subclades E-M107 (which I believe is found in Mali) and E-M165. Both of these subclades are extremely rare.Its other subclade M183 shows up in Moroccans at ~65 - 83%.


9) E-M81 peaks in Southern Moroccan Berbers at a rate of ~98.1%,Central Moroccan Berbers ~89.8%,North Moroccan Berbers ~79.1%, and Mozabite Algerians ~80%.In conclusion North African Arabs show a decreased frequency of E-M81.


Ahmed Reguig et al. 2014 (http://digitalcommons.wayne.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1052&context=humbiol_preprints)

02-02-2015, 06:00 AM
E-M81 is found in the Western Desert of in Egypt area El-Hayez at a rate of 28% (Kujanova et al. 2009) and found in France at 2.70%(Cruciani et al. 2004).

E-M81 has no implication of back migration from the Near East into North Africa. The time period of ~5.6kya - 8.0 kya can be linked to Neolithic expansion of Proto-Afro-Asiatic.

02-07-2015, 06:58 AM
Here is another study chart pertaining to the frequency of E-M81 in North Africa as per H Ennafaa.

H.Ennafaa - ‎2011

TABLE S6. Y chromosome haplogroup frequencies (%) for Tunisian rural ,urban and total sample and for nearby regions.



Here is the rate of E-M81 found in Algeria as per Asmahan Bekada et al. 2013.


Asmahan Bekada et al 2013.

E-M81 frequencies in Algeria [44.2%) are still significantly higher [p<0.0001) than in Egypt [11.9%). These results confirm that for both uniparental markers, Egypt and to a lesser extent Libya stand out sharply from the Maghreb [16], [27].

It's possible that E-M81 diverged from its parent E-M78 in Egypt and eventually made its way to NorthWest Africa around the Souss-Massa-Draa region of Morocco.Either it became the dominate male lineage in the region or there weren't that much inhabitants in the region, so the original carriers of X haplogroup of Y-DNA would of been overrun and become replaced by the E-M81. Although E-M81 is not the only SAP we found there it is the most dominate in Morroco and some Northwest Berber populations. I would suppose this is why E-M81 is prominent among the Berber regions of Northwest Africa today.

Here is a map of human migrations.


10-31-2015, 08:10 PM
Rounded age (ybp) estimated by Yfull (as of October 2015):

− E1b1b1 23,900
− E-Z827 23,600
− E-L19 13,900
− E-M81 2,700

11-01-2015, 03:03 AM
I don't think E-M81 in Iberia has to do with islamic period, since there is no correlation with historical events, for example South-East Spain has less E-M81 than Galicia or Cantabria. The gradient in Iberia is East-West, rather than North-South

11-01-2015, 01:52 PM
Only the Y full sequences (NGS) complete structure of E-M81 SNPs in Iberia and North Africa will be able to answer about the chronology of E-M81 in Iberia. I think the Roman conquest of Western Iberia was a violent process with an established South-North frontier of occupation and destruction. Who were the Roman troops fighting for centuries against the Lusitanians and Gallaecis tribes ? Where the Roman troops were recruited and obviously some settled there after the Roman conquest ? The Muslim Arab and Moor conquest of Western Iberia was a very rapid and easy operation in contrast to the long and difficult advance of the Roman frontier along several centuries. So some of the E-M81 could be related more to the Roman operations with Northern African and former Punic and Carthagenians mercenaries and troops than the posterior Islamic fast conquest.

03-21-2016, 07:31 PM
MY FREIND IS E-M81 .the 111 markers of my freind are :DYS393 DYS390 DYS19** DYS391 DYS385 DYS426 DYS388 DYS439 DYS389I DYS392 DYS389II***
13 24 14 9 13-14 11 12 11 14 11 30.
DYS458 DYS459 DYS455 DYS454 DYS447 DYS437 DYS448 DYS449 DYS464.
20 9-9 11 12 23 14 20 32 14-15-16-17
11 11 20-22 15 13 18 25 35-39 12 10
DYS531 DYS578 DYF395S1 DYS590 DYS537 DYS641 DYS472 DYF406S1 DYS511
10 8 15-15 8 11 10 8 10 10
DYS425 DYS413 DYS557 DYS594 DYS436 DYS490 DYS534 DYS450 DYS444 DYS481 DYS520 DYS446
0* 21-22 18 11 12 12 16 7 12 27 18 13
DYS617 DYS568 DYS487 DYS572 DYS640 DYS492 DYS565
13 12 14 11 11 11 11
DYS710 DYS485 DYS632 DYS495 DYS540 DYS714 DYS716 DYS717
34 15 8 12 11 22 28 19
DYS505 DYS556 DYS549 DYS589 DYS522 DYS494 DYS533 DYS636 DYS575 DYS638
12 12 12 11 11 9 11 11 10 11
DYS462 DYS452 DYS445 Y-GATA-A10 DYS463 DYS441 Y-GGAAT-1B07 DYS525
12 29 12 12 18 14 13 11
DYS712 DYS593 DYS650 DYS532 DYS715 DYS504 DYS513 DYS561 DYS552
20 16 18 14 24 15 11 16 26
DYS726 DYS635 DYS587 DYS643 DYS497 DYS510 DYS434 DYS461 DYS435
15 21 23 12 14 17 9 13 11
after this results of the markers what s the subclade under E-M81 THAT IT HAS THE GREAT PROBABILITY PLEASE ؟CAN IT BE Z011؟