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ChrisR
04-14-2015, 11:50 AM
This is a new thread based on the discussion that did begin in the "Genetic Genealogy and Ancient DNA in the News" thread with

I'm not sure if anyone has posted about this before. The paper is in Dutch, so I have very little idea of the details, but it looks like they are Merovingian graves dating back to the 6th-7th centuries in Borgharen, the Netherlands. A Roman villa was found on the same site. Two male samples produced Y-STR predicted results of J2a1b and J2b. Haplogroup J2 combined makes up only 2.7% of modern male samples. Hopefully a Dutch speaker can give us some clarity...

https://www.academia.edu/10159018/Het_Merovingisch_grafveld_in_R.C.G.M._Lauwerier_an d_J.W._De_Kort_2014_Merovingers_in_een_villa_2._Ro meinse_villa_en_Merovingisch_grafveld_Borgharen_-_Pasestraat._Onderzoek_2012._Amersfoort_Rapportage _Archeologische_Monumentenzorg_222_211-220

Interesting information is collected in the j2-m172.info page:
Three J2 found at Merovingian buriel site (Roman-Frankish transitional period) (http://j2-m172.info/2015/04/three-j2-found-at-merovingian-buriel-site-roman-frankish-transitional-period/)
Latest discussion:
Why are the authors so certain that the buried men where descendants of the Roman era people? Could they not also be invaders that claimed the area as well as all the items and wealth of previous inhabitants? This question arises because of the Avar items.


Robert S.: When they talk about Avar like equipment its just that: Avar like, not directly Avar but like it. What comes to mind to me is Sarmatian and/or Thracian horsemen for instance in Roman service. The paper does show the dispersal of these type of equipment along the Rhine Danube frontier. It is known that in the Maastricht area Roman cavalry was stationed. There is no Dutch history telling us of any Avar invasions and in this research which is done with great precision there isn’t a single clue regarding any forceful occupation of any faction or battle or anything to suggest an Avar invasion. Frankish Avar wars occur much later in the Karolingian era. In the Netherlands there are sites that show massive damage that occurred from Germanic assaults on Roman villas and/or castras. Stuff like that is not the case here. They buried among locals, their wifes are locals, their children are locals. The graves were also repeatedly in use so other generations were added to it. Everything is consistent with late Roman early Middle Ages transitional period. Locals wouldn’t have their attackers among them in their graves, this isn’t logical. The reason the researchers put forth this theory instead of an Avar invasion/occupation/replacement is simply because no Avar ‘invasion’ evidence exists. This research covered basically everything there is to research about the grave-site, some type of occupation/replacement would certainly have showed up. What is documented in Dutch history however is the presence of Roman horsemen/legionnaires/farmers from many different J2 rich areas. To me this papers makes a lot of sense as it jives with pretty much everything I’ve been saying for a while now. From the J2b2 indirect descendants of Charlemagne, to the Trojan Frankish origin myth, the descriptions of Tacitus of Asciburgium, Romans Christianity, Equitates, etc. The authors are political/smart enough to not make a definite claim regarding their origins but like I said they do say that the positioning of the burial field right on the main building of the Roman complex is meaningful. It sure does sound logical to me.
Regarding ethnic connections: There is this well known pre-Merovingian figure from the same area: Saint Servatius. He was born in Armenia and died prob. 384 AD in Maastricht.

R.Rocca
04-14-2015, 01:53 PM
This is a new thread based on the discussion that did begin in the "Genetic Genealogy and Ancient DNA in the News" thread with


Interesting information is collected in the j2-m172.info page:
Three J2 found at Merovingian buriel site (Roman-Frankish transitional period) (http://j2-m172.info/2015/04/three-j2-found-at-merovingian-buriel-site-roman-frankish-transitional-period/)
Latest discussion:
Why are the authors so certain that the buried men where descendants of the Roman era people? Could they not also be invaders that claimed the area as well as all the items and wealth of previous inhabitants? This question arises because of the Avar items.

Based on Robert S' interpretation/translation, this seems to be the most logical explanation.

Agamemnon
04-14-2015, 05:39 PM
Thracian horsemen? Well, considering how common J2b is in the Balkans, I'd say that's not exactly far-fetched. More aDNA is needed to clear things up, obviously.

ADW_1981
04-14-2015, 06:19 PM
How common is J2b in the steppe populations then and now? An East Mediterranean connection seems more likely. "Local" is also a very relative term.

newtoboard
04-14-2015, 10:46 PM
How common is J2b in the steppe populations then and now? An East Mediterranean connection seems more likely. "Local" is also a very relative term.

The majority of the world's J2b exists in areas where speakers of the Balkan group of IE languages dominated and among Indo-Aryan speakers so I think it might be possible J2b hitched a right with the Greco-Aryan group and got lucky that it was able to become quite frequent within those groups. Obviously there is no evidence for any of this but it is a possibility.

ChrisR
04-14-2015, 11:04 PM
Translations of some fragments of this paper by Robert:

"The grave-field located at the Pasestraat Borgharen is situated on the location of the main building of a Roman villa. The choice of this location can be considered meaningful, for example as part of a strategy to put claims on the land through a claim on the living-space of the previous inhabitants. who could be considered as ancestors."
"There is a clear distinction between the 2 different grave-fields: the individuals from Daalderveld are all of non local origin. At the gravesite of the Pasestraat (were they find the J2 results) only 4 individuals are of non local origin, but possibly come from the same geological/geographical area. The last isn't the case at Daalderveld: here the individuals hail from different geological areas, were some ratios until today are not found within the Netherlands. The results of the origin of the horses also yielded interesting results: one of the animals is also of non local origins and has arrived at Borgharen by trade or migration."
"The objects who were given with the dead indicate that the grave-field was in use in the 6th and 7th centuries."
"During the construction of the graves it seems the builders took into account the remaining Roman remains. To which extent this happened and what underlying considerations were responsible for this is not clear." "The combination of pottery material and the painted plaster places the use of the villa in the 2nd century."
"In addition, we attempted to characterize the Y haplogroup for all (possible) male individuals, including the previous study. This was only possible for individuals 15 and 20, for who haplogroup J2 could be granted. With our method J2 can not be further subdivided. For individual 15 haplogroup J2a1 is predicted in the previous investigation on the basis of the Y-STR profile. Meanwhile, it can be refined to J2a1b (99% probability). For individual 20, based on the Y-STR profile haplogroup J2b is predicted (100% probability). In both cases the predicted haplogroups confirm typed haplogroups. Y-haplogroup J2 is carried by 2.7% of Dutch men and is relatively rare in the Netherlands."
"Particular results have been found with the father and daughter (individuals 15 and 14). Individual 15, the father with a very rare Y chromosome haplotype is of non-local origin (87Sr / 86Sr: 0.7099). He also is probably coming from the Dutch dekzandgebieden. The J haplogroup suggests that the family line originates even beyond western Europe. The 87Sr / 86Sr ratio of his daughter is, however, compatible with the local signal. "

Dr_McNinja
04-15-2015, 03:36 AM
The majority of the world's J2b exists in areas where speakers of the Balkan group of IE languages dominated and among Indo-Aryan speakers so I think it might be possible J2b hitched a right with the Greco-Aryan group and got lucky that it was able to become quite frequent within those groups. Obviously there is no evidence for any of this but it is a possibility.

J2b2-M241 split into European and South Asian branches around 9k-8kya, so around the early neolithic. I think it split with the spread of farming.

Augustus
04-15-2015, 04:38 AM
How common is J2b in the steppe populations then and now? An East Mediterranean connection seems more likely. "Local" is also a very relative term.

There is a J2b hotspot north of Samara if Im not mistaken. It could very well be neolithic, but so far it seems more like a Bronze Age arrival.

ChrisR
04-15-2015, 11:41 AM
I'm not active into looking for J2b subclade frequency and distribution, but IMHO any hypothesis of migration to Balkan needs verification of basal L283(xZ638) clades: tree.j2-m172.info/?Hg=J2b1a (http://tree.j2-m172.info/?Hg=J2b1a)
Verification of the basal Asian Z2432(xZ2437) distribution could also help.

Trojet
04-15-2015, 02:33 PM
I can't comment on how j2b got to the Balkans. Nonetheless, it does seem like it is Neolithic, and not associated with the spread of IE languages. I also think that calling it a "Greek" marker is wrong as back then there was no nationalities, however if we want to associate it with ethnicities it would be much more Albanian (Illyrian / Thracian in antiquity) as this marker has the highest frequencies in Albanian speaking areas including NW Greece, while the rest of Greece is pretty low, where j2a is much more frequent.

Dr_McNinja
04-15-2015, 02:59 PM
I'm not active into looking for J2b subclade frequency and distribution, but IMHO any hypothesis of migration to Balkan needs verification of basal L283(xZ638) clades: tree.j2-m172.info/?Hg=J2b1a (http://tree.j2-m172.info/?Hg=J2b1a)
Verification of the basal Asian Z2432(xZ2437) distribution could also help.
There's only one Z2432 xZ2433, a HGDP individual from Sri Lanka.

http://i.imgur.com/GIT7tCv.png

We also need verification of this alleged Southeast Asian branch.

Until my YFull test (leading to Y978 branch), I was the only basal Z2433 (xZ2437, xY958) individual found so far.

EDIT: YFull tree http://www.yfull.com/tree/J-M241/

Dr_McNinja
04-15-2015, 03:16 PM
Don't we have Thracian admixture? Didn't it have a lot of Gedrosian?

If the western Balkan populations migrated there from further northeast (Caucasus or north of Caucasus), that could give a clue about J2b's origin in that area (J2b/J2b1 are mostly Caucasus/Anatolia too, right?)

vettor
04-15-2015, 06:25 PM
Don't we have Thracian admixture? Didn't it have a lot of Gedrosian?

If the western Balkan populations migrated there from further northeast (Caucasus or north of Caucasus), that could give a clue about J2b's origin in that area (J2b/J2b1 are mostly Caucasus/Anatolia too, right?)

the 4 Thracians are here
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3824117/

and genetiker broke them down here

https://genetiker.wordpress.com/2014/06/11/analyses-of-iron-and-bronze-age-bulgarian-genomes/

ChrisR
04-16-2015, 10:00 PM
http://i.imgur.com/GIT7tCv.png
Is there a place where the links to this J2b phylogeny images are published? Including L283 etc.?

J Man
04-16-2015, 11:22 PM
I can't comment on how j2b got to the Balkans. Nonetheless, it does seem like it is Neolithic, and not associated with the spread of IE languages. I also think that calling it a "Greek" marker is wrong as back then there was no nationalities, however if we want to associate it with ethnicities it would be much more Albanian (Illyrian / Thracian in antiquity) as this marker has the highest frequencies in Albanian speaking areas including NW Greece, while the rest of Greece is pretty low, where j2a is much more frequent.

Many Arvanites may be J2b.

Trojet
04-17-2015, 01:16 AM
Many Arvanites may be J2b.

That would seem to be the case, since they are Albanian speakers located around NW Greece and to a lesser extent in the Peloponnese. What is interesting to me though is that E-V13 and R1b-L23 are both concentrated in Greeks and Albanians at similar percentages, however, as I pointed earlier J2b is much more frequent in Albanians, while J2a is much more frequent in Greeks.

J Man
04-17-2015, 01:23 AM
That would seem to be the case, since they are Albanian speakers located around NW Greece and to a lesser extent in the Peloponnese. What is interesting to me though is that E-V13 and R1b-L23 are both concentrated in Greeks and Albanians at similar percentages, however, as I pointed earlier J2b is much more frequent in Albanians, while J2a is much more frequent in Greeks.

Yes all true. J2a is barely found among Albanians at all while it's brother haplogroup J2b is. On the other hand Greeks especially islanders such as Cretans have a lot of J2a.

Scream
04-24-2015, 02:15 AM
Surprising to see both J2a and J2b there.

RHAS
05-21-2015, 05:59 PM
J2b and J2a1 Found in Roman Villa and Merovingian Graves Research.

"In addition, we attempted to characterize the Y haplogroupfor all (possible) male individuals, including the previous study. This was only possible for individuals 15 and 20, for who haplogroup J2 could be granted. With our method J2 can not be further subdivided. For individual 15 haplogroup J2a1 is predicted in the previous investigation on the basis of the Y-STR profile. Meanwhile, it can be refined to J2a1b (99% probability). For individual 20, based on the Y-STRprofiel haplogroup J2b is predicted (100% probability). In both cases the predicted haplogroups confirm typed haplogroups. Y-haplogroup J2 is carried by 2.7% of Dutch men and is relatively rare in the Netherlands."
Cultureel Erfgoed - Merovingers in een Villa 2.
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-2

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xft1/v/t1.0-9/1800276_920774417980714_3022873764887341363_n.jpg? oh=5ac7af681defb45c53910eadd37b1175&oe=55C2AC5A
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-2

https://fbcdn-sphotos-f-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xtp1/v/t1.0-9/11061681_10205108763251075_7903136601261774961_n.j pg?oh=688bd9a7483b865a06bb73a11c6e6907&oe=55D6494B&__gda__=1443511694_04c9ad9f955d081816cee2076a6e7df 0
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-2

Clues to their origins are the artifacts found in the graves. (late Roman early Merovngian pottery, Venus Aphrodite hangers, Avar like horse equipment that seems to be found in europe along the Danube and Rhine, allot of weaponry, Roman/Byzantine glass beads comparable tomodern day turkish ones, seashells from the mediteranean, red sea and indian ocean used for Apotropaeon http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Apotropaic_magic) The paper also mentiones one site at Daalderveld and the one at Pasestraat. The first one seems to be a site for foreigner and the latter one seems to be a site for locals. The J2`s are found in the local area. The paper mentiones that these people including individual 15 (j2a1b) come from an area geographically similar to Southern Limburg and that ultimatly their familyline may go back to outide europe. But at the time they were consdered locals. They also mention that these people were from areas in the Netherlands know as "dekzand gebieden". They also found non local horse remains who were given a warriors grave/ending with a sword stab throgh the hearth. The earliest found artifact from the site rare from 3400 B.C to 2500 B.C, on top of that a Roman Villa was build, in the rubblefield of the Roman Villa the grave field was created. (5th-6th A.D). There is evidence that the site was continualy inhabited from the Roman Villa era to the grave field construction. After the Merovingian period in the Karolingian period they stopped using the site.


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XnwnCVt_oGg

The researchers state that the positioning of the burial field right on the main building of the Roman complex is meaningfull, for instance to make a claim of ownership on the land (considered to be from their ancestors) through a claim of ancestry of the previous inhabitants. (in this case romans) The villa was probably build in/around the 2nd century AD. it probably belonged to the Vicus of Maastricht (Mosa ad Trajectum)

http://maastrichtvestingstad.nl/images/artikelfotos/mosa_ad_trajectum.jpg
Mosa ad Trajectum


The Roman Research Project of Leuven University reported last month;

"De allerhoogste genetische diversiteit vonden de onderzoekers in Tongeren. En dat heeft toch met Romeinse roots te maken, zij het meer praktisch: “Dankzij de goede wegen, de Romeinse heirbanen, had Tongeren veel contact met het Rijnland, Maastricht en Keulen.”"

"The highest genetic diversity the researchers found was situated in Tongeren. And that has to do with the Roman Roots, the reason is practical: "Thanks to the good roads, the roman via`s, Tongeren had allot of contact with the Rhineland, Maastricht and Koln."
Catholic University Leuven.
http://nieuws.kuleuven.be/node/14793?utm_source=Niet-onder-de-kerktoren&utm_medium=CKmail&utm_campaign=CKFeb-alumni

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xpf1/v/t1.0-9/3394_473217516068948_508554809_n.jpg?oh=84c09865a2 04f4f18290ede65e603a37&oe=55C04520&__gda__=1443710057_a6828afdaf921d0920e25b3ba9b110a e


"J2b2a-L283 was discovered by Family Tree DNA through its "Walk Through The Y" program, and is predominantly Middle-Eastern, Mediterranean and European. The M12/M241 frequency peak in the Balkan Peninsula and Italy observed by Semino et al. [35] and Cruciani et al. [45], may instead belong to sub-clade L283. A recent Z631 sub-branch expansion from east to west through the heart of Europe to the UK along with presence in Italy and Spain might be associated with Roman expansion using mercenaries and slaves acquired in the Balkans."
Generation of high-resolution a priori Y-chromosome phylogenies using "next-generation" sequencing data.
http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/e...802.1.full.pdf

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/v/t1.0-9/1150305_591299907594835_72728669_n.jpg?oh=1d4f6612 b33d48ae9970be7e7102ac78&oe=560476FD

"Romans surely helped spread haplogroup J2 across its borders, judging from the distribution of J2 within Europe (frequency over 5%) wich bears an uncanny resemblance to the borders of the Roman Empire."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

"The Frankish mythology that has survived in primary sources is comparable to that of the Aeneas and Romulus myths take in Roman mythology, but altered to suit Germanic tastes. Like many Germanic peoples, the Franks told a founding myth story to explain their connection with peoples of classical history. In the case of the Franks, these peoples were the Sicambri and the Trojans. An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called "Sicambria". In just two generations (Priam and his son Marcomer) from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. An earlier variation of this story can be read in Fredegar. In Fredegar's version an early king named Francio serves as namegiver for the Francs, just as Romulus has lent his name to Rome. .............. In contrast to many other Germanic tribes, no Merovingians claimed to be descended from Wodan. Instead, the sacred tradition of a cart pulled by bulls seems to be present from the early Merovingians on. The bulls that pulled the cart were taken as special animals, and according to Salian law the theft of those animals would impose a high sanction. In the grave of Childeric I (died 481) was found the head of a bull, craftily made out of gold.""
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankish_mythology

"There is a distinct association of ancient J2 civilisations with bull worship."
Eupedia.com, 2013.
http://www.eupedia.com/europe/Haplogroup_J2_Y-DNA.shtml

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/3/35/Quinotaur.jpg

Trojan Origin Myth.

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-frc3/v/t1.0-9/1003498_628020043922821_2086965139_n.jpg?oh=4b60c2 75745adeac13a62d541759d262&oe=55D004FD

"The Frankish mythology that has survived in primary sources is comparable to that of the Aeneas and Romulus myths take in Roman mythology, but altered to suit Germanic tastes. Like many Germanic peoples, the Franks told a founding myth story to explain their connection with peoples of classical history. In the case of the Franks, these peoples were the Sicambri and the Trojans. An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called "Sicambria". In just two generations (Priam and his son Marcomer) from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age) they arrive in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. An earlier variation of this story can be read in Fredegar. In Fredegar's version an early king named Francio serves as namegiver for the Francs, just as Romulus has lent his name to Rome."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frankish_mythology

"Der niederrheinische Trojamythos schließt an die Schilderung Homers vom Ende des Trojanischen Krieges an. Das besagt, dass die von den Griechen besiegten Trojaner fliehen, und in mehreren Gruppen über Asien und Europa versprengt werden. Hier gründen sie neue Städte und werden zu Stammvätern neuer, ruhmreicher Völker. Die bis heute existente niederrheinische Variante des Trojamythos indes spiegelt die Gründungssage des Frankenreichs, die Origio francorum wider. Als Vorbild diente der römische Trojamythos, wie er in Vergils Aeneis überliefert ist."
http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Niederr...er_Trojamythos

http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Asciburgium

"The two earliest sources that describe the origin of the Franks are a 7th-century work known as the Chronicle of Fredegar and the anonymous Liber Historiae Francorum, written a century later. Neither of these works are accepted by historians as trustworthy, compared with Gregory of Tours's Historia Francorum, which was written in the 6th century. The author of the Chronicle of Fredegar claimed that the Franks came originally from Troy and quoted the works of Vergil and Hieronymous, but the Franks are not mentioned in those works, except in a general way by Hieronymous.[14] The chronicle describes Priam as a Frankish king whose people migrated to Macedonia after the fall of Troy. In Macedonia, the Franks then divided. The European Franks reached Francia under King Francio, just as Romulus went to Rome. Another branch, under King Turchot, became the Turks. Fredegar stated that Theudemer, named king of the Franks by Gregory, was descended from Priam, Friga and Francio. Another work, the Gesta, is nowadays acknowledged by serious scholars as a fantasy. Its author described how 12,000 Trojans, led by Priam and Antenor, sailed from Troy to the River Don in Russia and—with a total disregard of geography—to Pannonia, which is on the Danube, settling near the Sea of Azov. There they founded a city called Sicambria. The Trojans joined the Roman army in accomplishing the task of driving their enemies into the marshes of Mæotis, for which they received the name of Franks (meaning "savage"). A decade later the Romans killed Priam and drove away Marcomer and Sunno, the sons of Priam and Antenor, and the other Franks."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Franks

"An anonymous work of 727 called Liber Historiae Francorum states that following the fall of Troy, 12,000 Trojans led by chiefs Priam and Antenor moved to the Tanais (Don) river, settled in Pannonia near the Sea of Azov and founded a city called Sicambria. In just 2 generations from the fall of Troy (by modern scholars dated in the late Bronze Age 1550-1200 BC) they arrived in the late 4th century AD at the Rhine. A variation of this story can also be read in Fredegar, and similar tales continue to crop up repeatedly throughout obscure, mediaeval-era European literature. ... In Roman and Merovingian times, it was a custom to declare panegyrics. These poetic declarations were held for fun or propaganda to entertain guests and please rulers. Those panegyrics played an important role in the transmission of culture. One of the ritual customs of these poetic declarations is the use of archaic names for contemporary things. Romans were often called Trojans, and Salian Franks were called Sicambri."
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sicambri

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xaf1/v/t1.0-9/1234612_587696551288504_1044586635_n.jpg?oh=dff352 e8eb92a30508fcf7f1a21a3de8&oe=560A8217

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xpf1/v/t1.0-9/10268700_749968678394623_6319617964394007202_n.jpg ?oh=22e3c877f0a3d1d279e85082fc080d51&oe=55CE9766

RHAS
05-21-2015, 06:04 PM
Frankish Burial Scene. (comparable to the ones found at Borgharen) (Video)
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXLyrmd34WI&t=0m44s !!!!

An Item found in the merovingian graves in the Netherlands.

http://oud.cultureelerfgoed.nl/sites/default/files/imagecache/rechterkolom/Mantelspeld%20Borgharen.JPG
http://oud.cultureelerfgoed.nl/opgraven-merovingisch-grafveld-borgharen

Merovingers in een villa.
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-romeinse-villa-en-merovingisch-grafveld-borgharen-pasestraat

Merovingers in een villa 2.
http://cultureelerfgoed.nl/publicaties/merovingers-in-een-villa-2


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXLyrmd34WI

RHAS
05-21-2015, 06:06 PM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KDU_ZNo5MyI

RHAS
05-21-2015, 06:07 PM
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=igBBnbZuCdg

RHAS
05-21-2015, 06:09 PM
"Het terrein met de restanten van de Romeinse villa Borgharen-Pasestraat bevindt zich op een hoger gelegen grindrug ten westen van de voormalige Pasestraat ten noorden van de dorpskern van Borgharen. Enkele honderden meters ten westen van het villaterrein stroomt de rivier de Maas; aan de oostzijde, op 3 à 4 km afstand, liep de Via Belgica, de belangrijke heirweg van Tongeren (Atuatuca Tungrorum) via Maastricht (Mosa Trajectum) naar Keulen (Colonia Claudia Ara Agrippinensium). Bij de locatiekeuze zullen naast de aanwezigheid van vruchtbare löss- en rivierkleigronden, ook de ligging nabij een belangrijke doorgaande route en het ongetwijfeld fraaie uitzicht over de Maas een rol gespeeld hebben. In het Maasdal ten noorden van Maastricht zijn relatief weinig sporen van Romeinse villa's aangetroffen. Oostelijk van Borgharen liggen de dorpen Bunde en Meerssen, waar zich een drietal Romeinse villa's bevonden."
Wikipeda.org - Romeinse villa Borgharen Pasestraat.
http://nl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Romeinse_villa_Borgharen-Pasestraat

https://scontent-fra.xx.fbcdn.net/hphotos-xta1/v/t1.0-9/11107743_897172743673421_8412696722894090720_n.jpg ?oh=639b4b454c6464abf0446aa55e6704ef&oe=55CE1C23
http://home.kpn.nl/hstoepker/symposium%20archeologie%20maaswerken/08%20romeinse%20tijd.pdf

https://fbcdn-sphotos-e-a.akamaihd.net/hphotos-ak-xpf1/v/t1.0-9/3394_473217516068948_508554809_n.jpg?oh=84c09865a2 04f4f18290ede65e603a37&oe=55C04520&__gda__=1443710057_a6828afdaf921d0920e25b3ba9b110a e

"25 human graves and two horse graves have been identified. There may still be a few more graves on the site, but there are no plans for further excavations for the time being.
- DNA research on the bone material has established that the human remains are related and belong to two families. Two skeletons for example correspond to a father and his daughter, two others to a mother and her son, and one the graves revealed the remains of a mother and two of her children.
- Many of the graves contained valuable accessories such as precious jewelry items, costly weapons and rare pieces of earthware, indicating that the people buried in them were wealthy and may have enjoyed a high social status.
- The discovery of cowry shells, originating from the Red Sea, further confirmed the prominent status of the deceased and showed that they were part of a well developed network of trade relations.
- In one of the graves, the archeologists unearthed the skeleton of a warrior who had been buried in full armour and was still holding a golden coin between his teeth. The coin was probably meant as an obol to help a safe passage into afterlife."
Love Maastricht Region - Merovingian Graves of Borgharen.
http://love.maastrichtregion.com/blog/the-merovingian-graves-of-borgharen.html

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Coin found between the teeth, in the graves at Borgharen.

Frankish Burial Scene (With coin betwen teeth)!!! (Video)
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dXLyrmd34WI&t=10m04s