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View Full Version : Will Y NGS testing obsolete SNP Packs/Panels/Sanger Sequencing/STR Panels and when?



ArmandoR1b
09-21-2015, 06:53 PM
I think that point cannot be made often enough.

Most people aren't wiling or can't spend that much.

Joe B
09-21-2015, 07:36 PM
Most people aren't wiling or can't spend that much.Science can't wait for most people. A SNP pack is great for finding your haplogroup and that's really important. But if you want to be a leader, you have to take a test that finds your haplogroup and discovers the novel SNPs that define your unique Y-line. That's how the Y phylogenetic tree is grown and better understood. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is the only way to do that.

ArmandoR1b
09-21-2015, 08:12 PM
Science can't wait for most people. A SNP pack is great for finding your haplogroup and that's really important. But if you want to be a leader, you have to take a test that finds your haplogroup and discovers the novel SNPs that define your unique Y-line. That's how the Y phylogenetic tree is grown and better understood. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is the only way to do that.

Yes, I already knew that. You are preaching to the choir. However, you'll need a better sales pitch than that to get a lot more people to spend that much money if they even have the money. Once the price goes down a lot and there is a sale on top of the price reduction then a lot more people will get it.

VinceT
09-21-2015, 10:02 PM
I think that point cannot be made often enough.

Indeed. However, if one can afford Big-Y, why the compromise? The Y-Elite 2.0 test from Full Genomes Corp. is even better.

Joe B
09-21-2015, 10:13 PM
Yes, I already knew that. You are preaching to the choir. However, you'll need a better sales pitch than that to get a lot more people to spend that much money if they even have the money. Once the price goes down a lot and there is a sale on top of the price reduction then a lot more people will get it.I think it's wishful thinking to wait for the price of NGS testing to come down other than with an occational discount. It's more likely that the testing companies will maintain their profit margins at the current price point while improving the quality of the NGS test. Perhaps by increasing the read length and Y chromosome coverage. The SNP packs are designed for those with a lower price point for SNP testing. People who find their haplogroup with a SNP pack are doing us all a favor by helping to create better STR modals and it helps handle their problem of false matches due to STR convergence too. That's my opinion.

As for your sale pitch statement. If you had worked for me, you would have been fired for not knowing what a proper sales presentation is. Channeling Zig Ziglar who was a saleman with good character.

"The SNP pack test is a great test to help you find your haplogroup and is a good value. That said, it's been my experience that no one regrets buying the best and NGS testing is the best test available. Your NGS test will discover novel SNPs That will help define the Y tree and provide you with new information for years to come. Which test will you be ordering, the SNP pack test to find your haplogroup? Or go with SNP discovery and order the best with the superior NGS test?"

The bottom line is if the price of NGS testing is too high for someone they should order a SNP Pack. Sitting around with a haplogroup prediction with no SNP testing is the worst option.

ArmandoR1b
09-22-2015, 02:15 AM
I think it's wishful thinking to wait for the price of NGS testing to come down other than with an occational discount. It's more likely that the testing companies will maintain their profit margins at the current price point while improving the quality of the NGS test. Perhaps by increasing the read length and Y chromosome coverage. The SNP packs are designed for those with a lower price point for SNP testing. People who find their haplogroup with a SNP pack are doing us all a favor by helping to create better STR modals and it helps handle their problem of false matches due to STR convergence too. That's my opinion. FTDNA has already stated that they will be lowering the price of BigY. You might want to get caught up.


As for your sale pitch statement. If you had worked for me, you would have been fired for not knowing what a proper sales presentation is. Channeling Zig Ziglar who was a saleman with good character. I didn't throw a sales pitch. You are the one trying to sell BigY.

TigerMW
09-22-2015, 02:46 AM
Next Generation Sequencing has a unique benefit in that it can discover SNPs. It also can report some STRs. It will probably drop in price over time. If so, how soon might it obsolete Sanger Sequencing stand-alone SNP testing, SNP Packs or Panels, and even STR Panels?

TigerMW
09-22-2015, 02:56 AM
FTDNA has already stated that they will be lowering the price of BigY. ....

This came up earlier this summer on other threads and other forums. I went directly to FTDNA to question this and straight from the horse's mouth (post the interview where this came up): We have no plans to lower the price of Big Y.

Business is business and technology is technology so I for one minute don't think that Big Y or any test won't get cheaper, but other than promotions we have no reason to think Big Y will go down in price this year.

Instead, my opinion is that FTDNA will provide more function in Big Y results. This includes true integration of the Big Y results database with the standard Sanger Sequencing and SNP Packs and old Deep Clade test reporting on the Y DNA SNP project pages and the Haplotree and SNP myFTDNA screen. Probably, there will be a great increase in the number of "known" SNPs on the Big Y matching screens and Big Y matching will get better. I think we are aways from home on this stuff though and it could easily be argued we needed this stuff on day one anyway.

When will the day come that Big Y pricing crosses the thresholds to make things like SNP Packs and Panels obsolete? I don't know, but I suspect it is a couple of years yet.

Let none of this confuse my position: We need a Big Y per every known genealogical family. I used to say we need two per every surname per every STR based cluster as that would get you down to having SNPs for every surname, but really, we need one Big Y per every genealogical family.

miiser
09-22-2015, 03:07 AM
When will the day come that Big Y pricing crosses the thresholds to make things like SNP Packs and Panels obsolete?

Or, the more interesting question - when will whole genome sequencing make ALL of them obsolete? Not long, I think. FGC now offers 10X (good enough to detect most SNPs) WGS at $675, just a little more than Big Y. Lower total cost if you include FTDNA's mandatory prerequisite STR test.

lgmayka
09-22-2015, 03:45 AM
I went directly to FTDNA to question this and straight from the horse's mouth (post the interview where this came up): We have no plans to lower the price of Big Y.
Was that before or after the CEO publicly said this? (http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:00GUwZ8Ox5wJ:https://www.genomeweb.com/sequencing-technology/consumer-genomics-firms-hope-lower-costs-new-features-will-make-y-chromosome+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us)
---
"The current price of our Big Y test is under $600, and like everything else in technology the price will fall or the offering will become larger," said Bennett Greenspan, president of Family Tree DNA, one of the firms that offers Y chromosome sequencing services. "I think the test will become more mainstream as we begin to offer more features that surround the product later this year," he said. "That, along with a somewhat lower price, will likely make it a much more mainstream product next year."
---

GTC
09-22-2015, 04:11 AM
"That, along with a somewhat lower price, will likely make [Big Y] a much more mainstream product next year."

That should become clear in less than a month:

https://www.familytreedna.com/conference/

miiser
09-22-2015, 04:12 AM
This came up earlier this summer on other threads and other forums. I went directly to FTDNA to question this and straight from the horse's mouth (post the interview where this came up): We have no plans to lower the price of Big Y.

Business is business and technology is technology so I for one minute don't think that Big Y or any test won't get cheaper, but other than promotions we have no reason to think Big Y will go down in price this year.

Business IS business, and businesses are loath to publicly announce planned future price reductions (especially to giving a specific date and price), as it tends to put a freeze on current spending. FTDNA may not have specific plans for a near term price reduction. But, as the initial spurt of Big Y early adopters has passed, we should expect that FTDNA will reduce the price at some point in the not-too-distant future in order to stimulate the purchase rate and get the equipment usage back up closer to 100% capacity. 100% equipment capacity is probably a good basis for a pricing target to maximum profits.

Using past experience of FTDNA marketing practice as a guide, we should expect there to be a holiday "discount". Following the holiday discount, the regular price will probably be reduced to be comparable to the holiday pricing. (Unless, as happened last year, the holiday sale creates a 6 month backlog of sold tests sitting in the fridge waiting to be processed.)

It wouldn't surprise me if there was also some sort of new purchasable "upgrade" of Big Y in the works. Otherwise, there is no avenue for eager beaver past Big Y purchasers to give any more money to FTDNA.

Heber
09-22-2015, 07:23 AM
This came up earlier this summer on other threads and other forums. I went directly to FTDNA to question this and straight from the horse's mouth (post the interview where this came up): We have no plans to lower the price of Big Y.



"The current price of our Big Y test is under $600, and like everything else in technology the price will fall or the offering will become larger," said Bennett Greenspan, president of Family Tree DNA, one of the firms that offers Y chromosome sequencing services. "I think the test will become more mainstream as we begin to offer more features that surround the product later this year," he said. "That, along with a somewhat lower price, will likely make it a much more mainstream product next year."

I enjoyed reading the following paper from Erlich and his predictions for Genome Sequencing.

A Vision for Ubiquitous Sequencing
Yaniv Erlich1,2,∗
1 Department of Computer Science, Columbia University, New York, NY
2 New York Genome Center, New York, NY
∗ E-mail: [email protected]

"Abstract
Genomics has recently celebrated reaching the $1000 genome milestone, making affordable
DNA sequencing a reality. With this goal successfully completed, the next goal of
the sequencing revolution can be sequencing sensors - miniaturized sequencing devices that
are manufactured for real time applications and deployed in large quantities at low costs.
The first part of this manuscript envisions applications that will benefit from moving the
sequencers to the samples in a range of domains. In the second part, the manuscript outlines
the critical barriers that need to be addressed in order to reach the goal of ubiquitous
sequencing sensors.

With the advent of miniature sequencing devices such as Oxford Nanopore’s MinION, we are
on the cusp of truly democratizing DNA information by placing sequencers in the hands of
the general public. Ubiquitous sequencing will create an incredibly powerful vantage point for
observing massive amounts of DNA and RNA information within its natural context. This will
open the possibility of integrating DNA data with other types of sensor information and to
obtain a more comprehensive picture of the world around us.....

With this goal in mind, the cost per base pair (bp), extremely high accuracy,
and other traditional parameters of sequencing performance will be of secondary importance.
More attention will be devoted to the cost of the device, seamless sample preparation, latency
of sequencing results, and environmental robustness."

http://biorxiv.org/content/biorxiv/e...19018.full.pdf

ArmandoR1b
09-22-2015, 02:48 PM
This came up earlier this summer on other threads and other forums. I went directly to FTDNA to question this and straight from the horse's mouth (post the interview where this came up): We have no plans to lower the price of Big Y.

So you are saying that was after the interview with Bennett Greenspan by Justin Petrone that was published in Genomeweb that lgmayka linked to in post #10? That was the statement that I was referring to.


Business is business and technology is technology so I for one minute don't think that Big Y or any test won't get cheaper, but other than promotions we have no reason to think Big Y will go down in price this year. The expectation was next year, not this year, based on the statement at Genomeweb.


Instead, my opinion is that FTDNA will provide more function in Big Y results. This includes true integration of the Big Y results database with the standard Sanger Sequencing and SNP Packs and old Deep Clade test reporting on the Y DNA SNP project pages and the Haplotree and SNP myFTDNA screen. Probably, there will be a great increase in the number of "known" SNPs on the Big Y matching screens and Big Y matching will get better. I think we are aways from home on this stuff though and it could easily be argued we needed this stuff on day one anyway.
That would be great but still only a slight improvement. There are some people that are not willing to get a YFull or FGC analysis even after spending all of that money on BigY and the BigY matching at FTDNA is a joke. So it would help those people.


When will the day come that Big Y pricing crosses the thresholds to make things like SNP Packs and Panels obsolete? I don't know, but I suspect it is a couple of years yet.I agree, I didn't expect a price drop big enough for at least a couple of years to make SNP Packs and Panels obsolete. It's easier for people to spend $100 at least several months apart than it is to get them to spend $575 at one time.


Let none of this confuse my position: We need a Big Y per every known genealogical family. I used to say we need two per every surname per every STR based cluster as that would get you down to having SNPs for every surname, but really, we need one Big Y per every genealogical family.
Yes we do and we will slowly get there. A big price drop would speed that up.

Joe B
09-22-2015, 04:01 PM
You are the one trying to sell BigY.
Pehaps you have some evidence to back that statement up?

I'm a advocate of NGS testing. I do not sell the Big Y product or anybody's product. Full Genomes has a better product with Y Elite 2.0. That extra value does cost more.

@ArmandoR1b My reputation for giving honest advice is important to me. Don't pick a fight with the wrong dog.

ArmandoR1b
09-22-2015, 04:21 PM
Pehaps you have some evidence to back that statement up?

I'm a advocate of NGS testing. I do not sell the Big Y product or anybody's product. Full Genomes has a better product with Y Elite 2.0. That extra value does cost more.

@ArmandoR1b My reputation for giving honest advice is important to me. Don't pick a fight with the wrong dog.

Haha. You're funny. Sell as in promote a product whether you have to gain monetarily from it or not which is what you did with the following statement.


Science can't wait for most people. A SNP pack is great for finding your haplogroup and that's really important. But if you want to be a leader, you have to take a test that finds your haplogroup and discovers the novel SNPs that define your unique Y-line. That's how the Y phylogenetic tree is grown and better understood. Next generation sequencing (NGS) is the only way to do that.

TigerMW
09-22-2015, 05:31 PM
So you are saying that was after the interview with Bennett Greenspan by Justin Petrone that was published in Genomeweb that lgmayka linked to in post #10? That was the statement that I was referring to.

The expectation was next year, not this year, based on the statement at Genomeweb.
...

Yes, that is what I am saying. Call it a revised statement, mis-statement or change of heart or whatever, I don't know, but following that interview, I inquired directly. On July 15th I was emailed "I have no plans to drop the price of Big Y."

That was a one sentence paragraph. No qualifier or anything like that. He did go on to say that he is enhancing the product and you will get more or your money and that also includes past Big Y testers to receive benefits from some of these enhancements. I'm not sure what all of that means and will wait until it is better explained or becomes obviously apparent.

Get this, in the next paragraph he said "we might raise the price." I have no doubt there will be promotions as FTDNA seems fond of that. I'm not sure that there won't be a promotional price that reaches new net lows even if list pricing goes up.

I don't know. It's a game to try to predict future pricing. Over the long run (next 1-4 years) I expect net pricing to drop some and/or newer/expanded functions to be built in. That's normal for technology products.

Don't shoot the messenger.:)

TigerMW
09-22-2015, 05:43 PM
Haha. You're funny. Sell as in promote a product whether you have to gain monetarily from it or not which is what you did with the following statement.
Armando, as a moderator I ask that you we leave the definitions of selling and advocacy behind as it relates to Joe. I'm not sure if that is helping the topic. Joe B has said he gets nothing monetarily out of this.

We are all selling our ideas. It's called persuasion. It's okay. Let's just hope we remain open enough to change our ideas as new information comes in or logic is developed.

Afshar
09-22-2015, 06:59 PM
These kind of topics always end in bigy vs fgc vs wgs.
The problem with ngs is the amount of useless data you get, which is not the case with snp testing. But to find new snps we need ngs techniques. Also most ngs has limitations and no guarantee of 100% RELIABLE coverage. Snp packs are in this case good for your money and reliable for calling of snps.

miiser
09-22-2015, 08:22 PM
These kind of topics always end in bigy vs fgc vs wgs.

They do tend to do that. But I'm not sure that's what's going on in this case. Mike's original post put forward the idea of NGS testing making obsolete the current prevailing approach of smaller piecemeal testing of STRs, SNPs, and SNP panels. But he then hobbled the idea by only explicitly mentioning the tests offered by FTDNA. If this idea is to be pursued, why not follow it to its logical end? - one DNA test to gather all the data (including mtDNA and aDNA as well), and then you never have to take another DNA test ever again. Shouldn't this be the goal of the GG community? One and done. This is why I proposed WGS as a superior alternative to Big Y.

If FTDNA offered such a test, then my post could have been a comparison of FTDNA's WGS versus FTDNA's piecemeal approach. But FTDNA doesn't offer such an option, so it's not even possible to consider "one and done" testing without exploring beyond the FTDNA bubble. FTDNA only offers the nickel and dime approach. In fact, FTDNA has deliberately chosen NOT to include mtDNA and STR data within the Big Y data, even though it is by default included within the raw data. FTDNA's approach FORCES us to look beyond FTDNA to consider the ultimate test to obsolete all others.

I'm sure FTDNA has its reasons for breaking up the tests in this way. It is psychologically easier and, for some, more financially manageable to make several purchases of less than $200 rather than to plunk down $500+ at once. And this approach will likely lead to more testing (good for the GG community) and more profit (good for FTDNA) in the long run.

When people mention FGC as an alternate to FTDNA in a thread such as this, it should not be viewed as corporate shilling. Since FGC is the only one of these two corporations that offers a comprehensive "one and done" test, it is not possible to consider all the options without mentioning FGC. The only biased approach is for a person to bring up the topic of NGS testing and obsoletion of piecemeal testing WITHOUT mentioning any option outside of FTDNA, since FTDNA does not even offer the ultimate comprehensive test as an option. Mike's original comment explicitly mentioned only the options available through FTDNA, deliberately not including other options. Subsequent comments by others have eliminated the bias in this original comment by expanding the dialog to include other test options as well, thus encompassing truly comprehensive and conclusive DNA tests in the discussion.

This thread regarding NGS and obsoletion of piecemeal testing would be a corporate fanboy fest only if FGC, Y-Elite, and WGS were NOT explicitly discussed as an option alongside Big Y.

paulgill
09-22-2015, 10:13 PM
This came up earlier this summer on other threads and other forums. I went directly to FTDNA to question this and straight from the horse's mouth (post the interview where this came up): We have no plans to lower the price of Big Y.

Business is business and technology is technology so I for one minute don't think that Big Y or any test won't get cheaper, but other than promotions we have no reason to think Big Y will go down in price this year.

Instead, my opinion is that FTDNA will provide more function in Big Y results. This includes true integration of the Big Y results database with the standard Sanger Sequencing and SNP Packs and old Deep Clade test reporting on the Y DNA SNP project pages and the Haplotree and SNP myFTDNA screen. Probably, there will be a great increase in the number of "known" SNPs on the Big Y matching screens and Big Y matching will get better. I think we are aways from home on this stuff though and it could easily be argued we needed this stuff on day one anyway.

When will the day come that Big Y pricing crosses the thresholds to make things like SNP Packs and Panels obsolete? I don't know, but I suspect it is a couple of years yet.

Let none of this confuse my position: We need a Big Y per every known genealogical family. I used to say we need two per every surname per every STR based cluster as that would get you down to having SNPs for every surname, but really, we need one Big Y per every genealogical family.

No, we don't need Big Y anymore as we have an alternative now, nor we need STRs from FTDNA. Y Elite 2.0 has 250 bp read length, so not only the quality of SNPs is better, but also 95% of STRs fall into high quality and on top of that you get mtDNA haplogroup results that are 99% complete as bonus, you don't get that from Big Y anymore.

Again there is WGS [Whole Genome Sequencing] by FullGenomes that you can test for at different level of resolution, with results similar to Y Elite 2.0 but it has additional benefit of getting your auDNA results also. This is what I have gone for and am waiting for my results now.

I have two kits from my subclad had BIG Y test, one got 65 SNPs and the other one only 39, the discrepancy between two results is so much that one starts to question the quality of BIG Y Test, based on these results I did not dare to take BIG Y test even when I could get it for $400.00 Canadian at one time, I expected improvement in quality of results and further reduction in price from FTDNA, instead FTDNA chose to remove the mtDNA data and raised the BIG Y sale price. At last sale I could get the same BIG Y test less the mtDNA data for $625 Canadian, at this point I was done with FTDNA, all the money I spent with FTDNA was a total waste, as I be getting with my WGS results much more than what FTDNA have to offer me at this point in time with all its tests.

ArmandoR1b
09-23-2015, 02:10 AM
Yes, that is what I am saying. Call it a revised statement, mis-statement or change of heart or whatever, I don't know, but following that interview, I inquired directly. On July 15th I was emailed "I have no plans to drop the price of Big Y."

That was a one sentence paragraph. No qualifier or anything like that. He did go on to say that he is enhancing the product and you will get more or your money and that also includes past Big Y testers to receive benefits from some of these enhancements. I'm not sure what all of that means and will wait until it is better explained or becomes obviously apparent.

Get this, in the next paragraph he said "we might raise the price." I have no doubt there will be promotions as FTDNA seems fond of that. I'm not sure that there won't be a promotional price that reaches new net lows even if list pricing goes up.

I don't know. It's a game to try to predict future pricing. Over the long run (next 1-4 years) I expect net pricing to drop some and/or newer/expanded functions to be built in. That's normal for technology products.

Don't shoot the messenger.:)

So, the SNP packs will be a large share of the SNP market for some time then.

ArmandoR1b
09-23-2015, 02:16 AM
Armando, as a moderator I ask that you we leave the definitions of selling and advocacy behind as it relates to Joe. I'm not sure if that is helping the topic. Joe B has said he gets nothing monetarily out of this.

We are all selling our ideas. It's called persuasion. It's okay. Let's just hope we remain open enough to change our ideas as new information comes in or logic is developed.

He simply misunderstood what I was saying. I was using the term figuratively and he got thought I was using it literally. Then he got hot about it. All I did was point out the meaning in the way I used the term.

Yes, I know we are all selling ideas. The point is however that there are so many people that can't afford BigY or FGC that the SNP packs are a very happy median.

Heber
09-23-2015, 11:20 AM
http://www.technologyreview.com/news/541516/j-craig-venter-to-sell-dna-data-to-consumers/

I can see Craig Venters new venture HLI and Illuminated new venture Helix or Poparray bringing down the cost of WGS to the hundreds of dollars, initially for health but eventually someone will figure out a business model which includes ancestry.


http://www.technologyreview.com/news/540711/inside-illuminas-plans-to-lure-consumers-with-an-app-store-for-genomes/

http://medcitynews.com/2015/09/illumina-launching-poparray-consortium-to-develop-population-health-genomics-test/

TigerMW
09-23-2015, 01:30 PM
... The point is however that there are so many people that can't afford BigY or FGC that the SNP packs are a very happy median.
I agree with you. I don't like it as I think we need more SNP discovery, but the reality is that about a $100 or maybe up to $139 or so is about the most many, many will spend at a time. That's okay. It's a hobby and it depends on what people want out of a hobby. I try to respect that everyone has different goals, situations (both time and money wise), risk tolerances, etc. Therefore, everyone makes their own choices. It's just good to have an open and factual debate that people can participate in or view to help in the decision-making process.

miiser
09-23-2015, 08:44 PM
I agree that anything over $150 is a stretch for most people to spend on a hobby.

I think the breakthrough point will be when WGS becomes a standard medical test. Blood tests that cost a few hundred dollars are already routine. We are almost to the tipping point at which it makes sense to do WGS for everybody as standard care preventive testing. Insurance companies can potentially save money by covering most of the cost in order to provide more focused preventive care.

When we pass that threshold, genetic genealogy will be along for the ride. It looks like the current generation of sequencing technology doesn't quite get us to that point. But it seems likely that the next generation will put us over the top. I guess we'll be there in about 5 years.

Afshar
09-23-2015, 09:43 PM
http://www.technologyreview.com/news/541516/j-craig-venter-to-sell-dna-data-to-consumers/

I can see Craig Venters new venture HLI and Illuminated new venture Helix or Poparray bringing down the cost of WGS to the hundreds of dollars, initially for health but eventually someone will figure out a business model which includes ancestry.


http://www.technologyreview.com/news/540711/inside-illuminas-plans-to-lure-consumers-with-an-app-store-for-genomes/

http://medcitynews.com/2015/09/illumina-launching-poparray-consortium-to-develop-population-health-genomics-test/

Wgs is a bit misleading term when I read they just sequence 2% of the human genome.

Heber
09-24-2015, 02:43 PM
http://www.technologyreview.com/news/541516/j-craig-venter-to-sell-dna-data-to-consumers/

I can see Craig Venters new venture HLI and Illuminated new venture Helix or Poparray bringing down the cost of WGS to the hundreds of dollars, initially for health but eventually someone will figure out a business model which includes ancestry.


http://www.technologyreview.com/news/540711/inside-illuminas-plans-to-lure-consumers-with-an-app-store-for-genomes/

http://medcitynews.com/2015/09/illumina-launching-poparray-consortium-to-develop-population-health-genomics-test/

"The idea is to help Illumina create a new population-scale, multiethnic genotyping test – as outlined in the slide above. The 750,000-SNP microarray test could have applications in pharmacogenomics, biomarker analysis and genomic risk screening. The new microarray will be modeled after Illumina’s MEGA project – another consortium-driven array.....

Illumina is appealing to companies and public health organizations that can provide 150,000 samples – or $4.35 million. It’s a costly proposition that’s really only viable to a fairly small handful of organizations – few companies or research institutes will be able to quickly pony up the requisite samples or cash.

Here’s how Illumina is sweetening the deal to get other organizations on board: Consortium members can customize 50,000 SNPs that’ll show up in their microarray tests. The price to analyze each PopArray sample will be rather low, at $19 to $29 apiece – quite a stretch from the so-called $1,000 genome."