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Giovanni Ca
09-24-2015, 07:02 PM
which non-african populations have the smallest neanderthal admixtures?

evon
09-24-2015, 07:10 PM
I dont think you will find much on this, as we mixed so many times with them, first entering the Middle east and numerous other times, we also mixed with other hominid groups, both in and outside of Africa, this is a good show on the subject (although they got the skin color of early Europeans wrong and a few other minor issues):

http://www.pbs.org/first-peoples/home/

Giovanni Ca
09-24-2015, 08:15 PM
for ITALIANS, GREEKS, JEWISH, BALKAN: post your 23andme neanderthal
Me: 2.3%
I think its very low for an European.

Giovanni Ca
09-24-2015, 08:39 PM
neanderthal admixture on 23andMe bigger among ashkenazi than other mediterreans?

Kurd
09-25-2015, 05:09 PM
which non-african populations have the smallest neanderthal admixtures?

Theoretically, if we base the Neanderthal/H Sapiens admixture event as taking place when the OOAs entered the Eurasian gates in the Near East, it should be Papuans and other groups in SE Asia/Oceania. I'm not sure what the Neanderthal percentage is for those groups, but I remember seeing that it was very high for certain Scandinavians. For those European groups with a higher percentage, it is likely that there were multiple admixture events.

I'd also like to point out that Neanderthal mtDNA falls outside the mtDNA variation for H Sapiens. This would suggest that Neanderthal males mated with H Sapiens females, and those females raised the offspring in H Sapiens communities.

Giovanni Ca
09-25-2015, 07:26 PM
23andMe results: what medical/IQ problems have people who got low neanderthal %?
mine: 2.3%
11th percentile (scared!!!!!!!!!)

Sangarius
09-25-2015, 08:16 PM
They seam to start strange topics.

Jean M
09-25-2015, 09:18 PM
23andMe results: what medical/IQ problems have people who got low neanderthal %?

The idea that people with low Neanderthal input could have an IQ problem is just rubbish from those who bought into the Cochran/Harpending white supremacist dream. One of the speculations in The 10,000 Year Explosion (2009) which have subsequently been proved wrong was that inter-breeding with Neanderthals in Europe brought about the supposed Upper Palaeolithic "great leap forward" which was thought to be displayed in cave art, jewellery etc. What could be more pleasing to self-satisfied Europeans? Their Neanderthal DNA made them superior! ...... Except that it didn't.

The balloon has been punctured by:


Evidence of Neanderthal/Sapiens interbreeding in both Europe and Asia.
Evidence of early rock art in Asia and early jewellery etc in Africa. Sapiens brought these characteristics to Europe.
No evidence whatsoever of Neanderthal genes being related to improved brain processes.
Evidence that Sapiens was an improved model of Homo in the intellectual sphere.

Giovanni Ca
09-26-2015, 10:38 AM
Geno 2.0 "Your Hominin Ancestry"
1.8 neanderthal (average 2.1)
2.4 denisovan (average 2.1)

23andme
nenderthal: 2.3 (average 2.7)

How is it possible I plot more with melanesians than eurasians? is not logic, unless we assume my ancestors come from Fiji Islands. but is ridiculus.

Kurd
09-26-2015, 04:12 PM
Geno 2.0 "Your Hominin Ancestry"
1.8 neanderthal (average 2.1)
2.4 denisovan (average 2.1)

23andme
nenderthal: 2.3 (average 2.7)

How is it possible I plot more with melanesians than eurasians? is not logic, unless we assume my ancestors come from Fiji Islands. but is ridiculus.

The percentages of Neanderthal admixture assigned by the commercial outfits are good, but I believe can be improved. My Dstat analysis using markers sequenced by commercial outfits indicates to me that not all Neanderthal haplotypes are overlapping with the sequenced SNPs.

IMO estimates will become more accurate as more Neanderthal haplotype segments are sequenced by commercial companies

Giovanni Ca
09-26-2015, 08:11 PM
how many snps are tested for 23andMe neanderthal admixture? is it scientifically possible be italian in autosomal and mulatto-nigerian average for neanderthal?

Jean M
09-26-2015, 08:18 PM
is it scientifically possible be italian in autosomal and mulatto-nigerian average for neanderthal?

Yes it is. The supposed "Neanderthal" percentage varies in Europeans. It means next to nothing. I really wish that 23andMe would stop providing this test result, as it just seems to confuse people.

And see post http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?5424-23andMe-results-what-medical-IQ-problems-have-people-who-got-low-neanderthal&p=111075&viewfull=1#post111075

vettor
09-26-2015, 08:28 PM
Yes it is. The supposed "Neanderthal" percentage varies in Europeans. It means next to nothing. Mine is low. I am British.

I really wish that 23andMe would stop providing this test result, as it just seems to confuse people.

IMO, 23andme Neanderthal incorporates Dravidian as well

example..I am 3.1 Neanderthal in 23andme

but, I am 2.1 Dravidian and 1.0 Neanderthal in Nat geno2 ......2.1 plus 1.0 = 3.1

in interpretome I am 1.1 Neanderthal

to conclude, interpretome ( Harvard uni ) and Natgeno2 are similar and 23andme is exaggerated due to Dravidian influence.

Jean M
09-26-2015, 08:29 PM
As far as we know, there might be some advantage to certain Neanderthal SNPs related to keratin, which is why they were retained in Sapiens, rather than bred out. These SNPs might provide thicker hair to protect against the cold, for example. (But since Sapiens was capable of sewing warm clothing, it would not be the sole way to survive in the north.) However, it looks like most Neanderthal SNPs were deleterious.

See http://news.harvard.edu/gazette/story/2014/01/neanderthals-dna-legacy-linked-to-modern-ailments/


Remnants of Neanderthal DNA in modern humans are associated with genes affecting type 2 diabetes, Crohn’s disease, lupus, biliary cirrhosis, and smoking behavior. They also concentrate in genes that influence skin and hair characteristics. At the same time, Neanderthal DNA is conspicuously low in regions of the X chromosome and testes-specific genes.

The research, led by Harvard Medical School (HMS) geneticists and published Jan. 29 in Nature, suggests ways in which genetic material inherited from Neanderthals has proven both adaptive and maladaptive for modern humans. (A related paper by a separate team was published concurrently in Science.)

...In the past few years, studies by groups including Reich’s have revealed that present-day people of non-African ancestry trace an average of about 2 percent of their genomes to Neanderthals — a legacy of interbreeding between humans and Neanderthals that the team previously showed occurred between 40,000 to 80,000 years ago. (Indigenous Africans have little or no Neanderthal DNA because their ancestors did not breed with Neanderthals, who lived in Europe and Asia.)...

...the team found that some areas of the modern non-African human genome were rich in Neanderthal DNA, which may have been helpful for human survival, while other areas were more like “deserts” with far less Neanderthal ancestry than average.

The barren areas were the “most exciting” finding, said first author Sriram Sankararaman of HMS and the Broad Institute of Harvard and MIT. “It suggests the introduction of some of these Neanderthal mutations was harmful to the ancestors of non-Africans and that these mutations were later removed by the action of natural selection.” ...

The team showed that the areas with reduced Neanderthal ancestry tend to cluster in two parts of our genomes: genes that are most active in the male germline (the testes) and genes on the X chromosome. This pattern has been linked in many animals to a phenomenon known as hybrid infertility, where the offspring of a male from one subspecies and a female from another have low or no fertility.

“This suggests that when ancient humans met and mixed with Neanderthals, the two species were at the edge of biological incompatibility,” said Reich, who is also a senior associate member of the Broad Institute and an investigator at the Howard Hughes Medical Institute. Present-day human populations, which can be separated from one another by as much as 100,000 years (such as West Africans and Europeans), are fully compatible with no evidence of increased male infertility. In contrast, ancient human and Neanderthal populations apparently faced interbreeding challenges after 500,000 years of evolutionary separation.

Giovanni Ca
09-26-2015, 08:30 PM
A company like 23 can't be so amateurial. It's a shame.

Jean M
09-26-2015, 08:31 PM
IMO, 23andme Neanderthal incorporates Dravidian as well

I think you mean Denisovan.

vettor
09-26-2015, 08:33 PM
I think you mean Denisovan.

ahh maybe...........I will recheck .................I think you are correct..........age is catching up to me :\:biggrin1:


edit, I just check natgeno2 and it is Denisovan ..............thanks
As our modern human ancestors migrated through Eurasia, they encountered these hominin cousins and interbred, resulting in a small amount of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA being introduced into the modern human gene pool.

Most non-Africans are about 2 percent Neanderthal and slightly less than 2 percent Denisovan. Both percentages are calculated using a sophisticated analytical method that looks at parts of your DNA that you share with these hominin populations.

i think natgeno2 base it upon the colour code of their ydna tree
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/y_tree_mockup.png

Souriquois
09-26-2015, 08:49 PM
Neanderthal associated with type 2 diabetes? But people of African descent are at higher risk that doesn't make sense.

People with lower Neanderthal ancestry have higher rates of ADHD. I have 2.3% Neanderthal ancestry, low, and I have ADHD, actually one of the worst cases a doctor here has ever seen (I forgot to take my medication this morning and I lost my phone and my car keys twice and almost got in a car accident lol)

But ADHD was an adaptation for better hunting and creativity (make better spears) that's probably why modern humans wiped them out.

Jean M
09-26-2015, 09:51 PM
People with lower Neanderthal ancestry have higher rates of ADHD.

Where did you get this idea? It seems to be the wrong way around. DRD4-7R, the 7-repeat (7R) variant of DRD4, has been linked to a susceptibility for developing ADHD.

There was a paper speculating that DRD4 7R might have entered the Sapiens gene pool from Neanderthals. Medina, J. A.; Netto, T. L.; Muszkat, M., ADHD and Neanderthals, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Jun 2010, Vol. 19, pp. S25-S25.


Introduction: Genes with characteristics of ADHD populations, the allele gene DRD4-7R, had great proliferation at 40,000 years ago, Europe was shared by nomads’ Neanderthals and Cro-Magnons.

Objective: To describe interactions between Paleolithic environment and DRD4-7R characteristics. Methods: It’s an investigation for scientific evidences in scientific sites. Results: The presence of gene DRD4-7R in nomads is associated with better nutritional indices than that observed on assented condition, this nutritional advantage is linked with mass free of fat. Humans needed, during his journey to Ardipithecus from Homo sapiens, to be endurance runners, face the necessity of to hunt.

Discussion: ADHD individuals show during exercises lower values of acid lactic, suggesting better performance on endurance sports. Nutritional aspects associated to the active nomad way of life may had positive influence, face that aerobic training programs induce increase in gray matter on cortex cingulate anterior, the same brain area quoted like dysfunctional in ADHD populations.

Conclusion: Active way of life associated to nutritional strategies may help on development of ADHD children and perhaps, DRD4-7R could be result of hybridism.


I have no idea if DRD4-7R was actually found in the Neanderthal genome.

To the best of my knowledge, low Neanderthal DNA in modern people has not been associated with any disease or problem whatsoever.

DMXX
09-26-2015, 10:04 PM
Neanderthal associated with type 2 diabetes? But people of African descent are at higher risk that doesn't make sense.


Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease (literally, and medical terminology-wise). Not all human populations carry the same risk variants, or at the same frequencies.

Native American populations seem to have been "unlucky" enough to pick up that fraction of Neanderthal admixture which leads to adverse beta pancreatic cell function. Much the same way West Eurasians were "lucky" enough to pick up that fraction of Neanderthal admixture that enhances lipid metabolism.

Giovanni Ca
09-27-2015, 08:40 AM
Type 2 diabetes is a complex disease (literally, and medical terminology-wise). Not all human populations carry the same risk variants, or at the same frequencies.

Native American populations seem to have been "unlucky" enough to pick up that fraction of Neanderthal admixture which leads to adverse beta pancreatic cell function. Much the same way West Eurasians were "lucky" enough to pick up that fraction of Neanderthal admixture that enhances lipid metabolism.


Where did you get this idea? It seems to be the wrong way around. DRD4-7R, the 7-repeat (7R) variant of DRD4, has been linked to a susceptibility for developing ADHD.

There was a paper speculating that DRD4 7R might have entered the Sapiens gene pool from Neanderthals. Medina, J. A.; Netto, T. L.; Muszkat, M., ADHD and Neanderthals, European Child & Adolescent Psychiatry, Jun 2010, Vol. 19, pp. S25-S25.



I have no idea if DRD4-7R was actually found in the Neanderthal genome.

To the best of my knowledge, low Neanderthal DNA in modern people has not been associated with any disease or problem whatsoever.


Neanderthal associated with type 2 diabetes? But people of African descent are at higher risk that doesn't make sense.

People with lower Neanderthal ancestry have higher rates of ADHD. I have 2.3% Neanderthal ancestry, low, and I have ADHD, actually one of the worst cases a doctor here has ever seen (I forgot to take my medication this morning and I lost my phone and my car keys twice and almost got in a car accident lol)

But ADHD was an adaptation for better hunting and creativity (make better spears) that's probably why modern humans wiped them out.


ahh maybe...........I will recheck .................I think you are correct..........age is catching up to me :\:biggrin1:


edit, I just check natgeno2 and it is Denisovan ..............thanks
As our modern human ancestors migrated through Eurasia, they encountered these hominin cousins and interbred, resulting in a small amount of Neanderthal and Denisovan DNA being introduced into the modern human gene pool.

Most non-Africans are about 2 percent Neanderthal and slightly less than 2 percent Denisovan. Both percentages are calculated using a sophisticated analytical method that looks at parts of your DNA that you share with these hominin populations.

i think natgeno2 base it upon the colour code of their ydna tree
https://genographic.nationalgeographic.com/wp-content/uploads/2014/12/y_tree_mockup.png





do you think typical autosomal calculations include just homo sapiens snps or there is no discrimination in the choice? autosomal = just your homo sapiens snps?

Giovanni Ca
09-29-2015, 08:52 PM
how many snps are tested in 23andMe and Geno 2.0 neanderthal calculators?

Jean M
09-29-2015, 09:35 PM
Giovanni - Do you know if other Italians have a low Neanderthal score at 23andMe? I wonder if Italians have been particularly keen to breed for an appreciation of beauty - a very Sapiens trait. I used to joke that I was convinced that Italians had some genetic advantage when it comes to art and design. But maybe they actually do! Think of all the great artists Italy has produced! The fashion, the design!

See http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?5514-Why-are-we-the-only-species-still-alive for differences between Neanderthals and Homo sapiens.

Giovanni Ca
09-30-2015, 09:46 PM
I'm so sad. So sad. Never been so sad.