View Full Version : H13c in Mesolithic Georgia (Caucasus)

Jean M
11-16-2015, 02:58 PM
Eppie Jones et al., Upper Palaeolithic genomes reveal deep roots of modern Eurasians, Nature Communications, 6, Article number: 8912, Published 16 November 2015

One sample was from Kotias Klde, western Georgia (in the Caucasus, not the US state) dating to 9,529–9,895 cal. BP. This was a male with Y-DNA J2a and mtDNA H13c.

Supplementary Information:

Kotias (425x coverage of the mitochondria) was assigned to haplogroup H13c (see methods). Mitochondrial haplogroup H, the most prevalent and diverse haplogroup found in west Eurasia, peaks in frequency in western Europe, accounting for more than 40% of total mtDNA diversity with a decreasing yet still appreciable frequency towards the Near East, the Caucasus and Central Asia (10-30%). Coalescence age estimates are considerably older for H in the Near East (23-28 kya) than in Europe (19-21 kya) and it has been proposed that H may have evolved in the southern Caucasus and northern part of the Near East where the most ancient clades of H are present. Sub-haplogroup H13 is most common in the Near East and Caucasus reaching highest frequencies in Georgia and Daghestan39. Interestingly this sub-haplogroup has been found in individuals from the Late Neolithic Bell Beaker culture in Germany and the Early Bronze Age Yamnaya culture from the Pontic Steppe.

11-16-2015, 04:14 PM
Per 23andme:


So it seems haplogroup H13 originated and still mostly found in the Caucasus.