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Tomenable
01-06-2016, 12:50 AM
It seems, that this haplogroup is most frequent among Mbuti and Biaka Pygmies - such as these:

https://www.youtube.com/user/fightfortheforgotten/videos


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BEeGBjyJWp8

Are there any maps showing the frequency of haplogroup B (taking into acount total population)?

Leeroy Jenkins
01-06-2016, 01:15 AM
I didn't expect to see Justin Wren when I clicked on this thread. :lol:

What a journey that man has been on. From MMA fights in Bellator and the UFC to hanging out with Pygmies in the Congo. What a life.

Tomenable
01-06-2016, 01:17 AM
Unfortunately not all Pygmies are as lucky as these who met Justin Wren:


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Kuf1TgaCgk

Bonnie
01-09-2016, 04:11 PM
Thanks, Tomenable, I agree, their situation is tragic. though they have a beautiful, rich culture, documented by anthropologists and ethnomusicologists. Of course much of it is being lost, as they are prevented from living in their forest home. From what I know, this video is no exaggeration, though those in the DRC may perhaps be the worst off, following the atrocities committed against them in the war there. In a few regions, things may be a little better than what it shows. I hope.

As the video shows, they're often used as slaves by their larger neighbors, who consider them inferior sub-humans. Overall, they're the most powerless and downtrodden people in the region. Usually they aren't considered citizens, having no identity papers documenting their births or residence, and therefore they have no vote.

I would so much like there to be greater public awareness of their plight and support for projects to assist them. In the A00 Cameroon research project, we're thinking about what we can do to give back to the communities we'd like to sample. There are some local organizations here and there which Pygmies and sympathetic outsiders have formed to help them advocate for their rights, to gain a somewhat more adequate livelihood, and access to health care and schooling. Here and there, humanitarian groups are operating little projects to support one community or another.

Any suggestions for worthwhile groups to support are welcome.

I'd suggest this discussion on the Pygmies be moved to another thread, though. Anyone know where would be suitable?

I'll post separately on Haplogroup B.

Bonnie
01-09-2016, 04:31 PM
I do have a few maps, however inadequate, on the distribution of haplogroup B, but they really need to be updated. [Note: these have been somewhat updated, however the graphics aren't very good.]

Here's one for B2b. I think we can safely assume it also occurs in the countries that are completely surrounded by countries where there is B2b.

Keep in mind, please, that this is a rough draft, and that B2b certainly isn't found in all parts of the countries colored in -- it has just been found in some part of it.

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It's more common among the Pygmies than any other clade of B, but as you can see, it's not limited to them. It's found among the hunting-gathering people of Tanzania, the San and related peoples of Southern Africa, and a few among people you wouldn't expect, such as the Maasai! It's even found among a few people from the Arabian Peninsula. I believe this is likely due to centuries of slave-trading in East Africa.

It's an ancient, deep-rooted clade with many subclades, which are being well documented in recent years.

Bonnie
01-09-2016, 04:53 PM
B2a is the largest clade of haplogroup B, B2a1 in particular (I've never heard of any B2a2). It's considered by scholars to have been spread as part of the great Bantu Expansion. We see a relatively good number of B2a1 among African-Americans, though any A or B is still rare among them.

Here's a map for B2a. I think it occurs at low rates in many countries bordering those colored in. Some countries have far more than others. Cameroon has one of the most numerous counts, though some intense sampling in South Africa, Botswana and Uganda turned up quite a few in those countries. As you can imagine, Africa still has many populations that have hardly been sampled. For example, on the map none is seen in Sudan or South Sudan, but I'd bet there might be some. Sudan and South Sudan's longstanding state of war would be a good guess as to the reason for the lack of samples.

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Bonnie
01-09-2016, 05:37 PM
And then there are the rarer clades, B1 and B3. These have been found in a more limited range, though no doubt there could be more.

B1 has been known for years, as you can guess from its name. It's still quite rare, but we now have, at least, two sets of Big Y results, one of those also having participated in Walk Through the Y.

B3, which branches off upstream of B1 and B2, was discovered by my research, combining Walk Through the Y and 1000 Genomes data, and we also now have one man's Big Y results. As of yet, no published papers have tested for it, though Mannis van Oven has kindly added it to his tree at http://www.phylotree.org/Y/tree/.

The B3 map is from a different set. It's only known from the Senegambia region and from African and Caribbean Americans.

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Passa
07-15-2016, 03:24 PM
Are there any maps showing the frequency of haplogroup B (taking into acount total population)?

This is my map of Y-DNA B. Hope it's useful.

http://www.anthrogenica.com/attachment.php?attachmentid=10465&stc=1

Tomenable
07-16-2016, 05:52 PM
Very nice maps, thank you Bonnie and Passa.

There is also some B outside of Africa - question is whether it is recent dispersal, or more ancient one:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_B-M60#Distribution

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_B-M60#Subclades

Tomenable
07-16-2016, 05:55 PM
This is my map of Y-DNA B. Hope it's useful.

Is B really so common in the west of South Africa, though?

I think that A is the main Y-DNA haplogroup of the Khoisan:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Khoisan#Biology_and_genetic_studies


https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W5_OGa_Ktek

Tomenable
07-16-2016, 05:57 PM
Here are Bonnie's maps merged into one image. I also coloured Sudan, because it does have B:

https://s31.postimg.org/ko6bm725n/Haplogrupa_B.png

Passa
07-16-2016, 05:58 PM
Very nice maps, thank you Bonnie and Passa.

There is also some B outside of Africa - question is whether it is recent dispersal, or more ancient one:

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_B-M60#Distribution

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_B-M60#Subclades

B outside of Africa is fairly recent. I know this because B didn't pop up in the Sudanese aDNA study by Hassan.

Tomenable
07-16-2016, 06:02 PM
In a sample of 651 Afro-Americans from the U.S., 15 had B (of whom 10 = B2a1a) and 9 had A.

Tomenable
07-16-2016, 06:04 PM
In a sample of 1204 Sardinians (Francalacci et al. 2013), 7 had A1b1b2b, but nobody had B.

Tomenable
07-16-2016, 06:12 PM
B didn't pop up in the Sudanese aDNA study by Hassan

How large was Hassan's sample, though?

According to wiki, B is common among some ethnic groups from Sudan:

Population - B frequency (per wiki):

Nuer (South Sudan) 50%
Shilluk (South Sudan) 27%
Dinka (South Sudan) 23%
Hausa (Sudan) 16%
Copts (Sudan) 15%
Nuba (Sudan) 14%


According to one study of the Y-DNA of populations in Sudan, haplogroup B-M60 is found in approximately 30% (16/53) of Southern Sudanese, 16% (5/32) of local Hausa people, 14% (4/28) of the Nuba of central Sudan, 3.7% (8/216) of Northern Sudanese (but only among Copts and Nubians), and 2.2% (2/90) of Western Sudanese.[5] According to another study, haplogroup B is found in approximately 15% of Sudanese males, including 12.5% (5/40) B2a1a-M109/M152 and 2.5% (1/40) B-M60(xM146, M150, M112). (...)

In North Africa, haplogroup B2a1a Y-DNA has been found in 12.5% (5/40) of Sudanese[7] (...) Haplogroup B-M30 has been found in 22% (2/9) of a mixed sample of speakers of Central Sudanic and Saharan languages from northern Cameroon (...)

Megalophias
07-16-2016, 06:24 PM
Is B really so common in the west of South Africa, though?

I think that A is the main Y-DNA haplogroup of the Khoisan

21% B and 33% A in the biggest study I know of. There was also 43% E from Bantu farmer and East African pastoralist admixture and 3% recent colonial era admixture. So A is most important but there is lots of B as well. (Some of the B is also probably Bantu, but it should be only a small proportion.)

Passa
07-16-2016, 06:28 PM
How large was Hassan's sample, though?

19 samples spanning 7000 years or so.

Angoliga
12-07-2016, 01:56 PM
And then there are the rarer clades, B1 and B3. These have been found in a more limited range, though no doubt there could be more.

B1 has been known for years, as you can guess from its name. It's still quite rare, but we now have, at least, two sets of Big Y results, one of those also having participated in Walk Through the Y...


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Thanks for the posts, please let me know if there's more info

I just got the ftdna results of my maternal side's Y-chromosome via an uncle, it turned out B-M181 -- too bad I can't seem to find any info online about this specific subclade.

My maternal family comes from Eastern Nilotic speakers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Nilotic_languages) that are said to have migrated to the bordering South-Sudan/Uganda/DRC region in the 1600s from Southern Ethiopia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Nations,_Nationalities,_and_Peoples'_Regi on). The native population of this South-Sudan/Uganda/DRC region were Moru-Madi Central-Sudanic Speakers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moru%E2%80%93Madi_languages) and Mbuti Pgymies before them.

The pygmy affinity in my family hovers at around 11% on some gedmatch calculators and runs as low as 3% on others (23andme) -- this might be a question of how far back the alleles are being referenced (+- 500 years).

I'd like to know if my maternal B-M181 is directly from an Mbuti Pygmy ancestor or of the same B haplogroup assigned to other Southern-Sudanese nilotes -- many of the studies I've found don't specify the sublclades, so it's hard to make any conclusions.

Yahanon
12-14-2016, 09:53 PM
Thanks for the posts, please let me know if there's more info

I just got the ftdna results of my maternal side's Y-chromosome via an uncle, it turned out B-M181 -- too bad I can't seem to find any info online about this specific subclade.

My maternal family comes from Eastern Nilotic speakers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eastern_Nilotic_languages) that are said to have migrated to the bordering South-Sudan/Uganda/DRC region in the 1600s from Southern Ethiopia (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Southern_Nations,_Nationalities,_and_Peoples'_Regi on). The native population of this South-Sudan/Uganda/DRC region were Moru-Madi Central-Sudanic Speakers (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Moru%E2%80%93Madi_languages) and Mbuti Pgymies before them.

The pygmy affinity in my family hovers at around 11% on some gedmatch calculators and runs as low as 3% on others (23andme) -- this might be a question of how far back the alleles are being referenced (+- 500 years).

I'd like to know if my maternal B-M181 is directly from an Mbuti Pygmy ancestor or of the same B haplogroup assigned to other Southern-Sudanese nilotes -- many of the studies I've found don't specify the sublclades, so it's hard to make any conclusions.

I just received my results back, B-M146. This has proven to be extremely difficult to research.

Megalophias
12-14-2016, 10:40 PM
I just received my results back, B-M146. This has proven to be extremely difficult to research.

Yeah, most of what little is known about B refers to B2. All I know about B1a-M146 is that it is found at low frequency in West Africa. There's been no sign of it in East or South or Equatorial Africa in fairly large surveys. There is also quite a bit of B* in Central Africa which might be related to B1 but no one has tested for that.

Yahanon
12-16-2016, 03:14 PM
Yeah, most of what little is known about B refers to B2. All I know about B1a-M146 is that it is found at low frequency in West Africa. There's been no sign of it in East or South or Equatorial Africa in fairly large surveys. There is also quite a bit of B* in Central Africa which might be related to B1 but no one has tested for that.

Thank you. B2 is widespread, which initially threw me off course. In contrast, B1a appears to be rare and isolated with slightly higher frequency in Benin, Burkina Faso, Togo and CDI. http://atlas.xyvy.info/country-national-haplogroup-chart-dna