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Humanist
02-11-2013, 11:38 PM
Another thread I began three years ago on a now defunct forum, and wish to continue here.

mtDNA N=77 (January 23, 2013)
H 27.3%
U 23.4%
J 18.2%
HV 15.6%
T 7.8%
K 2.6%
I 1.3%
N 1.3%
W 1.3%
X 1.3%

Sources: FTDNA, 23andMe, and SMGF


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_mtdna_distribution.jpg

ZephyrousMandaru
02-13-2013, 04:14 AM
Humanist, Elias was being sarcastic when announced his surrender to the Gaza hacker. The forum's going to be restored. Also, what I'd recommend you do, is search for your User Name and the name of the thread. Then view it in text format, search for any posts of value, and post them here.

Humanist
02-14-2013, 07:49 AM
Humanist, Elias was being sarcastic when announced his surrender to the Gaza hacker. The forum's going to be restored. Also, what I'd recommend you do, is search for your User Name and the name of the thread. Then view it in text format, search for any posts of value, and post them here.

Thank you for the tip, and the information, Zephyrous.

-----------------------------------------

Taking the I, N, W, and X frequencies reported in Fernandes et al. 2012 (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929711005453) for several non-African, Semitic-speaking populations of the Near East, adding the Assyrian frequencies from my post at top, and then running a MDS, produces the following result:

The Jordanian and Assyrian positions are similar. I excluded the Iraqis, because Assyrians may be included in the sample (Al-Zahery et al. 2003).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/mds_fernandes_asy.jpg

Humanist
02-14-2013, 05:03 PM
Armenian and Assyrian mtDNA frequencies are similar. For anyone who has frequented the various fora, this is not a surprise. However, there are areas of significant difference as well.

Armenian data from the Armenian DNA Project (n=166).

H, U, J, HV, T, K
95 Assyrian
81 Armenian

I, N, W, X
5 Assyrian
16 Armenian

R, V, F
0 Assyrian
4 Armenian

Humanist
02-15-2013, 07:52 PM
Our mtDNA U frequency includes one U5 maternal line.

HVR1 for the U5 line
16189C, 16192T, 16256T, 16270T

PhyloTree (Build 15)

U5 T3197C G9477A T13617C C16192T C16270T

U5a A14793G C16256T

Humanist
02-15-2013, 09:20 PM
I just did a quick check of the U5 lines listed on the FTDNA U5 project page. I may be wrong, but it appears that none of the U5 HVR1 sequences have less than 9 transitions/transversions.

Jean Manco's "Ancient Western Eurasian DNA (http://www.buildinghistory.org/distantpast/ancientdna.shtml)" page, however, does contain some possible U5a lines with less HVR1 transitions/transversions. Here are several, including one with a transition at locus 16189 (bottom):


1
Russia Chekalino ? 7800 BC
U5a 16192T, 16256T, 16270T, 16294T, +12308 HinfI Bramanti 2009

2
Russia Lebyazhinka [IVa] M 8000-7000 BC
U5a1 16192T, 16241C, 16256T, 16270T, 16399G; +12308 HinfI Bramanti 2009

3
England, UK Gough's Cave, Cheddar [Cheddar Man] M 7000 BC
U5 16192T, 16270T, reported by ISOGG as U5a ISOGG

4
Germany Hohlenstein-Stadel [5830a] M 6700 BC
U5a2a? 1721C, 7028T, 12372A, 14766T, 14793G, 16114A, 16192T, 16256T, 16294T, 16311C, reported as U5a Bramanti 2009

5
Luxembourg Reuland- Loschbour LSB1 M 6000 BC
U5 16192T, 16270T, reported as U5a Delsate 2009

6
Russia Uznyi Oleni Ostrov [UZOO 70] 7500 BP
U5a 19192T, 16256T, 16270T, 16318G Der Sarkissian 2011

7
Pitted Ware Sweden Ajvide, Eksta, Gotland [Ajv 5, 29a] 2800-2000 BC
U5a 2 samples 16256T, 16270T Malmstrom 2009

8
Pitted Ware Sweden Fridtorp, Vństerhejde,, Gotland [Fri 27] 2800-2000 BC
U5a 16256T, 16270T Malmstrom 2009

9
Poland Drestwo [2] M 2250 BC
U5a 16192T, 16256T, 16270T, +12308 HinfI Bramanti 2009

10
Russia Bolshoy Oleni Ostrov 3500 BP
U5a 2 samples 16192T, 16256T, 16270T Der Sarkissian 2011

11
Russia Bolshoy Oleni Ostrov [BOO 72-9, 72-10, 72-14, 78-8] 3500 BP
U5a1 4 samples 16192T, 16256T, 16270T, 16399G Der Sarkissian 2011

12
Dnieper-Donets Ukraine Nikolskoye [Ni91] F 5358–4993 BC
U5a1a 16256T, 16270T, 16356C + coding region U/K Nikitin 2012

13
LBK Germany Derenburg Meerenstieg II [DEB36] F 5000 BC ?
U5a1a 16093C, 16256T, 16270T, 16399G Haak 2010

14
Treilles France Treilles, Aveyron [575] M 3000 BC G2a P15; 1
U5 16227G, 16256T, 16270T, 16362TC Lacan 2011

15
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut9] 4000-3000 BC
U5a1 16192T, 16256T, 16270T Molodin 2012

16
Ust-Tartas Russia Sopka [Ut14] 4000-3000 BC
U5a1 16192T, 16256T, 16270T, 16318 Molodin 2012

17
Scytho-Siberian
Pazyryk culture Mongolia Olon-Kurin-Gol Valley cemetery 10 [OKG-10-1] M 400-200 BC
U5a1 16086C, [B]16189C, 16192T, 16256T, 16270T, 16304C, 16399G, 00073G, +12308 HinfI. Pilipenko 2010

Humanist
02-15-2013, 09:24 PM
The above post reminded me of this past GailT post:


In the Sarkissian study the U7 (haplotype 16256T-16318t) individual (sample RD-3) is Sarmatian. There is a modern U7a3 sample from Iraq that shares 16256T-16318t and also has 16368: JQ705966 Iraq - Kirkuk, Mizrachi

Humanist
02-15-2013, 10:34 PM
Ian Logan's U5a page lists the following lines:


CRS 263 750 1438 2706 4769 7028 8860 14766 15326

R0 73 11719

U 11467 12308 12372

U5a 14793 16256

1. AM260574 Annunen-Rasila U5a 01-AUG-2006 A750G A1438G A2706G T3197C A4769G C7028T A8860G G9477A A11467G G11719A A12308G G12372A T13617C C14766T A14793G A15326G
2. AM260575 Annunen-Rasila U5a 01-AUG-2006 A750G A1438G A2706G T3197C A4769G C7028T A8860G G9477A A11467G G11719A A12308G G12372A T13617C C14766T A14793G A15326G
3. DQ156212 Monteil-Sosa U5a 14-AUG-2005 A73G A263G A750G A1438G A2706G T3197C A4769G A5474G A5498G C7028T A8860G G9477A A11467G G11719A A12308G G12372A C14766T A14793G A15316G A15326G C16192T C16256T C16270T

Humanist
02-15-2013, 11:41 PM
Extending the comparison to a neighboring West Asian population, the Kurds. Using the data compiled by Palisto, at the Kurdish DNA blog.
Please see: Kurdish mtDNA data VIII (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/2013/01/kurdish-mtdna-data-viii.html).

H, U, J, HV, T, K
95 Assyrian
81 Armenian
78 Kurdish

I, N, W, X
5 Assyrian
14 Kurdish
16 Armenian

R, V, F
0 Assyrian
2 Kurdish
4 Armenian

M1a1, L3e5, G2a, C4b, B4b1a
6 Kurdish
0 Assyrian
0 Armenian

Humanist
02-16-2013, 03:01 AM
mtDNA N=78 (February 15, 2013)
H 26.9%
U 24.4%
J 17.9%
HV 15.4%
T 7.7%
K 2.6%
I 1.3%
N 1.3%
W 1.3%
X 1.3%

Sources: FTDNA, 23andMe, and SMGF

Two new RF matches at 23andMe are possibilities (mtDNA J1b3 and T1). Hopefully they get back to me, so that I can add them to the distribution if the maternal line is Assyrian.

Humanist
02-16-2013, 08:59 AM
Doing the same for the lone Assyrian U4 line, that I did for the U5 line.

Assyrian
U4 16093C, 16356C, 16519C
73G, 195C, 215N, 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, 499A

16356C --> U4

The U4 page at GenBank does not contain any U4 sequences with 16093C. There are a few listed at the FTDNA U4 project page (see bottom).

From Jean Manco's aDNA page again (please see link, above, in blue). The locus 16093 may not be of particular use for phylogenetic purposes as far as U4 is concerned, but it is again interesting to note the difference in the number of HVR1 transitions/transversions.


1
Russia Uznyi Oleni Ostrov [UZOO 16 and 40] 7500 BP
U4 2 samples 16093C, 16356C Der Sarkissian 2011

2
Russia Popova [Po2] 7000 BP
U4 16093C, 16356C Der Sarkissian 2011

3
Pitted Ware Sweden Ajvide, Eksta, Gotland [Ajv 52b, 66] 2800-2000 BC
U4 2 samples 16093C, 16356C Malmstrom 2009

4
Pitted Ware Sweden Ajvide, Eksta, Gotland [Ajv 70] 2800-2000 BC
U4 16093C, 16356C, reported as U4d/U4a2 Malmstrom 2009; Skoglund 2012

5
Pitted Ware Sweden Ire, Hangvar, Gotland [Ire 9] 2800-2000 BC
U4 16093C, 16356C Malmstrom 2009

6
Russia Bolshoy Oleni Ostrov [BOO 49-3, 57-1] 3500 BP
U4a1 2 samples 16093C, 16129A, 16311C, 16356C Der Sarkissian 2011

FTDNA U4 project

U4a1
169229 Tamil Nadu, India U4 T16093C, A16129G, C16134T, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C

71365 b.c. 1898, Collinsville, Illinois U4a1 T16093C, A16129G, C16134T, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C

N84825 b.1568,JŠren,Rogaland,NO U4a1 T16093C, C16134T, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, T16356C C146T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C, 522.3A, 522.4C

U4a3
N54460 b. Nov 20, 1868, Ontario, Canada U4 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, A16265G, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C, T16362C

U4b1a2
186741 b. 186?, USA U4b1a2 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, C152T, A247G, T408a, T460C, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C

U4b3
N80837 (1875 - ?) Neotop, Greece U4b3 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, C152T, A215G, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C, 522.3A, 522.4C

136031 Lukovskaya, Russia U4b3 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146Y, C152T, A215G, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C, 522.3A, 522.4C

Unassigned - full mitochondrial sequence required for detailed subclade assignment
N102370 1854 Osen,Tr°ndel,NO U4 A16051G, T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, C16234T, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, C152T, C195T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C

44834 b. 1860, Poland U4 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C

109788 19th C Worksop, England U4 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, C152T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C, 522.3A, 522.4C, 522.5A, 522.6C

Humanist
02-16-2013, 06:30 PM
I sent a message over to a RF match who I had assumed was a full-blooded member of another group. Turns out, his mother was Assyrian. Even had the same surname as my paternal side. :) I have a message out to a similar case. Hope to hear back from them as well.

mtDNA N=79 (February 16, 2013)
H 26.6%
U 24.1%
J 17.7%
HV 16.5%
T 7.6%
K 2.5%
I 1.3%
N 1.3%
W 1.3%
X 1.3%

Humanist
02-17-2013, 05:34 AM
Attempting to assign a subclade to an Assyrian "U" line. FGS is necessary, apparently.

Assyrian
HVR1: 16111T, 16172C, 16189C, 16234T, 16311C, 16519C
HVR2: 73G, 195C, 263G, 315.1C, 522-, 523-

The nearest matches on MitoSearch:

NYKX9 U 172C,189C,234T,311C,519C -1 Not Tested
PSC4G U 172C,189C,234T,311C,519C -1 Not Tested
WMHHD U* 172C,189C,234T,311C,519C -1 Not Tested
AYZ79 Unknown 172C,189C,234T,311C,519C -1 073G,195C,263G,315.1C,522-,523-
GQJC9 Unknown 172C,189C,234T,311C,519C -1 073G,195C,249-,263G,309.1C,309.2C,315.1C,522-,523-

The transition at locus 16111 is the only HVR1 difference.

The MitoSearch profiles containing biographical data:

PSC4G : Spain
AYZ79 : Moca?, Puerto Rico
GQJC9 : A Sarakatsana from Serres, Greece

I was not familiar with the Sarakatsani, so I did a search. A few bits from Wikipedia:


The Sarakatsani...are a group of Greek[7][8] transhumant shepherds inhabiting chiefly Greece, with a smaller presence in neighbouring Bulgaria, southern Albania and the Republic of Macedonia. Historically centered around the Pindus mountains, they have been currently urbanised to a significant degree. Most of them now reside throughout Thrace and Macedonia[9] and are of Greek Orthodox faith.[10]

The most popular theory about the origin of the name Sarakatsani or Karakatsani, is that it derives from the Turkish word karakašan (kara = 'black' + kašan = 'fugitive') meaning 'those who flee to uncultivated lands'.[11] Aromanian scholar Theodor Capidan proposed the theory that the name is derived from the Greek village of Syrrako situated S-E of Ioanina in Epirus.[citation needed]

Despite the silence of the classical and medieval writers, most scholars argue that the Sarakatsani have ancient origins, descended from pre-classical indigenous pastoralists, citing linguistic evidence and certain aspects of their traditional culture and socioeconomic organization. The anthropological characteristics of the Sarakatsani also classify them as one of the earliest populations on the Balkans and Europe. Their origins have been the subject of broad and permanent interest.

Regions with significant populations
Greece 80,000 (1950s estimate) [1]
Bulgaria 2,511 (2011)[2] - 25,000 [3][4][5]



SARAKATSANI - THE MOST ANCIENT PEOPLE OF EUROPE

(From the book in Greek language of Aris Ν. Poulianos, 1993, p.170)

340

341

Source: http://www.aee.gr/english/5sarakatsani/sarakatsani.html

Humanist
02-17-2013, 07:57 AM
Characterization of mitochondrial DNA control region lineages in Iraq
Int J Legal Med. 2012
Al-Zahery et al.


Assyrian HV1b1 IRQ038 16067T 16274A 263G 309.1C 309.2C 315.1C

Counting the founders: the matrilineal genetic ancestry of the Jewish Diaspora
PLoS ONE 3 (4), e2062 (2008)
Behar et al.


The Yemenite Jewish community is thought to have been established in the second century CE. Here we found that 42.0% of the mtDNA variation in this community can be attributed to 5 women carrying mtDNAs that belong to sub-branches of Hgs R0a1c, R2a, HV1b, L3x1a and U1a2. While these Hgs, except L3x1a, can be considered as a part of the general West Asian mtDNA genetic pool, they have higher frequencies in East Africa and Yemen [10].

10% of the Yemenite Jews in Behar et al. 2008 carried the HV1b1 haplotype: 16067 16274 263

Ian Logan's GenBank page for HV, lists only the following HV1b1 sample (it is a Yemeni Jewish individual from Behar):

HV1b1 2626 3687 4739 7598 16274

37. EF556182 Behar 2008 HV1b1 22-APR-2008 A263G 309.1C 309.2C 315.1C A750G A1438G T2626C A2706G C3687T C4739T A4769G C7028T G7598A A8014T A8860G T12696C A15218G A15326G C16067T G16274A

Also, in the FTDNA Assyrian Project, there is this Assyrian HV1b1:

(Kit #90492) - 16067T 16274A 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C

Humanist
02-18-2013, 01:06 AM
Wow. A few Assyrian RF matches have come in the last few days. They always seem to come in bunches. I suppose we have the sale/lowered price to thank for that.

mtDNA N=80 (February 17, 2013)
H 26.3%
U 25.0%
J 18.8%
HV 15.0%
T 7.5%
K 2.5%
I 1.3%
N 1.3%
W 1.3%
X 1.3%

There are an additional three that I am waiting on. Two of them, based on their matches with both sides of my family, their biographical data (where provided), are more likely than not at least part Assyrian. Still need to wait to hear from them, or hold out hope that they will share more details regarding their background in their profile.

Humanist
02-18-2013, 02:21 AM
And, here are the individual haplogroups/subclades (may not be current with PhyloTree Build 15):

1 H
2 H
3 H
4 H
5 H
6 H
7 H
8 H
9 H1
10 H1
11 H2a
12 H2a1
13 H3
14 H4
15 H5a
16 H6
17 H7
18 H7a
19 H8
20 H13a2
21 H14a

22 HV
23 HV
24 HV
25 HV
26 HV4a2a
27 HV4a2a
28 HV4
29 HV4b
30 HV1
31 HV1
32 HV1a1
33 HV1b

34 I

35 J
36 J
37 J1b
38 J1b
39 J1b1b1
40 J1b3
41 J1b3
42 J1c
43 J1d
44 J1d
45 J1d
46 J1d
47 J1d
48 J1d
49 J1d1

50 K
51 K1b1

52 N1b1b

53 T1
54 T1a
55 T1
56 T1a2
57 T1a1b
58 T2

59 U*
60 U1a1
61 U1a3
62 U1a3
63 U1a3
64 U1b
65 U2e1
66 U3
67 U3
68 U3b
69 U3b
70 U3b1
71 U4
72 U5a
73 U7
74 U7
75 U7
76 U7
77 U7
78 U7

79 W

80 X2

GailT
02-18-2013, 05:06 AM
I just did a quick check of the U5 lines listed on the FTDNA U5 project page. I may be wrong, but it appears that none of the U5 HVR1 sequences have less than 9 transitions/transversions.

FTDNA is now showing the mtDNA haplogroup project results relative to RSRS, and that is why you see 9 or more markers listed. You would have to covert back to rCRS to get a more familiar result.

There is only one confirmed U5a* sample, DQ156212 from Spain. It would be very interesting to confirm another U5a*. We have 4 people in the project who tested HVR, who could be U5a, but the complete genome would need to be tested to confirm.

Is there any possibility of getting your U5a person to upgrade to the FMS?

Humanist
02-18-2013, 09:03 AM
FTDNA is now showing the mtDNA haplogroup project results relative to RSRS, and that is why you see 9 or more markers listed. You would have to covert back to rCRS to get a more familiar result.

There is only one confirmed U5a* sample, DQ156212 from Spain. It would be very interesting to confirm another U5a*. We have 4 people in the project who tested HVR, who could be U5a, but the complete genome would need to be tested to confirm.

Is there any possibility of getting your U5a person to upgrade to the FMS?

Thanks for the info, Gail. And regarding the upgrade, perhaps next time a sale rolls around. :)

Humanist
02-18-2013, 11:14 AM
Doing the same for the lone Assyrian U4 line, that I did for the U5 line.

Assyrian
U4 16093C, 16356C, 16519C
73G, 195C, 215N, 263G, 309.1C, 315.1C, 499A

16356C --> U4

The U4 page at GenBank does not contain any U4 sequences with 16093C. There are a few listed at the FTDNA U4 project page (see bottom).

From Jean Manco's aDNA page again (please see link, above, in blue). The locus 16093 may not be of particular use for phylogenetic purposes as far as U4 is concerned, but it is again interesting to note the difference in the number of HVR1 transitions/transversions.


1
Russia Uznyi Oleni Ostrov 7500 BP
U4 2 samples 16093C, 16356C Der Sarkissian 2011

2
Russia Popova [Po2] 7000 BP
U4 16093C, 16356C Der Sarkissian 2011

3
Pitted Ware Sweden Ajvide, Eksta, Gotland [Ajv 52b, 66] 2800-2000 BC
U4 2 samples 16093C, 16356C Malmstrom 2009

4
Pitted Ware Sweden Ajvide, Eksta, Gotland [Ajv 70] 2800-2000 BC
U4 16093C, 16356C, reported as U4d/U4a2 Malmstrom 2009; Skoglund 2012

5
Pitted Ware Sweden Ire, Hangvar, Gotland [Ire 9] 2800-2000 BC
U4 16093C, 16356C Malmstrom 2009

6
Russia Bolshoy Oleni Ostrov 3500 BP
U4a1 2 samples 16093C, 16129A, 16311C, 16356C Der Sarkissian 2011

FTDNA U4 project


[B]U4a1
169229 Tamil Nadu, India U4 T16093C, A16129G, C16134T, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C

71365 b.c. 1898, Collinsville, Illinois U4a1 T16093C, A16129G, C16134T, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C

N84825 b.1568,JŠren,Rogaland,NO U4a1 T16093C, C16134T, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, T16356C C146T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C, 522.3A, 522.4C

U4a3
N54460 b. Nov 20, 1868, Ontario, Canada U4 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, A16265G, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C, T16362C

U4b1a2
186741 b. 186?, USA U4b1a2 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, C152T, A247G, T408a, T460C, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C

U4b3
N80837 (1875 - ?) Neotop, Greece U4b3 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, C152T, A215G, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C, 522.3A, 522.4C

136031 Lukovskaya, Russia U4b3 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146Y, C152T, A215G, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C, 522.3A, 522.4C

Unassigned - full mitochondrial sequence required for detailed subclade assignment
N102370 1854 Osen,Tr°ndel,NO U4 A16051G, T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, C16234T, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, C152T, C195T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 309.1C, 315.1C

44834 b. 1860, Poland U4 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C

109788 19th C Worksop, England U4 T16093C, A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C C146T, C152T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C, 522.3A, 522.4C, 522.5A, 522.6C


Perhaps Gail can chime in regarding this as well. An Assyrian U4 from Al-Zahery et al. Does 16311 mutate too often to be of use? Need a full sequence, I suppose?

Assyrian U4 from Al-Zahery et al.
HVR1
16311C 16356C 16519C

HVR2
73G 228A 263G 310C 499A 524.1A 524.2C

The FTDNA U4 project has these:

[U]U4c2 16261T/16311C cluster
53022 Saville U4 A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, C16261T, T16278C, T16356C, C16519T
147560 1785 Kent, England U4 A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, C16261T, T16278C, T16356C, C16519T C146T, C150T, C152T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C
172090 1903-1970(U4) U4 A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, C16261T, T16278C, T16356C, C16519T C146T, C150T, C152T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C
224498 b. GA, d. abt 1856 Macon Co GA U4c2 A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, C16261T, T16278C, T16356C, C16519T C146T, C150T, C152T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C
N60257 b circa 1860s Georgia U4c2 A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, C16261T, T16278C, T16356C, C16519T C146T, C150T, C152T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C
142238 1823 Athy, Co Kildare, Ireland U4c2 A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, C16261T, T16278C, T16356C, C16519T C146T, C150T, C152T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C

U4c2
63127 b. c.1770 Surry Co, North Carolina U4c2 A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C, C16519T C152T, G228A, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C
102249 Ireland; U4c2 A16129G, T16187C, C16189T, T16223C, G16230A, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C, C16519T C152T, G228A, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C
218174 b.c. 1860, Poland U4c2 A16129G, T16187C, T16223C, G16230A, C16261T, T16278C, C16311T, T16356C, C16519T C146T, C150T, C152T, A247G, G499A, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C

GailT
02-18-2013, 03:33 PM
Perhaps Gail can chime in regarding this as well. An Assyrian U4 from Al-Zahery et al. Does 16311 mutate too often to be of use? Need a full sequence, I suppose?

Yes, 16311 is an extremely common mutation in haplogroup U, so I would not rely on it alone. Perhaps when combined with other mutations it would be useful.

Humanist
02-18-2013, 06:34 PM
Yes, 16311 is an extremely common mutation in haplogroup U, so I would not rely on it alone. Perhaps when combined with other mutations it would be useful.

Thanks again.

Humanist
02-23-2013, 12:25 AM
mtDNA N=81 (February 22, 2013)
H 25.9%
U 24.7%
J 18.5%
HV 14.8%
T 8.6%
K 2.5%
I 1.2%
N 1.2%
W 1.2%
X 1.2%

New RF match. Still waiting to hear from a handful of other possibilities, including some that are very likely at least part Assyrian.

Humanist
02-24-2013, 02:09 AM
mtDNA N=82 (February 23, 2013)
U 25.6%
H 25.6%
J 18.3%
HV 14.6%
T 8.5%
K 2.4%
I 1.2%
N 1.2%
W 1.2%
X 1.2%

This makes the second Assyrian U2e1. There is a third Assyrian U2e1 in Al-Zahery et al., but those frequencies are not included above.

The Al-Zahery Assyrian U2e1 has the following HVR1/HVR2 mutations:

16051G 16129C 16183C 16189C 16193.1C 16235G 16256T 16362C
73G 152C 217C 263G 309.1C 309.2C 315.1C 340T 508G 524.1A 524.2C

The Assyrian sample from Al-Zahery et al., I think, may be U2e1b (16256T).

From Ian Logan's U2 GenBank page. These two lines are still listed under U2e1, but both have mutations in HVR1 (16256T) and the coding region (988A) defining U2e1b in PhyloTree (Build 15). Perhaps it is more a function of the populations sampled to date more than anything else, but another recurring theme has been the Indian-Assyrian-Italian mtDNA "link."


39. AY714049(India) Palanichamy 04-OCT-2006
41. EF661006(Italy) Gasparre 04-JUL-2007

Also, based on the data listed on Jean Manco's (http://www.buildinghistory.org/distantpast/ancientdna.shtml) site, the below sample appears to be the only U2e1 sample found in aDNA to date. He does not appear to have the HVR1 transition at locus 16256 (U2e1b), however.


Xiongnu a.k.a. Hsiung-nu Mongolia Duurlig Nars [MNX3] M 300- 100 BC R1a1a; [reported as R1a1] M173 SRY10831.2
M17

U2e1 73, 152, 217, 263, 3151C, 340, 12308, 12372, 15907, 16051, 16093, 16129C, 16182C, 16183C, 16189, 16362 Kim 2010

There are ~20 U2e1b at the FTDNA U project. All of them appear to be European.

The above Mongolian sample was from this study (thanks to Jean for the Bibliography (http://www.buildinghistory.org/distantpast/bibliography.shtml#Kim2010)):

Kim, K. et al. (2010), A Western Eurasian Male Is Found in 2000-Year-Old Elite Xiongnu Cemetery in Northeast Mongolia (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21242/abstract;jsessionid=EF00FDC7458C7FB16DF93FA483F126 09.d03t01), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 142, no. 3 (July 2010), pp. 429–440.


Abstract

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society.

Humanist
03-01-2013, 07:27 AM
The other forum is now accessible. Here is one I wanted to post, considering the U Y-DNA lines I have discussed recently:


The mtDNA haplogroup of the Iraqi Mandaean on 23andMe is T2a1a. Ian Logan's page lists the following fully sequenced T2a1a genomes (not necessarily representative of actual T2a1a distribution):

AY495298(European) Coble
AY495301(European) Coble
AY495302(European) Coble
AY495304(European) Coble
AY714022(India) Palanichamy
FJ656215 (Emperor Nicholas) Rogaev
HM625704 Kloss
JN383991(Norway) FTDNA
JQ045864(Denmark) FTDNA


T2a1a - Tsar Nicholas II of Russia (Nikolay Alexandrovich Romanov)

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/nicholas_ii_tsar_russia.jpg

Humanist
03-01-2013, 08:13 AM
Another post. The standard caveat regarding the possible limits in our current world dataset apply.

HV4 in Assyrians (at least 4 out of 82 samples)

1. HV4a2a (FTDNA FGS) <-- Humanist
2. HV4a2a (SMGF) (Based on HVR1 and HVR2)
3. HV4 (23andMe)
4. HV4b (23andMe - James Lick)

---------------------------------------------------------

Gˇmez-Carballa A, Olivieri A, Behar DM, Achilli A, Torroni A, et al. (2012) Genetic Continuity in the Franco-Cantabrian Region: New Clues from Autochthonous Mitogenomes (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0032851). PLoS ONE 7(3): e32851. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0032851


Sub-haplogroup HV4a2 is characterized by the sequence motif G7805A-G16129A; its geographic distribution suggests an origin somewhere in the Middle East about 9.3 kya (ΔT = 2.9).

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/hv4_carballa.jpg

Humanist
03-01-2013, 08:53 AM
I read about this paper on Dienekes' blog (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2013/02/aapa-2013-abstracts.html):


Neolithic human mitochondrial haplogroup H genomes and the genetic origins of Europeans.

[L]inking ancient hg H genome sequences to specific points in time by using radiocarbon dates as tip calibrations allowed us to reconstruct a precise lineage history of hg H and to calculate a mutation rate 45% higher than traditional estimates based on the human/chimp split.

If the 45% adjustment applies to the dates in the Gˇmez-Carballa et al. paper (see Soares et al. (http://www.cell.com/AJHG/retrieve/pii/S0002929709001633)), then the date for HV4a2 would be ~6.4 kya?? Would appreciate if someone could check the math. If it is 6.4 kya, that would be ~4400 BCE.

Mesopotamia at that time:

Wikipedia


Sumer, approximately "land of the civilized kings" or "native land" was an ancient civilization and historical region in southern Mesopotamia, modern Iraq, during the Chalcolithic and Early Bronze Age. Although the earliest historical records in the region do not go back much further than ca. 2900 BC, modern historians have asserted that Sumer was first settled between ca. 4500 and 4000 BC by a non-Semitic people who may or may not have spoken the Sumerian language (pointing to the names of cities, rivers, basic occupations, etc. as evidence).[2] These conjectured, prehistoric people are now called "proto-Euphrateans" or "Ubaidians",[3] and are theorized to have evolved from the Samarra culture of northern Mesopotamia (Assyria).[4][5][6][7] The Ubaidians were the first civilizing force in Sumer, draining the marshes for agriculture, developing trade, and establishing industries, including weaving, leatherwork, metalwork, masonry, and pottery.[3] However, some scholars such as Piotr Michalowski and Gerd Steiner, contest the idea of a Proto-Euphratean language or one substrate language.

And, something I have posted a few times in the past.

Sumerian: A Uralic Language

Simo Parpola (Helsinki)


The Sumerians thus came to Mesopotamia from the north, where the Uralic language family is located (Fig. 11), and by studying the lexical evidence and the grammatical features which Sumerian shares with individual Uralic languages, it is possible to make additional inferences about their origins. The closest affinities of Sumerian within the Uralic family are with the Volgaic and Finnic languages, particularly the latter, with which it shares a number of significant phonological, morphological and lexical isoglosses. The latter include, among other things, a common word for "sea, ocean" (Sumerian ab or a-ab-ba, Finnic aava, aappa), and common words for cereals, sowing and harvesting, domestic animals, wheeled vehicles, and the harness of draught animals (Fig. 12). A number of these words also have counterparts in Indo-European, particularly Germanic languages. These data taken together suggest that the Sumerians originated in the Pontic-Caspian region between the mouth of the Volga and the Black Sea, north of the Caucasus Mountains, where they had been living a sedentary life in contact with Indo-European tribes. I would not exclude the possibility that their homeland is to be identified with the Majkop culture of the North Caucasus, which flourished between 3700 and 2900 BC and had trade contacts with the late Uruk culture (Fig. 13). Placing the Sumerian homeland in this area would help explain the non-Uralic features of Sumerian, for the Kartvelian languages spoken just south of it are ergative and have a system of verbal prefixes resembling the Sumerian one. The Sumerian words for wheel and the harness of draft animals that it shares with Uralic show that its separation from Uralic took place after the invention of wheeled vehicles, which were known in the Majkop culture since about 3500 BC.

About 3500 BC, the Indo-European Yamnaya culture that had emerged between the Danube and the Don began to expand dynamically to the east, reaching the Caucasian foreland by about 3300 BC. This expansion is likely to have triggered the Sumerian migration to Mesopotamia. It would have proceeded through the Caucasus and the Diyala Valley, and since wheeled transport was available, could easily have been completed before the end of the Late Uruk period (c. 3100 BC). The arrival of the Sumerians would thus coincide with the destruction of the Eanna temple precinct at the end of the Uruk IVa period.

The lexical parallels between Sumerian and Uralic thus open up not only completely new possibilities for the study of Sumerian, but also a chance to identify the original homeland of the Sumerians and date their arrival in Mesopotamia. In addition, they provide a medium through which it becomes possible to penetrate into the prehistory of the Finno-Ugric peoples with the help of very ancient linguistic data. Of course, it is clear that the relevant evidence must first pass the test of verification or falsification before any part of it can be generally accepted and exploited.

Humanist
03-03-2013, 03:24 AM
mtDNA N=83 (March 2, 2013)
H 26.5%
U 25.3%
J 18.1%
HV 14.5%
T 8.4%
K 2.4%
I 1.2%
N 1.2%
W 1.2%
X 1.2%

One of my recent RF matches got back to me. Assyrian maternally.

Humanist
03-04-2013, 11:44 PM
mtDNA N=84 (March 4, 2013)
H 26.2%
U 26.2%
J 17.9%
HV 14.3%
T 8.3%
K 2.4%
I 1.2%
N 1.2%
W 1.2%
X 1.2%

Recent RF match discussed in the "Relative Finder" thread.


Countries of origin for U1a3 full sequence genomes listed at Ian Logan's GenBank submission page for U1:

India (2)
Italy (2)
Sardinia (2)
Asia (1)
China (1)

Humanist
03-19-2013, 12:31 PM
FGS is in for an Assyrian at FTDNA. He was classified as U3b at 23andMe. The FGS results are the same. He is U3b.

Humanist
04-21-2013, 12:49 AM
mtDNA N=85 (April 20, 2013)
H 25.9%
U 25.9%
J 18.8%
HV 14.1%
T 8.2%
K 2.4%
I 1.2%
N 1.2%
W 1.2%
X 1.2%

Humanist
05-09-2013, 10:49 PM
[A]nother recurring theme has been the Indian-Assyrian-Italian mtDNA "link."

This next quote, from a recent Gene Expression article (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2013/05/europeans-share-common-ancestors-to-differing-extents/#more-20961), brought the above bit to mind:


I [Razib] lean toward the proposition that Italy was sui generis in continental Europe after the fall of Rome in that despite its regress it maintained local regional identities due to high population densities.

Humanist
05-29-2013, 02:45 AM
mtDNA N=85 (April 20, 2013)
H 25.9%
U 25.9%
J 18.8%
HV 14.1%
T 8.2%
K 2.4%
I 1.2%
N 1.2%
W 1.2%
X 1.2%

ASSYRIAN
H 25.9%
U 25.9%

KURDISH*
H 20.9%
U 23.1%


Interesting that H:U appears to be ~ 1:1, > 20% frequency in both populations.


* Kurdish mtDNA data IX (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/2013/04/kurdish-mtdna-data-ix.html)

GailT
05-29-2013, 12:43 PM
Are the results available by subclade of U and H?

thanks,
Gail

Humanist
05-29-2013, 02:37 PM
Are the results available by subclade of U and H?

thanks,
Gail

Hi, Gail. Yes. They are, but with not much resolution (i.e. only two FGS). The subclades may not be current with the latest PhyloTree build (15).

Updating the frequencies.

mtDNA N=86 (May 29, 2013)
H 26.7%
U 25.6%
J 18.6%
HV 14.0%
T 8.1%
K 2.3%
I 1.2%
N 1.2%
W 1.2%
X 1.2%


9.3% H (unknown subclade)
2.3% H1
3.5% H2
1.2% H3
1.2% H4
1.2% H5
1.2% H6
2.3% H7
1.2% H8
1.2% H13
2.3% H14

1.2% U
7.0% U1
2.3% U2
5.8% U3
1.2% U4
1.2% U5
7.0% U7

Thus far, U6* and U8** (excluding K) have not been observed.


H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H
H1
H1
H2a
H2a
H2a1
H3
H4
H5a
H6
H7
H7a
H8
H13a2
H14a
H14a

U
U1a1
U1a3
U1a3
U1a3
U1a3
U1b
U2e1
U2e1
U3
U3
U3b
U3b
U3b1
U4
U5a
U7
U7
U7
U7
U7
U7


*
Wikipedia

Haplogroup U6 was named 'Ulla' by Bryan Sykes. It is common (around 10% of the people) [18] in North Africa (with a maximum of 29% in an Algerian Mozabites[24]) and the Canary Islands (18% on average with a peak frequency of 50.1% in La Gomera). It is also found in the Iberian peninsula, where it has the highest diversity (10 out of 19 sublineages are only found in this region and not in Africa),[25] Eastern Africa and occasionally in other locations.


**
Wikipedia

U8a: The Basques have the most ancestral phylogeny in Europe for the mitochondrial haplogroup U8a, a rare subgroup of U8, placing the Basque origin of this lineage in the Upper Palaeolithic. The lack of U8a lineages in Africa suggests that their ancestors may have originated from West Asia.[5]
U8b: This clade has been found in Italy and Jordan.[5]

newtoboard
05-29-2013, 06:53 PM
Do you have the clade breakdowns for W?

Humanist
06-10-2013, 03:04 AM
Came across the below paper in another thread. It was mentioned by Alan. I added the Assyrian frequencies above, and ran cluster and MDS analyses on the mtDNA frequencies from the study.

Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: Autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in Daghestan (http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2156-9-47.pdf)
Elizabeth E Marchani1, W Scott Watkins2, Kazima Bulayeva3, Henry C Harpending1 and Lynn B Jorde*2

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/cluster_analysis_caucasus_mtdna.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/MDS_analysis_caucasus_mtdna.jpg

Humanist
06-10-2013, 03:05 AM
Do you have the clade breakdowns for W?

If you are referring to the Kurdish data, check the link from above to the Kurdish blogspot.

Humanist
06-10-2013, 07:01 PM
mtDNA N=88 (June 10, 2013)
H 26.1%
U 26.1%
J 18.2%
HV 14.8%
T 8.0%
K 2.3%
I 1.1%
N 1.1%
W 1.1%
X 1.1%

Humanist
07-23-2013, 03:31 PM
Although it is a slight difference, it is noteworthy, in my opinion, that mtDNA U is now at the top of our mtDNA hg frequencies. Perhaps a function of more Eastern Assyrians having tested so far. Either way, a very significant mtDNA U frequency it is.

mtDNA N=90 (July 23, 2013)

26.7% U
25.6% H
18.9% J
14.4% HV
7.8% T
2.2% K
1.1% I
1.1% N
1.1% W
1.1% X

DMXX
07-23-2013, 03:33 PM
Does U1, U3 and U7 still dominate the Assyrian U contingency?

Humanist
07-23-2013, 03:44 PM
Does U1, U3 and U7 still dominate the Assyrian U contingency?

They do indeed.

newtoboard
07-23-2013, 04:21 PM
They do indeed.

Seems like it is like that for all non Europeans except groups more East (South Asians who sometimes have more U2i/U2e than U7 and the Kalash who have a lot of U4). Any U2 present in Assyrians?

DMXX
07-23-2013, 07:36 PM
Seems like it is like that for all non Europeans except groups more East (South Asians who sometimes have more U2i/U2e than U7 and the Kalash who have a lot of U4). Any U2 present in Assyrians?

Interestingly, the Zoroastrians of Iran have a lot more U2e than U7 (10.2% vs. 2%, Farjadian et al.).

From Humanist's May 29th post, there's two U2e's.

newtoboard
07-23-2013, 08:38 PM
Interestingly, the Zoroastrians of Iran have a lot more U2e than U7 (10.2% vs. 2%, Farjadian et al.).

From Humanist's May 29th post, there's two U2e's.

Is the proposed origin of U2e still Europe? It seems to be as Mesolithic as U4 and U5.

I wonder what the subclade breakdown for mtdna I in Assyrians/the rest of Asia is.

Humanist
08-16-2013, 02:54 AM
mtDNA N=91 - (August 15, 2013)
26.4%-U
25.3%-H
19.8%-J
14.3%-HV
7.7%-T
2.2%-K
1.1%-I
1.1%-N
1.1%-W
1.1%-X


J distribution (n=18)
J1d-50.0%
J1b-33.3%
J__-11.1% (unknown subclade)
J1c-5.6%
J2-0.0%

On J1, from Mitochondrial DNA Signals of Late Glacial Recolonization of Europe from Near Eastern Refugia (Pala et al., 2012) (http://ac.els-cdn.com/S0002929712002042/1-s2.0-S0002929712002042-main.pdf?_tid=54aa23ee-0618-11e3-9d85-00000aab0f01&acdnat=1376618912_9a3e209ef94c4be6d2b0dde1d953e75d ):


Both J1b (~23 ka ago) and J1d (~20 ka ago) are predominantly Near Eastern. J1b is found especially in Iran and Arabia, with a European subclade, J1b1a, dating to ~14 ka ago. J1d extends from the Near East and Arabia into eastern Africa, Iran, the North Caucasus, and central Asia.

J1c, on the other hand, which dates to ~16 ka ago, is found primarily in Europe, especially central Europe, the Balkans, and the Ukraine, where it encompasses almost 80% of total J1 lineages. Although it is found in parts of the Near East at low frequencies, the HVS-I network indicates that these are either very common or tip lineages, suggesting that they are the result of more recent back migration from Europe...

J1/J2 frequencies, from Pala et al., sorted in descending order by the J1d column, for the "Near East" populations:


J1b J1c J1d J2a J2b Population
10.1% 0.4% 6.0% 4.5% 0.0% Yemen
8.0% 1.1% 4.4% 0.2% 0.9% Iran, NW
12.4% 0.3% 3.4% 4.1% 0.3% Saudi Arabia
3.4% 2.6% 2.6% 0.9% 0.0% Palestinians
8.6% 0.8% 1.7% 0.0% 0.0% Iran, C
8.8% 0.0% 1.6% 1.2% 0.0% Dubai, UAE
12.4% 0.8% 1.3% 1.3% 0.0% Iran, SW
13.5% 1.2% 1.2% 1.8% 0.0% Kuwait
5.5% 1.5% 1.2% 0.6% 1.2% Iran, NE
2.9% 0.0% 1.0% 2.9% 0.0% Kurds
6.2% 2.1% 0.7% 4.1% 2.1% Iraq, S
8.1% 0.3% 0.7% 0.0% 0.0% Iran, SE
3.5% 2.7% 0.3% 0.3% 0.3% Turkey
1.1% 1.7% 0.0% 2.0% 0.0% Druze, Isr-Leb
2.1% 0.7% 0.0% 1.4% 0.0% Jordan

Humanist
08-21-2013, 12:31 AM
mtDNA N=92 (August 20, 2013)
26.1% U
25.0% H
20.7% J
14.1% HV
7.6% T
2.2% K
1.1% I
1.1% N
1.1% W
1.1% X

J distribution (n=19)
J1d-47.4%
J1b-36.8%
J---10.5% (unknown subclade)
J1c-5.3%

Humanist
08-22-2013, 01:33 AM
mtDNA N=93 (August 21, 2013)
25.8% -- U
24.7% -- H
20.4% -- J
14.0% -- HV
8.6% -- T
2.2% -- K
1.1% -- I
1.1% -- N
1.1% -- W
1.1% -- X

Most recent addition is T2a1b.

From Pala et al.


T2a1b Europe West Italy
T2a1b1 Unknown
T2a1b1a1 Europe West England
T2a1b1a1 Unknown
T2a1b1a1 Unknown
T2a1b1a1 Europe West England
T2a1b2 Caucasus North Russia (Adygea Rep.)
T2a1b2 Caucasus South Azerbaijan
T2a1b2 Europe East Russia (Volga Tatars)


Ian Logan's GedBank page for T2a:


HM625705 Kloss T2a1b1
EF657381 mtDNA234(Europe) Hernnstadt T2a1b1a
EF657401 mtDNA252(Europe) Herrnstadt T2a1b1a
EF657600 mtDNA431(Europe) Herrnstadt T2a1b1a
JF930649 FTDNA T2a1b1a
JQ046361(Irish) FTDNA T2a1b1a

Humanist
08-25-2013, 05:49 PM
I began this on another forum. Continuing here, based on the most recent update, below. Will update with sources for the other populations when the other forum is up again.

mtDNA N=94 (August 23, 2013)
26.6% -- U
24.5% -- H
20.2% -- J
13.8% -- HV
8.5% -- T
2.1% -- K
1.1% -- I
1.1% -- N
1.1% -- W
1.1% -- X


Updating based on N=94.


Assyrian and certain Arabian populations appear to have similar frequencies for haplogroups HV and J. For haplogroups U and H, Assyrian frequencies are more similar to West/Central Asian populations. And for T, both Arabian and West/Central Asian.

"ARABIAN"
HV
1 Saudi Arabia 553 18%
2 Assyrian 94 14%
3 Iraq 176 11%
4 Azerbaijan 48 10%

J
1 Saudi Arabia 21%
2 Assyrian 20%
3 Yemen 19%
4 Iraq (Marsh Arab) 15%
5 Scotland 14%
6 Iran 13%
7 Iraq 12%
8 Morocco (Berber) 12%
9 United Arab Emirates 12%


"WEST/CENTRAL ASIAN"
U (excluding K)
1 Assyrian 27%
2 Pakistan 21%
3 Italy (Sardinia) 21%
4 Georgia 21%
5 Bulgaria 20%

H
17 Morocco 32%
18 Tajikistan 30%
19 Azerbaijan 29%
20 Hungary 29%
21 Assyrian 25%
22 Morocco (Berber) 24%
23 Kurds 24%
24 Tunisia 22%
25 Iraq 19%


"ARABIAN and WEST/CENTRAL ASIAN"
T
14 Caucasus 10%
15 Germany 10%
16 Egypt 10%
17 Iran 10%
18 Assyrian 9%
19 Italy (Sardinia) 8%
20 Iraq (Marsh Arab) 8%
21 Yemen 8%

Humanist
09-12-2013, 07:21 AM
Perhaps it is more a function of the populations sampled to date more than anything else, but another recurring theme has been the Indian-Assyrian-Italian mtDNA "link."

Perhaps not related, but it is an interesting possibility, I think.


Ancient DNA methodology was applied to analyse sequences extracted from freshly unearthed remains (teeth) of 4 individuals deeply deposited in slightly alkaline soil of the Tell Ashara (ancient Terqa) and Tell Masaikh (ancient Kar-Assurnasirpal) Syrian archaeological sites, both in the middle Euphrates valley. Dated to the period between 2.5 Kyrs BC and 0.5 Kyrs AD the studied individuals carried mtDNA haplotypes corresponding to the M4b1, M49 and/or M61 haplogroups, which are believed to have arisen in the area of the Indian subcontinent during the Upper Paleolithic and are absent in people living today in Syria. However, they are present in people inhabiting todayĺs Tibet, Himalayas, India and Pakistan. We anticipate that the analysed remains from Mesopotamia belonged to people with genetic affinity to the Indian subcontinent since the distribution of identified ancient haplotypes indicates solid link with populations from the region of South Asia-Tibet (Trans-Himalaya). They may have been descendants of migrants from much earlier times, spreading the clades of the macrohaplogroup M throughout Eurasia and founding regional Mesopotamian groups like that of Terqa or just merchants moving along trade routes passing near or through the region. None of the successfully identified nuclear alleles turned out to be ΔF508 CFTR, LCT-13910T or Δ32 CCR5.

Witas et al. (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0073682#pone.0 073682-Kenoyer1)

Humanist
09-12-2013, 06:42 PM
mtDNA N=96 (September 9, 2013)
26.0% -- U
25.0% -- H
19.8% -- J
14.6% -- HV
8.3% -- T
2.1% -- K
1.0% -- I
1.0% -- N
1.0% -- W
1.0% -- X

Humanist
09-25-2013, 09:34 PM
mtDNA N=98 (September 25, 2013)
26.5% -- U
25.5% -- H
19.4% -- J
14.3% -- HV
8.2% -- T
2.0% -- K
1.0% -- I
1.0% -- N
1.0% -- W
1.0% -- X

H5 and U3b.

GailT
09-26-2013, 03:25 AM
For the samples that were only identified as U, I predicted the haplogroups:



2900 Jordan U2d 051 234 294 519
2921 Jordan U5b1 074 189 192 270
2926 Jordan U1 183c 189 243 249 265 304
2934 Jordan U5a1 256 270 399
2936 Jordan U3 343
2945 Jordan U6a 147 172 189 219 278
2959 Jordan U6a 147 172 189 219 278
2973 Jordan ? 172 189 234 311 519
2978 Jordan U3? 163d 343 352
2979 Jordan U1b 182c 183c 189 249 327
2987 Jordan U1 183c 189 243 249 265 304
2998 Jordan U1b 249 311 327 519
3005 Jordan ? 356 519
3008 Jordan U5a2 192 256 270 311 526
3037 Jordan ? 182c 183c 189 249 381g
3039 Jordan U7 309 318t 519
3047 Jordan U3 343
3095 Jordan U7 291 309 318t 519
3129 Jordan U7 126 148 309 318t 519
3136 Jordan U3a 311 343 390 519

Humanist
09-26-2013, 12:29 PM
Hi Gail. What study are those samples from? And, if I am not mistaken, are those not Jordanians?

EDIT:

I found them, I believe.

They are Jordanian samples from Badro et al. (http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054616) ?

Humanist
09-26-2013, 05:05 PM
I will calculate the rest of the frequencies, but for now, here is a comparison of the Syrian mtDNA U frequency based on Badro et al. (2013), and the Assyrian mtDNA U frequency, as reported in my post from yesterday:


Syrian Assyrian
10.2% 26.5%

Humanist
09-26-2013, 09:08 PM
OK. The complete Syrian, Jordanian and Assyrian mtDNA frequencies.

The consistency observed between the mtDNA H and T frequencies is interesting, as are the inconsistencies:


---- N=234 N=98 N=290
---- SYR ASY JOR
A 0.4% 0.0% 0.3%
D 0.0% 0.0% 0.3%
H 24.4% 25.5% 26.2%
HV 7.7% 14.3% 6.6%
I 0.9% 1.0% 1.4%
J 11.5% 19.4% 8.6%
JT 0.4% 0.0% 0.0%
K 10.3% 2.0% 3.8%
L 6.0% 0.0% 10.0%
M 0.9% 0.0% 1.4%
N 4.7% 1.0% 5.9%
R 2.6% 0.0% 0.0%
R0 2.6% 0.0% 3.4%
R2 0.0% 0.0% 0.3%
T 11.1% 8.2% 9.0%
U 10.3% 26.5% 19.3%
V 1.3% 0.0% 0.3%
W 3.4% 1.0% 1.4%
X 1.7% 1.0% 1.7%

Humanist
09-27-2013, 03:47 AM
U2 Frequencies from Al-Zahery et al. (2011), plus Assyrian U2 frequency (in descending order by frequency):


U2 Population
9.3% Pakistan
7.6% United Arab Emirates
6.8% Tajikistan
5.5% India
4.1% Turkmenistan
2.5% Spain
2.1% Greece
2.0% Assyrian
2.0% Kurds
1.9% Caucasus
1.7% Hungary
1.5% Italy (Centre)
1.4% Iran
1.3% Ireland
1.2% Georgia
1.2% Czech Republic
1.1% Iraq
1.0% Austria
1.0% Slovenia
0.9% Germany
0.7% Saudi Arabia
0.7% Bulgaria
0.7% Italy (South)
0.7% Scotland
0.7% Turkey
0.5% Crete
0.4% Italy (North)
0.4% Egypt
0.0% Iraq (Marsh Arab)
0.0% Yemen
0.0% Azerbaijan
0.0% Bosnia
0.0% Italy (Sardinia)
0.0% Morocco
0.0% Morocco (Berber)
0.0% Tunisia


A relevant past post:


This makes the second Assyrian U2e1. There is a third Assyrian U2e1 in Al-Zahery et al., but those frequencies are not included above.

The Al-Zahery Assyrian U2e1 has the following HVR1/HVR2 mutations:

16051G 16129C 16183C 16189C 16193.1C 16235G 16256T 16362C
73G 152C 217C 263G 309.1C 309.2C 315.1C 340T 508G 524.1A 524.2C

The Assyrian sample from Al-Zahery et al., I think, may be U2e1b (16256T).

From Ian Logan's U2 GenBank page. These two lines are still listed under U2e1, but both have mutations in HVR1 (16256T) and the coding region (988A) defining U2e1b in PhyloTree (Build 15). Perhaps it is more a function of the populations sampled to date more than anything else, but another recurring theme has been the Indian-Assyrian-Italian mtDNA "link."


39. AY714049(India) Palanichamy 04-OCT-2006
41. EF661006(Italy) Gasparre 04-JUL-2007

Also, based on the data listed on Jean Manco's (http://www.buildinghistory.org/distantpast/ancientdna.shtml) site, the below sample appears to be the only U2e1 sample found in aDNA to date. He does not appear to have the HVR1 transition at locus 16256 (U2e1b), however.


Xiongnu a.k.a. Hsiung-nu Mongolia Duurlig Nars [MNX3] M 300- 100 BC R1a1a; [reported as R1a1] M173 SRY10831.2
M17

U2e1 73, 152, 217, 263, 3151C, 340, 12308, 12372, 15907, 16051, 16093, 16129C, 16182C, 16183C, 16189, 16362 Kim 2010

There are ~20 U2e1b at the FTDNA U project. All of them appear to be European.

The above Mongolian sample was from this study (thanks to Jean for the Bibliography (http://www.buildinghistory.org/distantpast/bibliography.shtml#Kim2010)):

Kim, K. et al. (2010), A Western Eurasian Male Is Found in 2000-Year-Old Elite Xiongnu Cemetery in Northeast Mongolia (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ajpa.21242/abstract;jsessionid=EF00FDC7458C7FB16DF93FA483F126 09.d03t01), American Journal of Physical Anthropology, vol. 142, no. 3 (July 2010), pp. 429–440.


Abstract

We analyzed mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA), Y-chromosome single nucleotide polymorphisms (Y-SNP), and autosomal short tandem repeats (STR) of three skeletons found in a 2,000-year-old Xiongnu elite cemetery in Duurlig Nars of Northeast Mongolia. This study is one of the first reports of the detailed genetic analysis of ancient human remains using the three types of genetic markers. The DNA analyses revealed that one subject was an ancient male skeleton with maternal U2e1 and paternal R1a1 haplogroups. This is the first genetic evidence that a male of distinctive Indo-European lineages (R1a1) was present in the Xiongnu of Mongolia. This might indicate an Indo-European migration into Northeast Asia 2,000 years ago. Other specimens are a female with mtDNA haplogroup D4 and a male with Y-SNP haplogroup C3 and mtDNA haplogroup D4. Those haplogroups are common in Northeast Asia. There was no close kinship among them. The genetic evidence of U2e1 and R1a1 may help to clarify the migration patterns of Indo-Europeans and ancient East-West contacts of the Xiongnu Empire. Artifacts in the tombs suggested that the Xiongnu had a system of the social stratification. The West Eurasian male might show the racial tolerance of the Xiongnu Empire and some insight into the Xiongnu society.

Humanist
09-29-2013, 03:48 PM
A milestone.

mtDNA N=100 (September 29, 2013)
27.0% -- U
25.0% -- H
20.0% -- J
14.0% -- HV
8.0% -- T
2.0% -- K
1.0% -- I
1.0% -- N
1.0% -- W
1.0% -- X

AJL
09-29-2013, 04:13 PM
Congratulations on your century mark!

GailT
09-29-2013, 05:50 PM
Hi Gail. What study are those samples from? And, if I am not mistaken, are those not Jordanians?

EDIT:

I found them, I believe.

They are Jordanian samples from Badro et al. (http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0054616) ?


Yes, sorry for my slow reply, these are the Jordanian samples from Badro et al. Let me know if there are other U samples that you want me to try to identify. In most cases I can predict the U subclade my comparing with Phylotree or with FTDNA customers.

Gail

Humanist
10-09-2013, 02:15 AM
Came across the below paper in another thread. It was mentioned by Alan. I added the Assyrian frequencies above, and ran cluster and MDS analyses on the mtDNA frequencies from the study.

Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: Autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in Daghestan (http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2156-9-47.pdf)
Elizabeth E Marchani1, W Scott Watkins2, Kazima Bulayeva3, Henry C Harpending1 and Lynn B Jorde*2

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/cluster_analysis_caucasus_mtdna.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/MDS_analysis_caucasus_mtdna.jpg


Although the above analysis is based on simple haplogroup frequency data, I suppose Assyrian mtDNA may also be substantially "European" ?

I am beginning to think that labels such as "European" and "Near Eastern" are misleading, when speaking of "prehistoric" times. There is no wall at the Anatolian border with what many today consider "Europe," last I checked.

A substantial prehistoric European ancestry amongst Ashkenazi maternal lineages (http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131008/ncomms3543/full/ncomms3543.html)

Marta D. Costa et al.

EDIT

For those unfamiliar with Dargins and Kumyks.

Wikipedia


The Dargwa or Dargin people (Dargwa: дарганти, Russian: даргинцы) constitute a Caucasian native ethnic group originating in the North Caucasus, and who make up the second largest ethnic group in the Russian republic of Dagestan.

....

Religion

The main religion is Islam, which first reached the area in the 8th century. However, general acceptance of Islam did not reach the area until the 15th century.[citation needed]. The Islam of the Dargins has a strongly syncretic nature, with a substantial heritage of pre-Islamic non-Abrahamic beliefs given Muslim form. The agricultural calendar and ceremonies and household and family rites have retained many elements of their original religion: practices for warding off evil and initial, imitative, and other forms of magic. They are reflected in the rite of the first furrow, the most important and ceremonially richest Dargi rite; in the spring New Year holiday, with its personification of winter and summer and their dispute in dialogue; in the rites for making and stopping rain, calling out the sun, completing the harvest, beginning springtime work in the vineyards, and pasturing cattle; and in the holiday of flowers, the thanksgiving for plowing, the sacred trees and groves, and so on.

The Dargins see death as predetermined by faith. They believe in an afterlife, a judgment day, the bridge Sirat, heaven and hell, etc. Funerals follow the Muslim rite, with prayers for the deceased, generous funeral feasts, and memorials on the fortieth or fifty-second day.



Kumyks (Kumyk: къумукълар, qumuqlar, Russian: кумыки) are a Turkic people living in the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. They comprise 14% of the population of the Russian republic of Dagestan. They speak the Kumyk language. Kumyks practice folk Islam, with some religious rituals that trace back to pre-Islamic times.

Fire Haired
10-09-2013, 02:30 AM
Humanist do you have any info on Assyrain mtDNA's deep subclades. I found a blog with Kurdish mtDNa and very deep subclades click here (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/2013/07/kurdish-mtdna-data-x.html) I noticed they had some European mtDNA U5a, U4(I guess it is debatable they got it from Europe), and U2e. Kurds speak a Indo Iranian language the ancestral language of Indo Iranian probably migrated out of Yamna culture in Russia starting 5,000ybp. High amount of R1a1a M17 in Indo Iranian speakers is huge evidence of this( Origins of R1a1a M17 near or in Europe (http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2011/11/origins-of-r1a1a1-in-or-near-europe-aka.html)). Asian R1a from what I know is almost only under R1a1a1b2 Z93 and DNA of light pigementated people of suspected early Indo Iranian Andronovo culture(1,800-1,400bc) two had R1a1 and they had mtDNA haplogroups U5a1, U4, and U2e. Later mtDNa from Indo Iranians in central Asia show those haplogroups combined took up about 30% of their mtDNA and also took up nearly 100% of mtDNA from hunter gathers in Russia(near Finland) from Mesolithic age.

Since 37,985 year old mtDNa sample in Kostenki, Russia has U2 and U2e is very popular in Mesolithic European mtDNA it makes sense U2e originated in Europe. Also I know almost nothing about U4 just that it is estimated to be 25,000 years old and is very popular in Mesolithic and Neolithic European hunter gathers. It Is so hard to figure out why there is such a huge difference between hunter gather and farmer European mtDNA and why modern Near easterns and Europeans share so many deep subclades. It seems that H and HV arrived in Europe 25,000-35,000ybp and developed into H1, H3, and V but what about all the other subclades. J and T may have arrived in Europe 15,000-20,000ybp. But obviously some mtDNA in Europe like T1 probably came from the Near east in the Neolithic age. and the reason why some very deep subclades are shared is because of random inter marriage since Europe and the Near east are so close.

GailT
10-09-2013, 03:15 AM
Since 37,985 year old mtDNa sample in Kostenki, Russia has U2 and U2e is very popular in Mesolithic European mtDNA it makes sense U2e originated in Europe.

The Kostenki U2 sample (FN600416) is an extinct sister clade to U2e, so it does not help determine the origin of U2e, and I don't know of any U2e Mesolithic western European samples. The earliest ancient U2e is Mesolithic 7500 ybp at Uznyi Oleni Ostrov, in western Russia. U2e1 is mostly found in Europe today, but there are also U2e* and U2e2* samples from India. I think the most likely scenario is that U2e originated in southwest Asia around 20,000 ybp, expanded into the Eurasian Steppe after the LGM and then into western and central Europe during the Neolithic.

parasar
10-09-2013, 03:26 AM
Humanist do you have any info on Assyrain mtDNA's deep subclades. I found a blog with Kurdish mtDNa and very deep subclades click here (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/2013/07/kurdish-mtdna-data-x.html) I noticed they had some European mtDNA U5a, U4(I guess it is debatable they got it from Europe), and U2e. Kurds speak a Indo Iranian language the ancestral language of Indo Iranian probably migrated out of Yamna culture in Russia starting 5,000ybp. High amount of R1a1a M17 in Indo Iranian speakers is huge evidence of this( Origins of R1a1a M17 near or in Europe (http://eurogenes.blogspot.com/2011/11/origins-of-r1a1a1-in-or-near-europe-aka.html)). Asian R1a from what I know is almost only under R1a1a1b2 Z93 and DNA of light pigementated people of suspected early Indo Iranian Andronovo culture(1,800-1,400bc) two had R1a1 and they had mtDNA haplogroups U5a1, U4, and U2e. Later mtDNa from Indo Iranians in central Asia show those haplogroups combined took up about 30% of their mtDNA and also took up nearly 100% of mtDNA from hunter gathers in Russia(near Finland) from Mesolithic age.

Since 37,985 year old mtDNa sample in Kostenki, Russia has U2 and U2e is very popular in Mesolithic European mtDNA it makes sense U2e originated in Europe. Also I know almost nothing about U4 just that it is estimated to be 25,000 years old and is very popular in Mesolithic and Neolithic European hunter gathers. It Is so hard to figure out why there is such a huge difference between hunter gather and farmer European mtDNA and why modern Near easterns and Europeans share so many deep subclades. It seems that H and HV arrived in Europe 25,000-35,000ybp and developed into H1, H3, and V but what about all the other subclades. J and T may have arrived in Europe 15,000-20,000ybp. But obviously some mtDNA in Europe like T1 probably came from the Near east in the Neolithic age. and the reason why some very deep subclades are shared is because of random inter marriage since Europe and the Near east are so close.

Nice to see you back!
While I think that R1a1 originated in (NW) Europe (though not because of Z93) the same cannot be said of mtDNA U. The early U2 you mention from Europe look distinctly tropical.
http://www.kunstkamera.ru/images/g/09_15.jpg (The curly hair while possible, is artistic license.)

"The morphology of his skeleton is generally quite modern. Certain cranial features, including very narrow braincase, low and narrow face, marked prognathism (anterior protrusion of the midface), and very wide nose, are typical of tropical populations. The trait combination links the cranium with those of Papuans and Melanesians." http://www.kunstkamera.ru/en/temporary_exhibitions/virtual/gerasimov/09/

Fire Haired
10-09-2013, 09:03 PM
Nice to see you back!
While I think that R1a1 originated in (NW) Europe (though not because of Z93) the same cannot be said of mtDNA U. The early U2 you mention from Europe look distinctly tropical.
http://www.kunstkamera.ru/images/g/09_15.jpg (The curly hair while possible, is artistic license.)

"The morphology of his skeleton is generally quite modern. Certain cranial features, including very narrow braincase, low and narrow face, marked prognathism (anterior protrusion of the midface), and very wide nose, are typical of tropical populations. The trait combination links the cranium with those of Papuans and Melanesians." http://www.kunstkamera.ru/en/temporary_exhibitions/virtual/gerasimov/09/
I defintley don't think mtDNA U originated in Europe but defiantly U2e and U5. The only real physical difference between Europeans, near easterns, and north Africans is skin color looking at fossils it is very hard to tell any difference. Since the earliest Europeans came from the Near east had typical European and Near eastern mtDNA haplogroups they would have had the same Caucasian features. The Cro magnon skulls I have seen have the thin Caucasian nose and all of their facial reconstructions look no different from modern Europeans and Near easterns. The Caucasian look probably goes back over 60,000 years because south Asians(Indians) in globe13 (http://dodecad.blogspot.com/) test their group doesn't fit with the Caucasian family or really any major human family if anything their closest to Mongliod Oceania but they have Caucasian features except their skin is way darker. About the tropical look I doubt there is a such thing just that Scientists assume certain features in tropical people was adaption to their climate.

Fire Haired
10-09-2013, 09:07 PM
The Kostenki U2 sample (FN600416) is an extinct sister clade to U2e, so it does not help determine the origin of U2e, and I don't know of any U2e Mesolithic western European samples. The earliest ancient U2e is Mesolithic 7500 ybp at Uznyi Oleni Ostrov, in western Russia. U2e1 is mostly found in Europe today, but there are also U2e* and U2e2* samples from India. I think the most likely scenario is that U2e originated in southwest Asia around 20,000 ybp, expanded into the Eurasian Steppe after the LGM and then into western and central Europe during the Neolithic.

You should look at ancient Eurasian DNa (http://www.ancestraljourneys.org/ancientdna.shtml) there is a lot of U2e in Mesolithic Europe with the few samples there are. Also you have to remember Indians speak a Indo Iranian language they got their R1a1a1b2 Z93 from eastern Europe. Suspected early Indo Iranian culture according to Kurgen hypothesis show almost only y DNA R1a1 and a mixture of mtDNA like Neolithic Europeans and Mesolithic with a lot of U5a, U4, and U2e which is probably were India gets it from. Also Europe and the Near east have probably had random inter marriage over time there doesn't have to be a clear migration and it doesn't have to always go Near east to Europe.

GailT
10-09-2013, 10:18 PM
You should look at ancient Eurasian DNa there is a lot of U2e in Mesolithic Europe with the few samples there are.

Like I said, the earliest ancient U2e is Mesolithic 7500 ybp at Uznyi Oleni Ostrov, in western Russia. Do you know of earlier U2e samples in Europe? There is very good evidence that U5 migrated from western and central Europe to the east, but this does not seem to be true for U2e.

Fire Haired
10-10-2013, 12:51 AM
Like I said, the earliest ancient U2e is Mesolithic 7500 ybp at Uznyi Oleni Ostrov, in western Russia. Do you know of earlier U2e samples in Europe? There is very good evidence that U5 migrated from western and central Europe to the east, but this does not seem to be true for U2e.

Do you know how many few samples there are and it is popular in Mesolithic Europe. The oldest U2 sample In Europe is 37,985 years old but that doesn't mean it wasn't in Europe earlier. click here (http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&frm=1&source=web&cd=1&cad=rja&ved=0CC4QFjAA&url=http%3A%2F%2Fkurdishdna.blogspot.com%2F2013%2F 07%2Fkurdish-mtdna-data-x.html&ei=PvpVUt6TE6G4yQGu8oHYCw&usg=AFQjCNEYDwDxCa8vCFPcdUYA0Iatm8kOZA&sig2=nF8UoO9JXKle6sX_FkbuYg) you can see U2e is very rare in Kurds and there is a U2e1a there is a U2e1 from iron age Indo Iranians in central Asia. In my opinion there is no doubt that is the is were U2e in asia comes from Indo Iranian's and Tocherian's same with U5 and possibly U4.

Humanist
10-10-2013, 01:17 PM
Another thread I began three years ago on a now defunct forum, and wish to continue here.

mtDNA N=77 (January 23, 2013)
H 27.3%
U 23.4%
J 18.2%
HV 15.6%
T 7.8%
K 2.6%
I 1.3%
N 1.3%
W 1.3%
X 1.3%

Sources: FTDNA, 23andMe, and SMGF


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/assyrian_mtdna_distribution.jpg


A milestone.

mtDNA N=100 (September 29, 2013)
27.0% -- U
25.0% -- H
20.0% -- J
14.0% -- HV
8.0% -- T
2.0% -- K
1.0% -- I
1.0% -- N
1.0% -- W
1.0% -- X

A comparison at N=77 and N=100 reveals one change of significance. The positions of mtDNA U and H have switched.

GailT
10-10-2013, 05:27 PM
Do you know how many few samples there are and it is popular in Mesolithic Europe.

Can you find even one Mesolithic sample of U2e in Europe earlier than the western Russia sample that I cited?



The oldest U2 sample In Europe is 37,985 years old but that doesn't mean it wasn't in Europe earlier.

The Kostenki U2 sample in Russia is dated at 30,000 to 33,000 ybp based on stratigraphic evidence, and it is not U2e. It is an extinct side branch of U2. You have a lot of opinions. This is complicated and I don't think there are many things we can be certain of - we need more ancient DNA which will come in time.

newtoboard
10-10-2013, 05:39 PM
I'm not totally convinced on U2e's European origin. There seems to be a good amount of it in Central/NW South Asia while other mtDNA lineages typical of Andronovo and related cultures are not really present.

Humanist
10-20-2013, 04:29 PM
Cluster and neighbor-joining analyses respectively, based on Assyrian mtDNA haplogroup frequencies (N=100), compared to Eastern Mizrahi, and Yemeni Jewish mtDNA data, from Behar et al. 2008.

Azerbaijan Jews
Georgia Jews
Iranian Jews
Iraqi Jews
Yemen Jews
Uzbekistan Jews
Assyrians


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/cluster_mtdna_assyrian_behar_jewish.jpg


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/neighbor_joining_mtdna_assyrian_behar_jewish.jpg

Humanist
11-02-2013, 05:37 AM
An infrequent addition.

mtDNA N=101 (November 1, 2013)
26.7% -- U
24.8% -- H
19.8% -- J
13.9% -- HV
7.9% -- T
3.0% -- K
1.0% -- I
1.0% -- N
1.0% -- W
1.0% -- X

Humanist
11-02-2013, 08:58 PM
For the samples that were only identified as U, I predicted the haplogroups:

Hi Gail. I was hoping you could take a stab at predicting the variety of mtDNA I (I1?), for the Assyrian sample below:

HVR1
T16187C, C16189T, G16230A, T16278C, A16305G, G16391A, A16399G


HVRII
C146T, C152T, C195T, T199C, T204C, A247G, T250C, 522.1A, 522.2C, 315.1C, 455.1T, 573.1C, 573.2C


In a limited search, I did not find transitions at 16305 and 16399 in other mtDNA I samples.

Humanist
11-10-2013, 06:20 PM
mtDNA N=103 (November 10, 2013)
27.2% -- U
24.3% -- H
20.4% -- J
13.6% -- HV
7.8% -- T
2.9% -- K
1.0% -- I
1.0% -- N
1.0% -- W
1.0% -- X

Humanist
11-11-2013, 05:24 AM
A bit from a 2012 post by Dienekes, that is of some relevance to Assyrian mtDNA distribution, given the frequency of mtDNA U in Assyrians (and other "Asian" peoples).

Talk by Christina Papageorgopoulou on Mesolithic/Neolithic Greek DNA (http://dienekes.blogspot.com/2012/12/talk-by-christina-papageorgopoulou-on.html)


She [Dr. Papageorgopoulou] mentions a complete absence of haplogroup U in all her samples so far (either Mesolithic or Neolithic), in contrast to Central European Mesolithic samples where it predominates.

Humanist
11-11-2013, 06:12 AM
mtDNA N=103 (November 10, 2013)
27.2% -- U
24.3% -- H
20.4% -- J
13.6% -- HV
7.8% -- T
2.9% -- K
1.0% -- I
1.0% -- N
1.0% -- W
1.0% -- X

Populations with very similar frequencies for mtDNA I, W, and X (Eupedia data for the non-Assyrian populations (http://www.eupedia.com/europe/european_mtdna_haplogroups_frequency.shtml)):


I W X
1.3% 1.6% 0.8% Ashkenazi
1.1% 1.3% 1.3% Austria
1.0% 1.0% 1.0% Belgium
1.6% 1.1% 1.1% Jordan
1.1% 1.4% 1.7% Spain

1.0% 1.0% 1.0% Assyrian

Humanist
11-16-2013, 11:37 PM
GailT has an interesting post up (http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?1595-Iranian-mtDNA-distribution), regarding a new study: Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians (Derenko et al. 2013) (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080673#pone-0080673-t002)



Abstract


Due to its pivotal geographical location and proximity to transcontinental migratory routes, Iran has played a key role in subsequent migrations, both prehistoric and historic, between Africa, Asia and Europe. To shed light on the genetic structure of the Iranian population as well as on the expansion patterns and population movements which affected this region, the complete mitochondrial genomes of 352 Iranians were obtained. All Iranian populations studied here exhibit similarly high diversity values comparable to the other groups from the Caucasus, Anatolia and Europe. The results of AMOVA and MDS analyses did not associate any regional and/or linguistic group of populations in the Anatolia/Caucasus and Iran region pointing to close genetic positions of Persians and Qashqais to each other and to Armenians, and Azeris from Iran to Georgians. By reconstructing the complete mtDNA phylogeny of haplogroups R2, N3, U1, U3, U5a1g, U7, H13, HV2, HV12, M5a and C5c we have found a previously unexplored genetic connection between the studied Iranian populations and the Arabian Peninsula, India, Near East and Europe, likely the result of both ancient and recent gene flow. Our results for Persians and Qashqais point to a continuous increase of the population sizes from ~24 kya to the present, although the phase between 14-24 kya is thought to be hyperarid according to the Gulf Oasis model. Since this would have affected hunter-gatherer ranges and mobility patterns and forced them to increasingly rely on coastal resources, this transition can explain the human expansion across the Persian Gulf region.


I noted a close relationship, based on mtDNA haplogroup frequencies between Assyrians and Qashqais in February 2012, on another forum. Some relevant bits from the post:



[B]Discordant Patterns of mtDNA and Ethno-Linguistic Variation in 14 Iranian Ethnic Groups (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21912140)

Hum Hered. 2011 Sep 10;72(2):73-84.

Farjadian S, Sazzini M, Tofanelli S, Castrý L, Taglioli L, Pettener D, Ghaderi A, Romeo G, Luiselli D.
Source: Department of Immunology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran.

[Adding Assyrian ("As" N=63), and running some analyses on the data. It was necessary to combine some haplogroups, in order to include the Assyrian data.]



ID A C D F1b G2a1 H HV I J K L M M/C M/G2a1 M1 M12 M4a N pre‐JT R R0 R2 T U V W X Y Z
Ab 0 0.022 0 0 0 0.156 0.044 0.044 0.089 0 0.11 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.089 0 0.044 0.156 0 0.089 0.088 0 0.022 0.044 0 0
Ar 0 0 0 0 0 0.231 0.096 0.019 0.134 0.076 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.115 0 0 0 0 0.095 0.21 0 0 0.019 0 0
As 0 0 0 0 0 0.2698 0.1587 0.0159 0.1429 0.0317 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.0159 0 0 0 0 0.0794 0.254 0 0.0159 0.0159 0 0
Az 0 0 0 0 0.019 0.17 0.038 0 0.076 0.038 0 0.019 0 0.019 0 0 0 0.094 0 0.019 0 0.019 0.265 0.189 0.019 0.019 0 0 0
B 0 0 0 0 0 0.145 0.016 0.016 0.08 0.016 0.032 0.081 0 0 0 0 0.032 0.065 0 0.065 0.048 0.016 0.032 0.113 0 0.242 0 0 0
G 0 0 0 0 0 0.174 0.087 0.043 0.217 0.043 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.086 0 0 0.043 0 0.087 0.043 0 0.13 0.043 0 0
J 0 0 0 0 0 0.091 0.127 0 0.145 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.073 0 0 0.036 0 0.327 0.199 0 0 0 0 0
K 0 0.018 0.036 0 0 0.145 0.109 0.018 0.164 0.036 0 0 0.018 0 0 0 0 0.127 0 0.018 0.036 0 0.128 0.127 0 0.018 0 0 0
L1 0 0 0 0 0 0.2 0.133 0 0.199 0 0 0.033 0 0 0 0 0 0.199 0 0 0 0.033 0.033 0.133 0 0.033 0 0 0
L2 0 0 0.034 0 0 0.034 0.103 0 0.138 0.103 0 0 0 0 0.034 0 0 0.103 0 0.034 0.034 0 0.034 0.345 0 0 0 0 0
M 0 0 0 0 0 0.157 0.137 0 0.255 0.02 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.04 0.02 0.02 0.02 0 0.098 0.138 0 0.078 0.02 0 0
P 0.017 0 0 0 0 0.172 0.034 0.017 0.051 0.034 0.017 0.017 0 0 0 0 0 0.051 0 0.052 0.069 0.017 0.155 0.205 0 0.034 0.034 0 0.017
Qa 0 0 0 0 0 0.304 0.109 0 0.173 0.022 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.022 0.043 0 0.066 0.216 0 0.022 0.022 0 0
Qe 0.091 0.018 0 0 0 0.327 0.127 0.018 0.054 0.036 0.127 0.018 0 0 0 0.018 0 0.018 0 0.055 0.018 0 0.036 0.036 0 0 0 0 0
T 0.018 0.018 0.036 0.018 0.018 0.127 0.018 0 0.072 0.036 0.018 0.018 0 0 0 0 0.036 0.127 0 0 0 0.018 0.109 0.199 0 0.073 0 0.036 0
Z 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0.225 0 0 0.184 0 0.367 0.183 0 0.02 0.02 0 0



Cluster, Neighbor Joining, and MDS analyses respectively:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/mtdna_cluster_iranian_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/neighbor_joining_Iranian_mtDNA_.jpg

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/MDS_Iranian_mtDNA_.jpg

Humanist
11-25-2013, 04:42 AM
GailT has an interesting post up (http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?1595-Iranian-mtDNA-distribution), regarding a new study: Complete Mitochondrial DNA Diversity in Iranians (Derenko et al. 2013) (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0080673#pone-0080673-t002)


From a past post of mine on another forum:


There is one U7 sample listed on Ian Logan's U7 GenBank page with this transition [16093]:

AY714004(India) Palanichamy

The FTDNA U7 project has three samples with the transition at 16093:

N96539 Punjabi (Lahore) U7 16093C, 16218T, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C
N12921 India U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16352C, 16519C
N12396 Nicolosi, Dagata, Italy U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C

The HVR1 mutations for the Assyrian U7 sample match the Nicolosi, Sicilian sample, without either of the additional mutations found in N96539 and N12921.

Assyrian 62118 Jacob U7 16093C, 16309G, 16318T, 16519C / 73G, 152C, 153G, 263G, 315.1C, 522-, 523-



Jacob has a HVR1/HVR2 match with an Italian (Sicilian ?) on FTDNA. The Italian/Sicilian individual is FGS tested (U7b).


From the Derenko et al. paper, above. (It should be noted that Assyrians were not sampled in Derenko et al., unfortunately. And, the Assyrian FGS count stands at only 2. One of them being myself. So, there is a very long way to go as far as testing is concerned. At least as it pertains to certain populations.)


Although U7 is a typical Near Eastern and Indian haplogroup [11], [25], its phylogeny is still poorly resolved, mainly due to the paucity of complete mtDNA genome sequence data. Here, we present the reconstructed phylogeny of haplogroup U7 based on 44 complete mtDNA genomes including nineteen newly sequenced samples from Iran (Figure S3). The complete mtDNA sequences form two distinct clades, both with considerable internal variation and different geographic distribution. They were termed U7a and U7b according to the established mtDNA tree [43] thus modifying an earlier proposal [58]. One of the fully sequenced Indian U7 mtDNAs (C22 from Palanichamy et al. [59] does not belong to either U7a or U7b and represents probably a novel lineage which we call here U7c.

U7a is the most diverse clade of U7 and it is found in virtually every population where the U7 haplogroup has been identified and sampled. The phylogeny of U7a reveals at least five sub-clades (with similar coalescence time estimates varying from 9 to 20 kya), which are most frequent in India, Iran and the Near East. Interestingly, a large subset of Iranian U7a samples could not be ascribed to any of its known sub-clades thus showing that more sampling of Iranian and Indian populations is highly desirable to uncover the ample diversity of this haplogroup. The second main sub-clade, U7b, dates to ~6–11 kya and includes several mtDNAs found predominantly in Europe (Figure S3), indicating a likely evolution in situ.

[Relevant part of Figure S3]

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/U7_.jpg

Humanist
11-25-2013, 04:37 PM
I will calculate the rest of the frequencies, but for now, here is a comparison of the Syrian mtDNA U frequency based on Badro et al. (2013), and the Assyrian mtDNA U frequency, as reported in my post from yesterday [updated through most recent distribution]:


Syrian Assyrian
10.2% 27.2%

Compare the Assyrian and Syrian haplogroup U frequencies with the Iranian U frequencies below, reported in Derenko et al. (after removing K):

Azeris (N=22): 13.64
Persians (N=181): 21.0
Qashqais (N=112): 20.53

Figure S1, from the Derenko et al. study:

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/fig_S1.jpg

Humanist
12-01-2013, 06:09 PM
mtDNA N=106 (December 1, 2013)
27.4% -- U
23.6% -- H
20.8% -- J
14.2% -- HV
7.5% -- T
2.8% -- K
0.9% -- I
0.9% -- N
0.9% -- W
0.9% -- X

ZephyrousMandaru
12-02-2013, 05:29 AM
mtDNA N=106 (December 1, 2013)
27.4% -- U
23.6% -- H
20.8% -- J
14.2% -- HV
7.5% -- T
2.8% -- K
0.9% -- I
0.9% -- N
0.9% -- W
0.9% -- X

I had a feeling U would surpass H in frequency.

Humanist
12-08-2013, 08:58 PM
mtDNA N=107 (December 6, 2013)
27.1% -- U
23.4% -- H
20.6% -- J
15.0% -- HV
7.5% -- T
2.8% -- K
0.9% -- I
0.9% -- N
0.9% -- W
0.9% -- X

Humanist
01-28-2014, 12:16 PM
Thus far, U6* and U8** (excluding K) have not been observed in Assyrians.


*
Wikipedia


Haplogroup U6 was named 'Ulla' by Bryan Sykes. It is common (around 10% of the people) [18] in North Africa (with a maximum of 29% in an Algerian Mozabites[24]) and the Canary Islands (18% on average with a peak frequency of 50.1% in La Gomera). It is also found in the Iberian peninsula, where it has the highest diversity (10 out of 19 sublineages are only found in this region and not in Africa),[25] Eastern Africa and occasionally in other locations.

**

Wikipedia


U8a: The Basques have the most ancestral phylogeny in Europe for the mitochondrial haplogroup U8a, a rare subgroup of U8, placing the Basque origin of this lineage in the Upper Palaeolithic. The lack of U8a lineages in Africa suggests that their ancestors may have originated from West Asia.[5]
U8b: This clade has been found in Italy and Jordan.[5]


A review of the Armenian DNA Project mtDNA haplogroup frequencies (n=229) reveals an absence of U6 and U8.


27.5% -- H
12.7% -- J
10.5% -- HV
7.0% -- K
6.1% -- U3
4.4% -- U1
3.9% -- T2
3.5% -- I
3.5% -- W
3.1% -- N1
2.6% -- X
2.2% -- T
2.2% -- T1
1.7% -- U5
1.7% -- U7
0.9% -- F1b1
0.9% -- N2
0.9% -- R0a2i
0.9% -- R1a
0.9% -- U4
0.9% -- V
0.4% -- C5c
0.4% -- R2'JT
0.4% -- R3
0.4% -- U
0.4% -- U2

newtoboard
01-28-2014, 12:30 PM
Any breakdown on the HV clades?

Humanist
01-28-2014, 01:02 PM
Any breakdown on the HV clades?


1.7% -- HV12a
1.3% -- HV
1.3% -- HV1a1a
1.3% -- HV1b3
0.9% -- HV-A73G!
0.9% -- HV1
0.4% -- HV0
0.4% -- HV12
0.4% -- HV13
0.4% -- HV1a'b'c
0.4% -- HV1a1b
0.4% -- HV1a2
0.4% -- HV4a1

The HV13 is my Armenian 2nd great-grandmother's haplogroup. Also found in India.

newtoboard
01-28-2014, 01:19 PM
1.7% -- HV12a
1.3% -- HV
1.3% -- HV1a1a
1.3% -- HV1b3
0.9% -- HV-A73G!
0.9% -- HV1
0.4% -- HV0
0.4% -- HV12
0.4% -- HV13
0.4% -- HV1a'b'c
0.4% -- HV1a1b
0.4% -- HV1a2
0.4% -- HV4a1

The HV13 is my Armenian 2nd great-grandmother's haplogroup. Also found in India.

Among which group? Interesting that there is No HV2 which makes up the bulk of South Asian GV lines and is common in Central Asia and Iran too. Maybe it is a more eastern lineage.

Humanist
01-28-2014, 02:20 PM
Among which group?

That is the Armenian data, from the Armenian DNA Project.


Among which group? Interesting that there is No HV2 which makes up the bulk of South Asian GV lines and is common in Central Asia and Iran too. Maybe it is a more eastern lineage.

We do not have HV2 either. At least not yet.

newtoboard
01-28-2014, 02:35 PM
That is the Armenian data, from the Armenian DNA Project.



We do not have HV2 either. At least not yet.

I meant which south Asian groups carries HV13?

newtoboard
01-28-2014, 02:36 PM
HV is a very interesting lineage to say the least.

Humanist
01-28-2014, 02:45 PM
I meant which south Asian groups carries HV13?

It was a fella on ABF. He has not posted there in a long time. He is a Tamil Brahmin.

Humanist
02-01-2014, 01:56 PM
mtDNA N=114 (February 1, 2014)
26.3% -- U
22.8% -- H
19.3% -- J
15.8% -- HV
7.9% -- T
2.6% -- K
1.8% -- N
1.8% -- X
0.9% -- I
0.9% -- W

Humanist
02-14-2014, 04:23 AM
Came across the below paper in another thread. It was mentioned by Alan. I added the Assyrian frequencies above, and ran cluster and MDS analyses on the mtDNA frequencies from the study.

Culture creates genetic structure in the Caucasus: Autosomal, mitochondrial, and Y-chromosomal variation in Daghestan (http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1471-2156-9-47.pdf)
Elizabeth E Marchani1, W Scott Watkins2, Kazima Bulayeva3, Henry C Harpending1 and Lynn B Jorde*2

http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/cluster_analysis_caucasus_mtdna.jpg


http://i1178.photobucket.com/albums/x372/paulgiva78/passover/MDS_analysis_caucasus_mtdna.jpg

Adding Ashkenazi data from Costa et al. (http://www.nature.com/ncomms/2013/131008/ncomms3543/full/ncomms3543.html):

http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/Faces/costa_ashkenazi.jpg

DMXX
06-06-2014, 01:24 PM
The mtDNA C1 in an approx. 8kya prehistoric Syrian is pretty intruiging. The relevant extract from the Wiki entry on mtDNA C (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Haplogroup_C_(mtDNA)):



Haplogroup C is found in Northeast Asia[2] (including Siberia). In Eurasia, Haplogroup C is especially frequent among populations of arctic Siberia, such as Yukaghirs and Nganasans.[3] Haplogroup C is one of five mtDNA haplogroups found in the indigenous peoples of the Americas,[2] the others being A, B, D, and X. The subclades C1b, C1c, C1d, and C4c are found in the first people of the Americas. C1a is found only in Asia.

Arbogan
06-06-2014, 02:14 PM
A new aDNA study was published (http://www.plosgenetics.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pgen.1004401) on Pre Pottery Neolithic B sites in the Levant. New aDNA data is always welcome, but there still remains an absolute absence of data from areas to the east, such as sites located in what is today Iraq and Iran. Would love the opportunity to compare such data against modern samples from groups like Assyrians, Iranians, Kurds, etc.

Updating something I maintained on another website. Most of the data was taken from Jean Manco's useful site on aDNA.


mtDNA

Note: mtDNA haplogroups and subclades may not be current with the most recent version of the PhyloTree.

Neolithic
1 R0 Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
2 K Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
3 K Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
4 L3 Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
5 N* Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
6 H Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
7 HV Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
8 H Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
9 K Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
10 U* Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Halula
11 R0 Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Ramad
12 K Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Ramad
13 R0 Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Ramad
14 K Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Ramad
15 K Syria PPNB 8700-6600 BC Tell Ramad
16 T2b Syria PPNB 7400-6700 BC
17 H or K Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
18 ? Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
19 T2b Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
20 T2b Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
21 H5 Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
22 K? Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
23 R? Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
24 L2a1 Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
25 L2a1 Syria PPNB 6800-6000 BC
26 H Syria PPNB 6000-5750 BC
27 K Syria PPNB 6000-5750 BC
28 K Syria PPNB 6000-5750 BC
29 C1 Syria PPNB 6000-5750 BC
30 H3a? Turkey Halaf 6000-5800 BC
31 ? Turkey Halaf 6000-5800 BC
32 ? Turkey Halaf 6000-5800 BC
33 H3a? Turkey ------ 6000-4000 BC
34 ? Turkey ------ 6000-4000 BC
35 ? Turkey ------ 6000-4000 BC

Copper Age / Chalcolithic
36 H3a Turkey Ubaid 5000-4500 BC
37 U3a Israel ------ 4490-4335 BC
38 H? Israel ------ 4460-4365 BC
39 H6 Israel ------ 4240-4065 BC
40 H? Israel ------ 3765‐3650 BC

Bronze Age
41 H14a Syria Sumer 2900-2700 BC Site in Syria
42 U4 Syria Sumer 2900-2700 BC Site in Syria
43 U4a2b Syria Sumer 2900-2700 BC Site in Syria
44 R Syria Sumer ----2550 BC---- Site in Syria
45 J1a1 Syria Sumer ----2550 BC---- Site in Syria
46 L2a1 Syria Sumer ----2550 BC---- Site in Syria
47 K Syria Amorite 2650–2450 BC Site in Syria (Amorite?)
48 M49 Syria ----- 2650–2450 BC Terqa (Tell Ashara), Syria
49 M61 Syria ----- 2200–1900 BC Terqa (Tell Ashara), Syria

Iron Age
50 H or V? Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
51 H or V? Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
52 H Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
53 H or J1 Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
54 W? Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
55 W? Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
56 W? Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
57 W Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
58 W Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
59 ? Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem
60 ? Israel Jewish ---0-100 AD--- Tomb of the Shroud, Akeldama, Jerusalem

Roman
61 J1c2 Bulg. Roman 1st Century AD May have been prominent figure among early Christians. From "John the Baptist" documentary.
62 H2a2b1 SY/IT Roman --c. 150 AD-- Luke the Evangelist. Born Antioch, Syria; buried Padua, Italy
63 M49 Syria Late Roman 200–300 AD Tell Masaikh, Syria
64 M4b Syria Late Roman 500–700 AD Tell Masaikh, Syria

Interesting how you see alot ancestors lineage wise to later haplogroups in the neolithic. There also seems like an absence of J.

Humanist
06-30-2014, 01:54 AM
Forgot to update the page when I last updated my spreadsheet. It is from March, but it is a bit more current than the previous update (February):

mtDNA N=116 (March 13, 2014)
25.9% -- U
22.4% -- H
19.8% -- J
15.5% -- HV
7.8% -- T
2.6% -- K
2.6% -- N
1.7% -- X
0.9% -- I
0.9% -- W

Humanist
07-06-2014, 02:16 AM
mtDNA N=118 (July 5, 2014)
25.4% -- U
22.0% -- H
21.2% -- J
15.3% -- HV
7.6% -- T
2.5% -- K
2.5% -- N
1.7% -- X
0.8% -- I
0.8% -- W

Interestingly, thus far Assyrians have 0% J2.

Wikipedia


Average frequency of J Haplogroup as a whole is highest in the Near East (12%) followed by Europe (11%), Caucasus (8%) and North Africa (6%). Of the two main sub-groups, J1 takes up four-fifths of the total and is spread on the continent while J2 is more localised around the Mediterranean, Greece, Italy/Sardinia and Spain...In Pakistan, where West Eurasian lineages occur at frequencies of up to 50% in some ethno-linguistic groups, J1 averages around 5%, while J2 occurrence is very rare. Intriguingly, however, it is found amongst 9% of Kalash.[6]

Humanist
08-04-2014, 11:52 PM
Another mtDNA U addition:

mtDNA N=119 (Aug 4, 2014)
26.1% -- U
21.8% -- H
21.0% -- J
15.1% -- HV
7.6% -- T
2.5% -- N
2.5% -- K
1.7% -- X
0.8% -- W
0.8% -- I


Update on the breakdown of Assyrian mtDNA U:


22.6% - U3b
22.6% - U7
12.9% - U1a3
6.5% - U2e1
6.5% - U3
6.5% - U3a
3.2% - U*
3.2% - U1a1
3.2% - U1b
3.2% - U3b1
3.2% - U3b2
3.2% - U4
3.2% - U5a

vettor
08-05-2014, 10:04 AM
Another mtDNA U addition:

mtDNA N=119 (Aug 4, 2014)
26.1% -- U
21.8% -- H
21.0% -- J
15.1% -- HV
7.6% -- T
2.5% -- N
2.5% -- K
1.7% -- X
0.8% -- W
0.8% -- I


Update on the breakdown of Assyrian mtDNA U:


22.6% - U3b
22.6% - U7
12.9% - U1a3
6.5% - U2e1
6.5% - U3
6.5% - U3a
3.2% - U*
3.2% - U1a1
3.2% - U1b
3.2% - U3b1
3.2% - U3b2
3.2% - U4
3.2% - U5a

I am surprised that U3b is the highest %...........same as the 500BC thracian ( 192-1 recent find )

Humanist
08-05-2014, 10:24 AM
I am surprised that U3b is the highest %...........same as the 500BC thracian ( 192-1 recent find )

That is interesting. U3b is actually tied with U7, which itself has been found in ancient European remains in Germany, Denmark, Norway and Russia.

Humanist
08-13-2014, 12:57 PM
That is interesting. U3b is actually tied with U7, which itself has been found in ancient European remains in Germany, Denmark, Norway and Russia.

U3 was found in the recently published El Mirador Cave (Atapuerca, Spain) (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0105105#pone.0 105105.s004) sample. I sorted the U3 frequencies reported in the paper in descending order of prevalence. Below, are the top 5 populations (excluding Mirador):


U3-----Pop
14.75-Jordan
5.08--Syria
5.00--Armenia
4.96--Lebanon
4.95--Iraq

Hanna
08-13-2014, 07:46 PM
My grandfather is U3b.

Mehrdad
08-13-2014, 08:35 PM
Update on the breakdown of Assyrian mtDNA U:

22.6% - U3b
22.6% - U7
12.9% - U1a3
6.5% - U2e1
6.5% - U3
6.5% - U3a
3.2% - U*
3.2% - U1a1
3.2% - U1b
3.2% - U3b1
3.2% - U3b2
3.2% - U4
3.2% - U5a

This got me wondering about U7 also found among the Gujarati people, I found this excerpt in Wikipedia which caught my attention (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_people).


mtDNA Haplogroup U7 is found in Iran, the Near East, Afghanistan, India, and Pakistan; with extremely low frequencies in neighboring countries Turkmenistan, Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, and Iraq. Its frequency peaks at over 12% in Gujarat, 9% in Iran, 9% in Punjab, 6% in Pakistan and 6% in Afghanistan. Elsewhere in India, its frequency is very low (0.00% to 0.90%).

Since it is found very little elsewhere in India, could U7 be recent in South Asia?

Humanist
08-13-2014, 08:54 PM
This got me wondering about U7 also found among the Gujarati people, I found this excerpt in Wikipedia which caught my attention (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gujarati_people).



Since it is found very little elsewhere in India, could U7 be recent in South Asia?

I do not know if it is recent. What we really need are full U7 mtDNA sequences of South Asians, Central Asians, West Asians and Europeans to get a better handle on this particular lineage.

There is a thread on U7 in the mtDNA section.

Also, I disagree with the Wikipedia bit regarding U7 being found at extremely low frequencies in Iraq. It is at ~5% among Iraqi Marsh Arabs. And, it is significant in Assyrians.

One of the few mtDNA lines of the Israelite Samaritans is U7 (http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?506-U7-Frequencies-From-Some-Sources-(U7-%26%238805%3B-5-)&p=16742&viewfull=1#post16742) as well.


U7 Frequencies From Some Sources (U7 ≥ .5%)

10.5% Brahui Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
9.8% IraniJw Behar et al. 2008
8.7% Sindhi Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
8.2% Iran Quintana-Murci et al. 2004, Metspalu et al. 2004
8.0% Assyr Public and Private Data
6.9% Kurds Comas et al. 2000
6.8% Burusho Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
5.2% AzeriJw Behar et al. 2008
4.8% MrshAB Al-Zahery et al. 2011 (Iraqi Marsh Arab)
4.3% Hazara Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
3.4% Bedouin Behar et al. 2008
3.0% Jordan Behar et al. 2010
3.0% Makrani Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
3.0% Uzbek Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
2.8% Iraqi Al-Zahery et al. 2011
2.6% Balochi Quintana-Murci et al. 2004
2.5% Tuscan Pala et al. 2009
2.2% IraqiJw Behar et al. 2008
2.1% Uygur Yao et al. 2004
2.1% Bulgaria Richards et al. 2000
1.6% Egypt Behar et al. 2010
1.6% Turkey Tambets et al. 2000
1.4% AshkJw Behar et al. 2006
1.2% LibyaJw Behar et al. 2008
1.2% UAE Alshamali et al. 2008
1.1% S.India Behar et al. 2010
1.1% Cyprus Behar et al. 2010
1.0% Georgia Quintana-Murci et al. 2004, Comas et al. 2000
0.9% Saudi Abu-Amero et al. 2007
0.9% Syria Behar et al. 2010
0.8% Yemen Kivisild et al. 2004
0.7% Armeni Richards et al. 2000
0.6% Romania Behar et al. 2010
0.5% Russia Malyarchuk et al. 2002
0.5% Adyghe Richards et al. 2000

Humanist
09-06-2014, 10:29 PM
A post from another forum that is of relevance to something I recently came across on the Armenian mtDNA results page:


A study came out a couple of weeks ago, on the topic of HV4, and in particular, HV4a1a. My FGS was included in the study. See, "AS," below. The three ME IDs were added by me (JO=Jordanian, EG=Egyptian).

Genetic Continuity in the Franco-Cantabrian Region: New Clues from Autochthonous Mitogenomes (http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0032851)
Gˇmez-Carballa et al.


http://i1096.photobucket.com/albums/g326/dok101/HV4_Carballa_et_al.jpg

HV4 in Assyrians now stands at four:

1. HV4a2a (FTDNA FGS) 16209
2. HV4a2a (SMGF) 309.2C (no coding region mutation data)
3. HV4 (23andMe)
4. HV4b (23andMe - James Lick)


The lone Armenian HV4 to test at FTDNA thus far, based on a full sequencing of his/her mtDNA belongs to HV4a1.

Humanist
03-26-2015, 06:05 PM
The 84th Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists (2015)

Mitochondrial lineages in Assyrian populations
MICHEL SHAMOON-POUR and D. ANDREW MERRIWETHER.
Department of Anthropology, Binghamton University

March 26, 2015 2:30


Assyrians are a Neo-Aramaic-speaking people who, prior to the Genocide of 1914-1919, resided in a territory today divided between northern Iraq, southern Turkey, and northwestern Iran. Present-day Assyrians share their name with the people who established the north Mesopotamian state of Assyria in the second millennium BCE. Assyrians are one of three pre-Islamic ethnoreligious groups to have survived the Islamization of Mesopotamia and the Levant in the seventh century. The ongoing religious persecution of Assyrians since the Sassanid Era, accompanied with their linguistic and cultural separation from neighboring communities, has encouraged a tradition of endogamy among Assyrians. Therefore, Assyrian communities are believed to have experienced limited admixture since the third century CE. This is especially significant in the context of Mesopotamia, where mass migrations during the Islamic Era have substantially changed the demographics of this region. Very little is known about the population genetics of Assyrians and prior to this study, data on Assyrian maternal lineages was limited to 22 Iraqi Assyrians. In order to investigate Assyrian mitochondrial lineages, cheek swab samples were collected from 65 unrelated diasporic Assyrians residing in the United States. Our initial results show that all these individuals belong to eight different West Eurasian haplogroups. Considering that East Asian and sub-Saharan haplogroups, especially L1, are present in low frequencies in neighboring Iraqi and Iranian ethnic groups, their absence in the Assyrian community is particularly interesting. These results are consistent with historical and ethnographic evidence which suggest relative isolation of Assyrians as a native Mesopotamian population.

Humanist
03-26-2015, 11:34 PM
mtDNA N=119 (Aug 4, 2014)
26.1% -- U
21.8% -- H
21.0% -- J
15.1% -- HV
7.6% -- T
2.5% -- N
2.5% -- K
1.7% -- X
0.8% -- W
0.8% -- I

Chad Rohlfsen posted the following bits on the Eurogenes blog (https://www.blogger.com/comment.g?blogID=4123559132014627431&postID=984713120712555046&isPopup=true):


Sample collection from Yonkers, NY, and California

63 samples, 44 haplogroups .9811? diversity

Lots of H, HV, J, and K. Lack of A, B, C, D, F. Very much like Kurds and Armenians.

Religion looks to explain the difference, as religion posted a 0.000 pvalue, geography a .3695, nationality .6324, and language a .3773.

Using a 3d PCA, Assyrians and Iraqi Jews are most different from the rest, followed by Armenians.

Assyrians show 5 different types of K1, with little sharing with neighbors.

Interesting to see the different varieties of K1. That is something I have yet to see in the sample I have put together from FTDNA, 23andMe, etc.

On a personal note, "my" Assyrian community is the one located in Yonkers, NY.

Humanist
03-27-2015, 05:06 AM
With regard to the above presentation, I am not sure how accurate the below bit is as it pertains to Kurds:


Lots of H, HV, J, and K. Lack of A, B, C, D, F. Very much like Kurds and Armenians.

According to the mtDNA data accumulated at the KurdishDNA blogspot (http://kurdishdna.blogspot.com/2014/10/kurdish-mtdna-data-xii.html), mtDNA B+C+D+F among Kurds stands at 4.8% (10/207).

According to the mtDNA data reported at the Armenian DNA Project page (https://www.familytreedna.com/public/ArmeniaDNAProject?iframe=mtresults), mtDNA B+C+D+F among Armenians (excluding "ungrouped" individuals) stands at 1.1% (3/262).

That said, generally speaking, the three populations do share an ancient West Asian maternal heritage.

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------
EDIT: Perhaps the author was referring exclusively to Iraqi Kurds? Haplogroups B/C/D/F, according to KurdishDNA blogspot, are only observed in Kurds from Iran/Turkey. None, apparently, observed among Iraqi Kurds.

Humanist
07-30-2015, 08:34 PM
A new Assyrian FGS result was completed today. The individual is a member of J2a2.

Here are the members of J2a2 from the Pala et al. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002929712002042) data set:


J2a2 Italy
J2a2a Italy
J2a2a1 England
J2a2a1a Yemen
J2a2a1a Yemen
J2a2a1a Kuwait
J2a2a1a1 Israel
J2a2a1a1a Kuwait
J2a2a1a1a Iraq
J2a2a1a1a Iraq
J2a2a2 Italy
J2a2a2 Unknown
J2a2b Greece
J2a2b Siberia
J2a2b Siberia
J2a2b1 Morocco
J2a2b1 Tunisia
J2a2b1 Morocco
J2a2c Italy
J2a2c1 Italy (Sardinia)
J2a2c1 Italy (Sardinia)
J2a2c1 Yemen
J2a2d Canary Islands
J2a2d Algeria
J2a2d Tunisia

And see here (http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/j2a2_genbank_sequences.htm) for Ian Logan's GenBank page for J2a2.

ZephyrousMandaru
07-30-2015, 09:26 PM
Those are some rather interesting connections, especially the ones from Sardinia. It almost makes me wonder how much of the original EEF related ancestry Assyrians carry.

Humanist
08-03-2015, 01:01 AM
Those are some rather interesting connections, especially the ones from Sardinia. It almost makes me wonder how much of the original EEF related ancestry Assyrians carry.

The fella in question appears to be most similar to the Italians listed under J2a2 here (http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/j2a2_genbank_sequences.htm). There also appears to be a Zaza and Yemeni listed under J2a2, but they do not share two mutations that the Assyrian does with the two Italians, JX153004 and JQ797924. Perhaps J2a2 originated in our region?


Also, my new mtDNA subclade is U1a1c4, courtesy of Geno 2.0.

From Ian Logan's GenBank page for U1 (http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/u1_genbank_sequences.htm):

U1a1c4 T10253C


39. AY714042(India) Palanichamy
40. JX462732(India-LHON P68) Khan
41. KM047208(Poland) Skonieczna
.. 23andMe('bearcalypse'-2633)

Agamemnon
08-03-2015, 01:34 AM
The fella in question appears to be most similar to the Italians listed under J2a2 here (http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/j2a2_genbank_sequences.htm). There also appears to be a Zaza and Yemeni listed under J2a2, but they do not share two mutations that the Assyrian does with the two Italians, JX153004 and JQ797924. Perhaps J2a2 originated in our region?



From Ian Logan's GenBank page for U1 (http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/u1_genbank_sequences.htm):

U1a1c4 T10253C

I think this is a cautionary tale as far as conclusions based on phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA go, much has been said about Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA lineages being Italian in origin (Costa et al. 2013) and the situation here isn't all that dissimilar IMO.

ZephyrousMandaru
08-03-2015, 01:40 AM
Maybe the Ashkenazim mtDNA gene pool isn't 40% European after all. Maybe they just appear more European because they're conspicuously absent in most modern Middle Eastern populations?

Humanist
08-03-2015, 01:50 AM
I think this is a cautionary tale as far as conclusions based on phylogeographic analysis of mtDNA goes, much has been said about Ashkenazi Jewish mtDNA lineages being Italian in origin (Costa et al. 2013) and the situation here isn't all that dissimilar IMO.

The Italian connection is something that has been observed several times. See my post below, from a few years ago:


From Ian Logan's U2 GenBank page. These two lines are still listed under U2e1, but both have mutations in HVR1 (16256T) and the coding region (988A) defining U2e1b in PhyloTree (Build 15). Perhaps it is more a function of the populations sampled to date more than anything else, but another recurring theme has been the Indian-Assyrian-Italian mtDNA "link."

From among populations not located in the Near East, Assyrians have the most connections to Italians and Indians.

AJL
08-03-2015, 05:12 PM
The Italian connection is something that has been observed several times.

On deCODme, on the old version of FTDNA's ancestry analysis, and on some calculators, I get fairly high scores for Tuscan. Specifically Tuscan is interesting because it might reference links between Anatolia and the Italian peninsula.

I'm not sure we're ever going to resolve the issue of the directionality of these matches without ancient DNA.

MfA
08-03-2015, 05:25 PM
The fella in question appears to be most similar to the Italians listed under J2a2 here (http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/j2a2_genbank_sequences.htm). There also appears to be a Zaza and Yemeni listed under J2a2, but they do not share two mutations that the Assyrian does with the two Italians, JX153004 and JQ797924. Perhaps J2a2 originated in our region?



From Ian Logan's GenBank page for U1 (http://www.ianlogan.co.uk/sequences_by_group/u1_genbank_sequences.htm):

U1a1c4 T10253C

Zaza here is a nickname. This is her opensnp profile https://opensnp.org/users/3085, you check by downloading the file and open with notepad to see her 23andMe file name.

Humanist
08-03-2015, 06:34 PM
Zaza here is a nickname.

Good catch. Thank you.

EDIT:

Here are the top 1 population Oracle matches for the individual in question, based on KURD's K20 run:

Least-squares method.


1 Lebanese @ 5.237891
2 Jordanian @ 6.112969
3 Syrian @ 6.779442
4 Palestinian @ 9.28924
5 Tunisian_Jew @ 9.977078

I should also add that it is possible that this individual does have the mutations in common, but they are not included in the 23andMe V3 chip. I have to check the relevant loci against those tested by 23andMe.

The Saite
09-11-2017, 10:57 PM
Quite high U percentages

Dewsloth
09-11-2017, 11:34 PM
mtDNA N=118 (July 5, 2014)
25.4% -- U
22.0% -- H
21.2% -- J
15.3% -- HV
7.6% -- T
2.5% -- K
2.5% -- N
1.7% -- X
0.8% -- I
0.8% -- W

Interestingly, thus far Assyrians have 0% J2.

Wikipedia

My mtDNA is J2a1a1e, and my mitochondrial MDKA is my 3rd Great grandmother who came from what is now Lebanon. Her surname was Nami, although that doesn't tell us anything helpful about [I]her mother. She would have been born somewhere around 1850-1860.

I'm the only J2a1a1[e or anything else] in FTDNA's Lebanon group, and the only Lebanese-ancestry J2a1a1[*.*] in the FTDNA J mtDNA group. One theory is distant european ancestry. However, there is also a mtDNA J2a1a1 Middle Kingdom mummy, so maybe the region does have its own long-standing source. I just noticed this thread. It's interesting that J2a1a1 doesn't seem to show in neighboring populations listed here.

Maxdp
09-08-2018, 12:09 PM
Can you please link the study about the 22.6% - U3b ? Thanks