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View Full Version : Why are Cretans more genetically outlying than the other Aegean islands?



Sikeliot
02-25-2016, 03:55 AM
There are TWO regions in Italy and Greece that are outlying compared to their neighboring regions... Calabria in southern mainland Italy, and the island of Crete.

Now, you can say overall that southern Italy (Campania, Sicily, Calabria, etc.) and all of the Aegean islands make up one larger genetic region, and that it is intermediate between other Southern European regions and the Levant.

But why are Cretans more outlying than the other Aegean islands? What would explain this historically? Did other Greek islands receive more migration from mainland Europe? A similar question could be asked for Calabria, but considering that Crete is said to be LIGHTER phenotypically than other islands and more Northern looking, it is reasonable to ask why.

I ran a bunch of islander Greek results through the calculator Eurogenes K15 and want to compare what comes up on their Oracles, plus the amount of affinity to Europe outside of the Mediterranean.

I highlighted also where the first Levantine match appears for each.


OBSERVATIONS:

1) The Cretans have less "non-Med" European components,
2) The Cretans are noticeably less distant from the Levantine populations

Tilos, Dodecanese, South Aegean:

# Population Percent
1 East_Med 28.05
2 West_Asian 16.6
3 West_Med 15.66
4 Atlantic 12.56
5 North_Sea 12.52
6 Baltic 7.61
7 Red_Sea 4.96
8 South_Asian 0.95
9 Eastern_Euro 0.68
10 Siberian 0.41

Total non-Mediterranean European: 33.37%

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Central_Greek 3.84
2 East_Sicilian 4.69
3 South_Italian 5.2
4 Italian_Abruzzo 5.79
5 Ashkenazi 6.82
6 Greek_Thessaly 8.47
7 West_Sicilian 8.69
8 Greek 9.48
9 Italian_Jewish 9.81
10 Sephardic_Jewish 10.75
11 Tuscan 11.5
12 Algerian_Jewish 12.01
13 Tunisian_Jewish 14.59
14 Cyprian 15.47
15 Libyan_Jewish 15.61
16 Bulgarian 15.71
17 Turkish 17.39
18 Romanian 17.5
19 North_Italian 17.79
20 Lebanese_Muslim 17.94



Chios, North Aegean:

# Population Percent
1 East_Med 32.1
2 West_Asian 18.18
3 West_Med 16.26
4 North_Sea 10.06
5 Atlantic 7.84
6 Baltic 7.2
7 Red_Sea 6.7
8 Siberian 1.31
9 Oceanian 0.31
10 Eastern_Euro 0.03

Total non-Mediterranean European: 25.13%


Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 South_Italian 6.98
2 Central_Greek 7.51
3 East_Sicilian 7.81
4 Ashkenazi 8.64
5 Italian_Jewish 8.96
6 Sephardic_Jewish 9.72
7 Cyprian 10.69
8 Algerian_Jewish 10.83
9 Italian_Abruzzo 11.02
10 Tunisian_Jewish 12.17
11 Libyan_Jewish 12.53
12 Greek_Thessaly 12.73
13 West_Sicilian 12.75
14 Lebanese_Muslim 13.54
15 Greek 13.6
16 Syrian 14.61
17 Turkish 15.6
18 Tuscan 16.85
19 Samaritan 16.92
20 Lebanese_Christian 17.8



Chios, North Aegean:


# Population Percent
1 East_Med 26.22
2 West_Asian 14.71
3 West_Med 12.35
4 Atlantic 11.16
5 Baltic 10.58
6 North_Sea 9.44
7 Eastern_Euro 7.98
8 Red_Sea 6.3
9 Oceanian 0.71
10 South_Asian 0.37
11 Amerindian 0.19

Total non-Mediterranean Euro: 39.16%

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Ashkenazi 5.68
2 Central_Greek 7.01
3 Greek 7.39
4 East_Sicilian 8.06
5 Greek_Thessaly 8.08
6 Italian_Abruzzo 8.94
7 South_Italian 10.18
8 West_Sicilian 10.95
9 Bulgarian 12.06
10 Sephardic_Jewish 13.05
11 Italian_Jewish 13.06
12 Tuscan 13.86
13 Romanian 14.1
14 Algerian_Jewish 14.41
15 Tunisian_Jewish 16.44
16 Cyprian 17.1
17 Turkish 17.42
18 Serbian 17.49
19 Libyan_Jewish 17.76
20 Lebanese_Muslim 18.77



Chios, North Aegean:


# Population Percent
1 East_Med 29.13
2 West_Asian 21.06
3 West_Med 16.88
4 Atlantic 11.67
5 North_Sea 10.4
6 Red_Sea 5.6
7 Baltic 5.1
8 Siberian 0.16


Total non-Mediterranean Euro: 27.17%

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 South_Italian 5.86
2 Central_Greek 6.17
3 East_Sicilian 6.88
4 Italian_Abruzzo 8.38
5 Ashkenazi 9.36
6 Italian_Jewish 10.01
7 Sephardic_Jewish 10.33
8 West_Sicilian 11.3
9 Algerian_Jewish 12.13
10 Greek_Thessaly 12.54
11 Greek 12.71
12 Cyprian 12.93
13 Tunisian_Jewish 13.83
14 Tuscan 14.7
15 Turkish 14.72
16 Libyan_Jewish 15.34
17 Lebanese_Muslim 15.48
18 Syrian 16.93
19 Assyrian 18.95
20 Bulgarian 19.38

----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Now... the Cretans.


Cretan #1:

# Population Percent
1 East_Med 32.88
2 West_Asian 18.86
3 West_Med 14.87
4 North_Sea 11.21
5 Atlantic 9.53
6 Red_Sea 5.23
7 Eastern_Euro 4.23
8 Baltic 2.49
9 Oceanian 0.7


Total non-Med Euro: 27.46%

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 South_Italian 7.97
2 Central_Greek 8.08
3 Italian_Jewish 8.73
4 East_Sicilian 8.74
5 Ashkenazi 9.07
6 Sephardic_Jewish 9.53
7 Italian_Abruzzo 10.32
8 Cyprian 10.87
9 Algerian_Jewish 11.03
10 West_Sicilian 12.17
11 Tunisian_Jewish 12.34
12 Libyan_Jewish 12.86
13 Lebanese_Muslim 13.25
14 Greek_Thessaly 13.97
15 Greek 14.18
16 Turkish 14.7
17 Syrian 14.92
18 Tuscan 16.82
19 Assyrian 17.28
20 Samaritan 17.44



Cretan #2:


# Population Percent
1 East_Med 34.53
2 West_Asian 19.21
3 West_Med 14.65
4 Atlantic 9
5 Eastern_Euro 6.59
6 Baltic 5.43
7 North_Sea 5.25
8 Red_Sea 4.73
9 Amerindian 0.44
10 Southeast_Asian 0.11
11 South_Asian 0.06

Non-Med European: 26.27%

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Cyprian 8.23
2 South_Italian 9.41
3 Central_Greek 9.75
4 Sephardic_Jewish 9.84
5 Ashkenazi 10.38
6 Italian_Jewish 10.41
7 East_Sicilian 10.63
8 Algerian_Jewish 11.19
9 Lebanese_Muslim 11.54
10 Tunisian_Jewish 11.87
11 Italian_Abruzzo 12.89
12 Turkish 13.56
13 Syrian 13.66
14 Libyan_Jewish 13.91
15 West_Sicilian 13.96
16 Greek 14.03
17 Greek_Thessaly 15.6
18 Assyrian 15.6
19 Samaritan 15.7
20 Lebanese_Christian 15.98



Cretan #3:

# Population Percent
1 East_Med 34.02
2 West_Asian 21.27
3 West_Med 17.45
4 North_Sea 8.43
5 Baltic 6.51
6 Atlantic 5.45
7 Red_Sea 5.26
8 Eastern_Euro 1.03
9 Oceanian 0.49
10 Siberian 0.1


Total non-Med European: 21.42%

Single Population Sharing:

# Population (source) Distance
1 Cyprian 8.97
2 South_Italian 9.64
3 Central_Greek 10.35
4 East_Sicilian 11.05
5 Italian_Jewish 11.28
6 Ashkenazi 11.84
7 Sephardic_Jewish 11.85
8 Lebanese_Muslim 12.31
9 Algerian_Jewish 12.64
10 Tunisian_Jewish 13.47
11 Libyan_Jewish 13.61
12 Syrian 14
13 Italian_Abruzzo 14.12
14 Turkish 14.62
15 Assyrian 15.45
16 Greek_Thessaly 15.66
17 West_Sicilian 15.85
18 Samaritan 15.89
19 Greek 16.04
20 Lebanese_Christian 16.19

ThirdTerm
02-26-2016, 01:33 AM
But why are Cretans more outlying than the other Aegean islands? What would explain this historically? Did other Greek islands receive more migration from mainland Europe? A similar question could be asked for Calabria, but considering that Crete is said to be LIGHTER phenotypically than other islands and more Northern looking, it is reasonable to ask why.


Minoan samples who lived on Crete between 4,900 and 3,800 years ago were analyzed by a team of geneticists (Hughey at al. ‎2013) and they concluded that the Minoans mainly descended from Neolithic populations who colonized Crete around 9,000 year ago. The Minoans did not possess mitochondrial markers similar to those of present-day African populations and 43% of the Minoan samples belonged to haplogroup H that is a predominantly European haplogroup. However, Haplogroup H has also been found among Iberomaurusian specimens in North Africa and it can also be found at high frequencies in Libyan Tuareg (61%) and Berbers (20.2%). The Minoans could have been culturally and genetically related to North Africans as well, since Evans uncovered artefacts very different from those of Bronze Age Greece, including thick-walled circular tombs that bore a resemblance to those of ancient North Africans.

https://c2.staticflickr.com/4/3514/3886605618_2b7eb6f47c_z.jpg?zz=1



The Minoan mtDNA haplotypes resembled those of the European populations (Figs 2b, 3a and 4; Supplementary Figs S1–S3). The majority of Minoans were classified in haplogroups H (43.2%), T (18.9%), K (16.2%) and I (8.1%). Haplogroups U5A, W, J2, U, X and J were each identified in a single individual. The greatest percentage of shared Minoan haplotypes was observed with European populations, particularly with individuals from Northern and Western Europe (26.98% and 29.28%, respectively) (Figs 2, 3, 4; Supplementary Table S7). Notably, in Fig. 4, a gradient can be observed, with the lowest affinity for Minoans found with Northern African populations and the percentage of haplotype sharing increasing as we move through the Middle East, Caucasus and the Mediterranean islands, southern Europe and mainland Europe (Fig. 4a). Of notice also is the high percentage of haplotype sharing with Bronze Age (Fig. 4c) and Neolithic (Fig. 4d) European populations.
http://www.nature.com/ncomms/journal/v4/n5/full/ncomms2871.html

Shaikorth
02-27-2016, 11:42 AM
Paschou et al has a large academic sample, Cretans don't really look like outliers compared to Dodecanese. TreeMix, PCA, and ADMIXTURE all seem to agree on that. Small sample sizes and Gedmatch calculators can create a skewed picture.

http://oi64.tinypic.com/33dytlc.jpg

Xuipa
02-27-2016, 06:07 PM
maybe the truest picture all of the sea tribes/ sea people that were moving around in boats and trading goods in all the seas and most of those that got stranded in the Med for many reason.

Sikeliot
07-22-2017, 05:22 PM
I'll provide an update since someone "liked" my post... now the more results I have seen, there are outlying people on every island as well as more northern shifted ones. Overall, all the islands except some North Aegeans and Cyclades, are close to one another and to southern Italians/Sicilians/Ashkenazim.