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Don Felipe
02-23-2013, 01:37 PM
Very fascinating, especially since the Guinean Fula (a.k.a. Peulh, Pulaar, Fulani, Fulbe) are usually assumed to be among the "oldest" established Fula groups as in recent history these nomadic people spread from Senegambia (Fouta Toro) and Guinea (Fouta Djallon) in an eastwards direction towards Nigeria/Cameroon and even beyond as far as Sudan. (check this link (http://www.jamtan.com/jamtan/fulani.cfm?chap=4)for a full overview of Fula subgroups). The minor West Eurasian/North African affinity showing up in his results seems to corroborate previous autosomal results in Tishkoff 2009 (link (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/suppl/2009/04/30/1172257.DC1/Tishkoff.SOM_REVISED.pdf) to supplement) among samples of Nigerian and Cameroonian Fulani.


Other groups of interest can be assessed with STRUCTURE analyses, including
the Fulani,sampled from Nigeria and Cameroon, the Baggara sampled from northern
Cameroon, and the Koma sampled from the Alantika Mountains in eastern Nigeria. The
Fulani are nomadic pastoralists who speak a Niger-Kordofanian language (Atlantic
Senegambian subfamily) and occupy a broad geographic range in central and western
Africa. The Fulani show a number of morphological features that have led some
anthropologists to suggest that they may have originated from East Africa or possibly
Egypt or the Near East (S101). Mitochondrial DNA analysis indicates that Fulani have
lineages of predominantly West African origin and that they cluster together and close to
the Mandenka population from Senegal (S101). By contrast, Y chromosome analyses of
Fulani sampled in the Sudan indicates shared ancestry with Nilo-Saharan and Afro-
Asiatic speaking populations (S97). These results raise the possibility of differential
patterns of male and female gene flow into this population. Our analysis, using genomewide
nuclear markers and STRUCTURE, indicates that the Fulani have distinctive
ancestry (fuchsia) at K = 14 in the global analysis (Figs. 3, 4) and at K = 9 -14 in the
Africa analysis (Fig. S15). Low to moderate levels of the Fulani AAC was also observed
in the Mozabite and Mandinka populations in the global analysis (Figs. 3 and 4). The
Fulani cluster with the Chadic and Central Sudanic speaking populations at K <13 in the
global analysis (Fig. 3; maroon) and at K <8 in the Africa analysis (Fig. S15; red). They
also cluster near the Chadic and Central Sudanic speaking populations in the NJ tree
based on population genetic distances (Figs. 1, S7 and S8). In the global STRUCTURE
analysis, the Fulani show low to moderate levels of European/Middle Eastern ancestry
(blue), consistent with mtDNA (S101) and Y chromosome (S97) analyses, as well as the
presence at low frequency of the -13910T mutation associated with lactose tolerance in
Europeans in this population (S102). Additionally, we observe moderate to high levels of
Niger- Kordofanian ancestry in the Fulani populations (Figs. 3, 4, S15;Tables S8, S9).
These results do not enable us to determine the definitive origin of the Fulani, although
they indicate shared ancestry with Saharan and Central Sudanic populations and suggest
that the Fulani have admixed with local populations, and possibly adopted a Niger-
Kordofanian language, during their spread across central and western Africa. The origin
of European (possibly via the Iberian peninsula) and/or Middle Eastern ancestry in the
Fulani requires further exploration with additional genetic markers.


And also the ADMIXTURE run done by Razib Khan

" The Fulani have an old "Berber" (?) element "

link to article (http://blogs.discovermagazine.com/gnxp/2012/01/the-fulani-have-an-old-berber-element/#.USijEaWs_uq)



So what can we see here? First, let’s reiterate something: as in the case of the populations of the Horn of Africa the West Eurasian element in the Fulani is difficult to find in “pure” form in the populations from which it putatively derived. What does that imply? I think that that means that the Fulani have an origin in relatively recent historic time, on the order of 2,000, not 10,000, years. That is because I am skeptical that the Fulani would be able to maintain genetic distinctiveness for ~10,000 years from other populations around them. In contrast, the last 2,000 years have seen the rise of various cultural institutions, from trans-Saharan nomadism to Islam, which might slow down admixture sufficiently to maintain the differences between the Fulani and their neighbors. It also implies to me that the non-Maghrebi “Near Eastern” element which Henn et al. discerned is relatively a recent phenomenon in northwest Africa, else the Fulani should also carry it. How recent? Probably from Classical Antiquity down to the Muslim period. Observe that many North Africa groups have a red “European” element. This may be from Near Eastern populations, but I suspect that the fraction here is just too high to be explained by that. Also, you can see above that some groups in Morocco have nearly as much of this as Egyptians, but far less of the more genuine Near Eastern components.

In all likelihood the West Eurasian component came to the Fulani via the Tuareg or a related or antecedent population. So if you typed the Tuareg you would probably get a better sense of the “pure” “Maghrebi” genetic profile.

He assumes this "Berber" component would be rather recent dating back at most ~ 2000 years. I suppose this could be partially true. Geneflow from neighbouring Berber populations could have occurred in the Senegal river area and Mauretania especially during the Takrur (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Takrur) period. But i'm personally also much intrigued by the possibility of even older (partial) origins of this component dating back from the Green Sahara period (http://www.boston.com/bigpicture/2008/12/green_sahara.html) and involving proto Berber/Fulani (??) populations like the Tenerians in Niger. I expect future archaeological research in Mauritania and Mali and finerscaled DNA research among relevant populations could further clarify the specifics and antiquity of Fulani ethnogenesis.


Tenerian is the name given by archaeologists to a prehistoric culture originating at least the 5th millennium BC and lasting until the mid-3rd millennium BC in the Sahara Desert. This spans a wet period of Saharan history known as the Neolithic Subpluvial as well into the onset of the current arid regime. [...}

The desert region was lush at the time and the Tenerians were cattle-herders, fishermen, and hunters. The graves show that the Tenerians were a spiritual people, being buried with artifacts such as jewelry made of hippo tusks and clay pots. The most interesting find is a triple burial, dated to 5300 years ago, of an adult female and two children, estimated through their teeth as being five and eight years old, hugging each other. Pollen residue indicates they were buried on a bed of flowers. The three are assumed to have died within 24 hours of each other, but as their skeletons hold no apparent trauma (they didn't die violently) and they have been buried so elaborately - unlikely if they had died of a plague - the cause of their deaths is a mystery. Analysis of Tenerian skeletons reveals that the Tenerians were not related to the modern inhabitants of the region, having more similarities to Mediterranean people.
link (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tenerian)

Don Felipe
02-23-2013, 01:38 PM
Without further ado on to his results


Mt-DNA: L2c.

According to Wiki


L2c is most frequent in Western Africa and may have arisen there. Specially present in Senegal at 39%, Cape Verde 16% and Guinea-Bissau 16%.

Y-Dna: E1b1a

Unfortunately no deeper subclades mentioned. But it's known to be the dominant haplogroup among Fula groups from Guinea Bissau as well as most other West Africans.


Ancestry Composition

AC is picking up more Southern European affinity than North African when set at speculative. But much is left unassigned when set at conservative. I suppose it has to do with the known problems of the "Italian" and "Non-specific Southern European" category most likely also reflecting ancient West Asian ancestry. I've also seen it in the AC's of Moroccans and other Maghrebi. Hopefully with better defined and more ample reference samples this will be solved. Taken together as just West Eurasian it's still obviously a minor but significant non-SSA component.

Conservative


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/conservative.jpg

Standard


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/standard.jpg


Speculative

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/speculative-unspecified.jpg


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/speculative.jpg


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/speculative-specified.jpg


Global Similarity

The green dot is him. Interestingly he's positioned to the extreme left, surrounded by African Americans with comparable non-SSA admixture and also right above him and also an outlier to the left is a Senegalese with 1 French grand parent.


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/global-similarity.jpg


Ancestry Finder

Very interestingly he has far more matches among Afrodescendants in the Americas than other Africans i'm sharing with. I'm sharing mostly with Nigerians and Ghanaians and they ususally have only a handful of distant cousins and total % shared with USA at settings of 5cM and 1GP is ususally around 1,5%. This guy however has 4,9%-8,1% shared with African Americans at the same settings!

The screenshot is when set at 5cM & 4 grandparents from the same country. Some of the smaller matches might be just IBS (identical by state and not because of recent shared origins) But surprisingly he also shares quite big segments with African Americans, which I suppose would undoubtedly be IBD (identical by descent). One of his Nigerian matches is Fulani, most likely his Guinean match is also. The French match seems a bit puzzling though.

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/af-results.jpg

Don Felipe
02-23-2013, 01:39 PM
GED-Match results

Depending on which tool being selected much difference showing up especially in his Oracle4 results and SSA components. Which makes me wary of their reliability. Results for his combined West Eurasian components are rather consistent though. I personally think his Harappa World results might be the most accurate. Intriguingly he's also being shown to have some East African affinity, suggesting any New Worlders showing this component could have derived it indirectly from Sahellian populations like the Fulani. His Dodecad Africa9 results seem most off with inflated affinity being shown for Central Africa and Southern Africa.


The Fulani being one of the most genetically distinct ethnic groups in Africa it should be fairly easy for these tools, even when faulty, to distinguish them. Harappa & Africa9 indeed correctly identify him as Fulani. Curiously MDLP22 has the Lemba as his top match though. Must be because of their similar admixture/affinity of minor Mena. Still if you look at the ranking order of his single population matches, they don't make that much sense. A lot of Central and Southern African ethnicities being mentioned and not for example the Mandenka (except with MDLP22), who are known to have intermarried with the Fulani in Guinea to some extent.

Also if you look at the the degree of genetic distance (the numbers mentioned with the matches) which is shown to be around 11 for Fulani, it indicates it's not really a close affinity, the lower the number the higher the affinity. I think it has to with the Fulani reference samples being used by GED Match being eastern Fulani (Nigeria and Burkina Faso if i'm not mistaken from the Henn dataset) who probably differ somewhat genetically speaking from western Fulani living in Guinea and Senegambia.



Eurogenes K9 (sorted)

West African 76.57%
Mediterranean 13.04%
Southwest Asian 10.11%



Harappa World

# Population Percent
1 W-African 67.77
2 E-African 11.71
3 Mediterranean 11.66
4 SW-Asian 8.85


Using 1 population approximation:
1 fulani @ 11.612
2 african-american @ 17.949
3 kaba @ 20.039
4 pedi @ 23.277
5 nguni @ 23.498
6 fang @ 23.755
7 bantukenya @ 23.895
8 bantusouthafrica @ 24.116
9 african-caribbean @ 24.702
10 luhya @ 25.316
350 iterations.



Dodecad - Africa9
Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 W_Africa 55.68
2 NW_Africa 23.13
3 E_Africa 7.93
4 Biaka 3.76
5 SW_Asia 3.07
6 S_Africa 2.74
7 San 2.24
8 Europe 1.45


--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Fulani @ 11.941
2 Kaba @ 28.757
3 Fang @ 29.518
4 Bamoun @ 29.739
5 Kongo @ 30.122
6 Hausa @ 31.176
7 Mada @ 31.516
8 Luhya @ 32.042
9 Igbo @ 33.170
10 Bantu_N.E. @ 33.843
54 iterations.


MDLP22
Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Sub-Saharian 76.36
2 Near_East 14.13
3 Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic 8.09
4 Pygmy 0.79
5 Indo-Iranian 0.62


--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Lemba @ 16.518
2 Bantu @ 21.680
3 Mandenka @ 28.592
4 Sub-Saharian @ 28.724
5 Yoruba @ 28.724
6 Biaka_Pygmies @ 33.386
7 Ethiopian @ 48.290
8 Jew-Ethiopia @ 51.965
9 Jew_Ethiopia @ 53.135
10 Moroccan @ 58.732
276 iterations.

J Man
02-25-2013, 05:09 AM
^Very interesting to see that he scores positive values for the Mediterranean components in Eurogenes K9, Harappa World and MDLP22. This could be related to admixture with Arabs or North Africans or even older migrations from the Near East or even Southern Europe.

Don Felipe
02-25-2013, 08:57 PM
^Very interesting to see that he scores positive values for the Mediterranean components in Eurogenes K9, Harappa World and MDLP22. This could be related to admixture with Arabs or North Africans or even older migrations from the Near East or even Southern Europe.

North African seems to be lacking as a category in Eurogenes K9, Harappa World and MDLP22. So that could explain it partially. But it's funny that also in 23&me his non-SSA ancestry is split up between a strictly North African component and an even bigger Southern European one. Like I said it probably has to do with the reference populations being used right now by 23&me but also like Razib stated


the West Eurasian element in the Fulani is difficult to find in “pure” form in the populations from which it putatively derived

It will be interesting to see how his non-SSA components will change after 23&me fixes/improves the "South Euro" and "North African" category.

Scarlet Ibis
08-23-2013, 11:51 PM
Just saw this. Awesome results; thanks for sharing them.

Don Felipe
04-10-2014, 07:50 AM
It will be interesting to see how his non-SSA components will change after 23&me fixes/improves the "South Euro" and "North African" category.


Updated results. North African has increased but the South Euro still remains. It's the same for Moroccans i'm sharing with btw who on average score around 15% South Euro. So even though the North African category has been improved it's still not perfect yet. Pretty sure it has to do with the Gulf Arab and even Palestinian samples they've used for it...


Population Source Sample Size
Palestinian HGDP 51
Bedouin HGDP 48
Mozabite HGDP 30
Egypt 23andMe 28
Palestine 23andMe 28
Morocco 23andMe 19
Algeria 23andMe 14
Saudi Arabia 23andMe 8
Tunisia 23andMe 7
Jordan 23andMe 5
Yemen 23andMe 5
Kuwait 23andMe 3
United Arab Emirates 23andMe 2
Bahrain 23andMe 1

VERY interesting though is the new East African component that's showing up, almost 20%! This new East African category seems to be pretty solid as 23andme used only Masaai and Ethiopian/Somali/Eritrean samples for it.



Population Source Sample Size
Maasai HapMap3 87
Ethiopia 23andMe 14
Somalia 23andMe 12
Eritrea 23andMe 3


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/guinea-1.jpg

Don Felipe
04-10-2014, 08:12 AM
Ancestry Finder

Very interestingly he has far more matches among Afrodescendants in the Americas than other Africans i'm sharing with. I'm sharing mostly with Nigerians and Ghanaians and they ususally have only a handful of distant cousins and total % shared with USA at settings of 5cM and 1GP is ususally around 1,5%. This guy however has 4,9%-8,1% shared with African Americans at the same settings!

The screenshot is when set at 5cM & 4 grandparents from the same country. Some of the smaller matches might be just IBS (identical by state and not because of recent shared origins) But surprisingly he also shares quite big segments with African Americans, which I suppose would undoubtedly be IBD (identical by descent). One of his Nigerian matches is Fulani, most likely his Guinean match is also. The French match seems a bit puzzling though.

He is still EXTEMELY matchy with African Americans and other New Worlders, the French match has disappeared so i suppose it was just an IBS fluke. Also interesting how both Nigeria and Gambia are now showing up besides his native Guinea, must be shared Fulani ancestry. Below screenshot set @ 5cM & 4GP. When raising the bar to 10cM (certified IBD i suppose) he still gets no less than 7 Afram matches!

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/af-results-10-04-2014.jpg

jaderose22
03-26-2017, 02:19 AM
One of my oracles is similar to this person's the last one same first 9 but different distances


Admix Results (sorted):

# Population Percent
1 Sub-Saharian 83.12
2 Near_East 4.59
3 Pygmy 3.91
4 North-East-European 2.01
5 Atlantic_Mediterranean_Neolithic 1.98
6 North-European-Mesolithic 1.35
7 Arctic-Amerind 1.29


Finished reading population data. 276 populations found.
22 components mode.

--------------------------------

Least-squares method.

Using 1 population approximation:
1 Lemba @ 7.571846
2 Bantu @ 10.889599
3 Mandenka @ 18.148041
4 Sub-Saharian @ 18.265547
5 Yoruba @ 18.265547
6 Biaka_Pygmies @ 31.307964
7 Ethiopian @ 59.474323
8 Jew-Ethiopia @ 63.259830
9 Jew_Ethiopia @ 64.288818
10 Lumbee @ 67.888901

Cinnamon orange
03-27-2017, 06:56 AM
Interesting regarding the East African as well as the southern euro, including Iberian and Sardinian. It may explain some Afro Americans minor MENA and southern European as well as East African.

Don Felipe
10-20-2019, 07:28 PM
His updated results as of Oct. 2019 (incl. 2.7% unassigned)

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/fulagc2019.jpg

His predominant "Senegambian & Guinean" score being very much in line with my findings among 46 Fula AncestryDNA testers. Who all show a predominant “Senegal” and “Mali” combination, underlining the principal Upper Guinean origins of the Fula. This genetic component (labeled as "Senegambian & Guinean" by 23andme) is also clearly detectable among people of (partial) Fula descent, such as the Hausa-Fulani. Nowadays living in other countries such as Nigeria or even further away like Sudan or even Saudi Arabia! A remarkable testimony of the Fula migrations all across the Sahel.

His North African score seems understated though. Both compared to earlier 23andme estimates and what I found on Ancestry. The Fula group average for “Africa North” was about 13%, which is minor but still quite substantial. The maximum score of “Africa North” among my 46 Fula results being 24% while the lowest amount was 5%. In fact also minor “Middle East” scores were very common. But always with smaller amounts, often below trace level. And a few times even absent. So less consistent over all.
For more details see also:


West African Results (Upper Guinea) (https://tracingafricanroots.com/west-african-results-ii-2013-2018/) (sections 3 & 4)


https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/09/fulacompil.jpg

***

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/stats-fula.png

Don Felipe
10-20-2019, 07:36 PM
^Very interesting to see that he scores positive values for the Mediterranean components in Eurogenes K9, Harappa World and MDLP22. This could be related to admixture with Arabs or North Africans or even older migrations from the Near East or even Southern Europe.


In my AncestryDNA survey among 46 Fula DNA testers I found that aside from considerable "Africa North" & minor "Middle East" scores also more minimal trace amounts of so-called “Iberian Peninsula”, “Europe South” and even “European Jewish” scores at times appeared.

Most recently a very intriguing paper found that the lactase persistence trait found among Fula nomads might possibly be inherited by way of ancient Trans-Gibralta geneflow from a neolithic Iberian population. Which also was absorbed within the North African genepool. This finding could be used to explain the minor South European scores being reported for Fula people on Ancestry and also on 23andme I suppose. See:


Population history and genetic adaptation of the Fulani nomads (Vicente et al., 2019) (https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2019/05/27/650986.full.pdf)






He is still EXTEMELY matchy with African Americans and other New Worlders,

This also goes for Fula DNA testers on Ancestry from what has been shared with me. They tend to have considerably more DNA matches than other West Africans, safe from Igbo Nigerians. This overview below was obtained after making a thorough analysis of my Fula friend’s DNA matches in 2018 (by way of my scanning & filtering method (https://tracingafricanroots.com/african-dna-matches/)).

https://tracingafricanroots.files.wordpress.com/2019/10/dna-matches-t..jpg