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rock hunter
04-20-2016, 07:27 AM
A new tool called the Geographic Population Structure (GPS), which converts DNA data into its ancestral coordinates, has pinpointed origin of Yiddish speakers, according to a team of researchers led by Dr. Eran Elhaik of the University of Sheffield, UK.
Ashkenazi Jews of 19th century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb, 1878 (from Jewish Art, p. 199).

Ashkenazi Jews of 19th century Eastern Europe portrayed in Jews Praying in the Synagogue on Yom Kippur, by Maurycy Gottlieb, 1878 (from Jewish Art, p. 199).

The Slavic Yiddish (now called universally simply Yiddish), spoken since the 9th century CE, is the language of Ashkenazic Jews, the Jews of Central and Eastern Europe.

The language consists of Hebrew, German, Slavic and other elements written in Aramaic characters. Its origin is something which linguists have questioned for decades.

The prevalent view claims Yiddish has a German origin, whereas the opposing view posits a Slavic origin.

One of the major difficulties in deciding between these hypotheses is the unknown geographical origin of Ashkenazic Jews.

Now, the GPS tool has helped scientists pinpoint that the DNA of Yiddish speakers could have originated from four ancient villages in north-eastern Turkey.

The research, published today in the journal Genome Biology and Evolution, suggests Yiddish was invented by Iranian and Ashkenazic Jews as they traded on the Silk Road.

“We conclude that Ashkenazic Jews probably originated during the first millennium when Iranian Jews Judaized Greco-Roman, Turk, Iranian, southern Caucasus, and Slavic populations inhabiting the lands of Ashkenaz in Turkey,” Dr. Elhaik and co-authors said.

“Our findings imply that Yiddish was created by Slavo-Iranian Jewish merchants plying the Silk Roads between Germany, North Africa, and China.”

The ancient villages, identified by the GPS tool, are clustered close to the crossroads of the Silk Roads and are named Iskenaz, Eskenaz, Ashanaz, and Ashkuz – names which may derive from the word ‘Ashkenaz.’

“North east Turkey is the only place in the world where these place names exist – which strongly implies that Yiddish was established around the first millennium at a time when Jewish traders who were plying the Silk Road moved goods from Asia to Europe wanted to keep their monopoly on trade,” Dr. Elhaik said.

“They did this by inventing Yiddish – a secret language that very few can speak or understand other than Jews.”

“Our findings are in agreement with an alternative theory that suggests Yiddish has Iranian, Turkish, and Slavic origins and explains why Yiddish contains 251 words for the terms buy and sell,” he said.

“This is what we can expect from a language of experienced merchants.”

The findings led the team to believe that towards the end of the first millennium, Ashkenazic Jews may have relocated to Khazaria before moving into Europe five centuries later after the fall of the Khazarian Empire, and during a time when the international trading networks collapsed.

As Yiddish became the primary language of Ashkenazic Jews, the language began to acquire new words from other cultures while retaining its Slavic grammar.

“Yiddish is such a wonderful and complex language, which was inappropriately called ‘bad German’ by both its native and non-native speakers because the language consists of made-up German words and a non-German grammar,” Dr. Elhaik said.

“The linguistic data used are from Yiddish, which we assume was invented in Western Asia as a Slavic language with a largely German-like lexicon and a significant Iranian component on all levels of the language,” said co-author Prof. Paul Wexler, from the University of Tel Aviv.

“The genetic data presented here appear to corroborate the linguistic hypothesis.”

http://www.sci-news.com/genetics/yiddish-language-slavo-iranian-jewish-merchants-03797.html

michi
08-28-2016, 02:07 PM
This modern interpretation is a revision of history inspired of a anti-germanic worldview.

Maurycy Gottlieb, 1878 was from Krakow, Poland.
Eran Elhaik is a geneticer from Israel and the Author of "The Thirteenth Tribe. The Khazar Empire and its Heritage.", 1976,
The Khazar-These is his work, but it have no akzeptance in the science, only by Slavs and Jews but very popular for revision of history.

"The ancient villages, identified by the GPS tool, are clustered close to the crossroads of the Silk Roads and are named Iskenaz, Eskenaz, Ashanaz, and Ashkuz – names which may derive from the word ‘Ashkenaz.’"

These place is in modern Armenia, the name is from ca. 790 BC found in assyrian scripts by a fight against the King Rusa-Dynasty.
Around 1500-900 BC is spoken in Armenia a hurritic-uratean language.
The land of Aš-ku-za-a or Iš-ku-za-a (Assyrian language) is the kingdom of Rusa Dynasty as Vasall of Babylon, Assyrian and Persian Dareios I. satrap "Armenia", called after a neohittitic/neoluwian MoonGod "Arma" as mythical gens-legende of a local city Nairi-tribe dynasty.
A other story say Aš-ku-za-a or Iš-ku-za-a is a translation of Skythians (Askanioi) as skythian follower of Kimmerians by the 7th century.

Correct is the european Ashkenazi have mostly a yDNA J2 with presence in Middle- to East Europe and partiell in Caucasus mountains.
The Neohittic dynasty of "Arme" came from Melit (Malatya) after the fall of Hittitic Kingdom, in these city is spoken a luwian language. The Elite spoke Luwian, the folk spoke a Urartean language. The remix is a Proto-Armenian Language.
Around 597 BC the proto-armenian elite was catched by Babylons together with jewish Diaspora in Babylon. Bible: Jeremias 51,27, ca. 594 v. Chr.
With Dareios, this elite came home with jewish religion and etablished the new religion in Armenia. In the next times, the armenians etablished a trader route over the Caucasus mountains to Alans and etablished armenian filiales in North Caucasus and Crimea. This filiales is the beginn of european "red jews" legende.
They have influence of the Khazar Kingdom, Alanes and Crimean Gotes. These Khazars called the Armenians with the aramean word "Sabir" in respect of her book religion.

But very important is her "free Trader Status" under the Kiever Rus (around 862 AD) and Frankonian Kingdom (825 AD, by Karl the great) with her slavic vasalls of Obotrites in the middle age. With other words the "red jews" was the silk-trader from the Silk Route to Franconian Kingdom (and further westward) with many new filiales in russia, in slavonia and germany. The german citys was very important for jews and they builded a own language "jiddish" (written around 1200 AD). A presence in Cologne is dated by 321 AD,
but "Aschkenazim" is assoziated with Jews in Speyer, Worms and Mainz in Germany under the Frankonian Kingdom.
Jiddish is clear a germanic language, but with respect to modern history of holocaust victim, the older western dialect die out. The weight of jiddish is now more in the slavic sphere, Of course with Slavic influence. Krakow was a high jewish district and the german chancellor´s Grandpa came from jewish district of Krakow, his name Kazmierczak is a jiddish name from a Krakow quater.

Agamemnon
08-28-2016, 02:10 PM
This paper has already been discussed at length here (http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?6589-Peer-Review-s-Hall-Of-Infamy). Wexler's claims are best described as extreme fringe theories.