View Full Version : Athanasiadis et al. 2016 - Genetic History of Denmark

05-05-2016, 11:29 AM

Athanasiadis et al., Nationwide genomic study in Denmark reveals remarkable population homogeneity, ESHG EMPAG 2016 Presentation Abstract, P18.091C

Abstract: Denmark’s genetic history has never been studied in detail. In this work, we analysed genetic and anthropometrical data from ~800 Danish students as part of an outreach activity promoting genomic literacy in secondary education. DNA analysis revealed remarkable homogeneity of the Danish population after discounting contributions from recent immigration. This homogeneity was reflected in PCA and AMOVA, but also in more sophisticated LD-based methods for estimating admixture. Notwithstanding Denmark’s homogeneity, we observed a clear signal of Polish admixture in the East of the country, coinciding with historical Polish settlements in the region before the Middle Ages. In addition, Denmark has a substantially smaller effective population size compared to Sweden and Norway, possibly reflecting further lack of strong population structure. None of these three Scandinavian countries seems to have suffered a depression due to the Black Death in the Middle Ages. Finally, we used the students’ genetic data to predict their adult height after training a novel prediction algorithm on public summary statistics from large GWAS. We validated our prediction using the students’ self-reported height and found that we could predict height with a remarkable ~64% accuracy.

http://www.abstractsonline.com/Plan/ViewAb...14-ddac3db6fc2a (http://www.abstractsonline.com/Plan/ViewAbstract.aspx?sKey=ac1ca3bb-2232-49e5-b2f8-4292c03316e6&cKey=14dca6cd-3337-4e69-964b-8d8de88a982d&mKey=724c3001-0be7-4c9f-b314-ddac3db6fc2a)


What ??? Did they write?:

"a clear signal of Polish admixture in the East of the country, coinciding with historical Polish settlements in the region before the Middle Ages"

Does "before the Middle Ages" mean "during the Viking Age"?

If so, then maybe it has something to do with this:

"Denmark - kingdom created by Danish king and Polish mercenaries?":

http://historum.com/war-military-history/5...ercenaries.html (http://historum.com/war-military-history/59613-denmark-kingdom-created-danish-king-polish-mercenaries.html)

"Harold Bluetooth’s Vikings were Polish mercenaries":

http://www.au.dk/en/about/news/single/arti...sh-mercenaries/ (http://www.au.dk/en/about/news/single/artikel/harold-bluetooths-vikings-were-polish-mercenaries/)

05-05-2016, 05:17 PM
Indeed in Danish chronology before the Middle Ages = before year 1050 AD:

Tidlig middelalder (ca. 1050-1200)
Hřjmiddelalder (1200-1400)
Senmiddelalder (1400-1536)


Probably that was in times of this Polish princess who became the queen of Denmark:



05-05-2016, 07:10 PM
Wife of Harold Bluetooth (mother of Svein Forkbeard) was Slavic (Tofa, daughter of duke Mstivoy of the Obotrites), and later wife of Svein Forkbeard and mother of Canute the Great was also Slavic (Swietoslava, daughter of Mieszko I of Poland).

This means, that Canute the Great was - in terms of autosomal DNA - more Slavic than Germanic.

So no surprise, that German chronicler Thietmar of Merseburg in Book VII of his chronicle, described Canute the Great as - quote - "lizard's brood" and his father - Svein Forkbeard - as "the persecutor". From "The Chronicle of Thietmar, bishop of Merseburg":

Link: The Chronicle of Thietmar bishop of Merseburg (translated by R. T. Prinke, 2000) (http://main5.amu.edu.pl/~rafalp/sigrida/thietmar-eng.htm)

"(...) Because nobody is able to comprehend either the curiosities of that northern land [Denmark], which are unfolded in their prodigious form by nature herself, or the cruel deeds of its people, I will omit them and will only devote a few words to that lizard's brood, that is to the sons of the said Svein, the persecutor. They were born to him by a daughter of duke Mieszko [of Poland] and sister of his son and successor Boleslaw [of Poland]. (...)"

Though perhaps Thietmar regarded native Danes (those without Slavic blood) as "lizard's brood" too.

05-06-2016, 04:45 AM
Poland and Denmark were historically good allies:

"Diplomatic Relations between Poland and Denmark":


The first records of Polish-Danish relations date back to the early years of the first Polish ruling dynasty, the Piast dynasty. In 996, the first Polish king, Mieszko I, gave his daughter Świętosława in marriage to the Danish King Svend Forkbeard. This move was most probably a part of the Polish king's plan to strengthen his power. Around 1129/1130, the two countries cooperated in arranging a common expedition to the island of Wolin in what is now Northwestern Poland. This alliance, however, did not last for long. Another instance of Polish-Danish rapprochement took place in the 14th century when the Danish King Erik Menved concluded an alliance with the Polish king Władysław the Elbow-high, which was directed against the rising power of the German Margraviate of Brandenburg. Władysław’s son Casimir the Great twice invited the Danish King Valdemar Atterdag to his court in Kraków in the middle of the 14th century. During one of his stays, the Danish King participated in a banquet hosted by Mikołaj Wierzynek – whose restaurant carrying his name still exists today in Kraków’s Main Square. This event was made famous by Polish chronicler Jan Długosz’ depiction of the event.

A very strong determining factor behind the foreign policies of the two kingdoms was the German expansion – by the Hanseatic League and the Teutonic Order – in the north and in the east. The Polish-Lithuanian Union and the Danish-Swedish-Norwegian Kalmar Union, which were both established in the late 14th century, were motivated by a desire to counteract the widespread German influence. In this context, mention should be made of Erik of Pomerania from the House of Griffins, which was a dynasty ruling the Duchy of Pomerania. Erik was adopted by the Danish Queen Margaret I and thanks to her efforts was crowned the king of the three united Nordic countries in 1397.

The second part of the 16th century marked the beginning of a long period of fighting between the countries around the Baltic Sea to secure themselves the hegemony of the Baltic Region. What the Polish-Danish relations is concerned, this turbulent period was characterized by a series of short-lived alliances, most often directed against Sweden. The most famous episode of the Polish-Danish relationship in this period is undoubtedly the campaign of a corps of Polish soldiers under the leadership of Hetman Stefan Czarniecki. Czarniecki's troops came to the rescue of their Danish ally during the Second Northern War (1655-1660). The Danish King Frederik III had declared war against Sweden in 1657 but, much to his surprise, the Swedish troops soon defeated the Danish army. In 1658, Stefan Czarniecki and his squad of 6.000 soldiers came to the rescue of Denmark. The Polish troops especially distinguished themselves in the liberation of Als and Koldinghus – the former seat of the Danish kings. These events were vividly depicted by the Polish chronicler and nobleman Jan Chryzostom Pasek, who himself took part in the expedition.

In the following decades, the Polish-Danish relations gradually lost their importance (...)

05-08-2016, 06:26 PM
Strontium isotopes from teeth of Harold Bluetooth's mercenaries show that they came from Poland.

Some of them - 6 out of 32 - even came from Southern Poland, i.e. from the region around Cracow.

The main garrisons of the Polish army as of 1000 AD were these (according to Gallus Anonymus):

Poznań - 1300 loricati + 4000 clipeati + 200 loricati given to Otto III (on 11.03.1000 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_Gniezno))
Gniezno - 1500 loricati + 5000 clipeati
Włocławek - 800 loricati + 2000 clipeati + 100 loricati given to Otto III (on 11.03.1000 (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Congress_of_Gniezno))
Giecz - 300 loricati + 2000 clipeati

Total for these 4 locations - 17,200 warriors (14 units x 300 loricati & 13 units x 1000 clipeati).

Of course these are just most important garrisons, and there could exist also many other garrisons.

Zululand under Shaka in 1879 AD had ca. 750,000 inhabitants and reportedly at least 37,000 warriors.

Poland in 1000 AD had at least 1,250,000 inhabitants so could theoretically mobilize more warriors.

Loricati = heavy horsemen / heavy infantry
Clipeati = light infantry troops / light cavalry


What I'm saying is that Bluetooth's Polish mercenaries probably originated from that area.

Likely from Włocławek which is in Cuiavia at the Vistula River, with easy access to Gdańsk:


So they sailed down the Vistula River up to Gdańsk (the main Polish port) and to Denmark.

Polish borders in 1000 AD, compared to main centers of the Polish army per Gallus Anonymus:

Poland controlled all of Pomerania between the Oder and the Vistula River since around 970 AD:


Map taken from the book "Archaeology of Early Medieval Poland" by Andrzej Buko (link):

http://brego-weard.com/lib/ns/The_Archaeology_of_Early_Medieval_Poland_Discov.pd f

05-24-2016, 09:38 AM
Piotr Włostowic (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Piotr_W%C5%82ostowic) (c. 1080 – 1153), also known as Peter Wlast or Włost) was a Polish noble, castellan of Wrocław, and a ruler (możnowładca) of part of Silesia. From 1117 he was voivode (palatyn) of the king of Poland, Bolesław III Wrymouth.

Kit #199575 (Dunin-Wasowicz, Poland) - R-YP593 (Dunin Clan DNA Project (https://www.familytreedna.com/public/Dunin/default.aspx?section=yresults))

The Dunin-Wasowicz family (http://www.genealogia.okiem.pl/genealogia.php?n=wasowicz) (Labedz coat of arms (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/%C5%81ab%C4%99d%C5%BA_coat_of_arms))
Stowarzyszenie Członkow Rodu Duninow herbu Labedz (https://pl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stowarzyszenie_Rodu_Dunin%C3%B3w)
Duninowie (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duninowie)

Tomb of Piotr Wlostowic (destroyed by Lutherans in 1529):

Annales seu cronicae incliti Regni Poloniae about Piotr Wlostowic' funeral:

Pogrzeb miał wspaniały z udziałem wielkiej liczby Polaków, którzy uczciwszy go na uroczystościach żałobnych, okazali, jak bardzo kochali go za życia. Do dnia dzisiejszego imię komesa Piotra ze Skrzynna cieszy się u Polaków rozgłosem i sławą. Jego żona Maria, która zmarła później, została pochowana w tym samym grobowcu co Piotr, by zająć miejsce obok prochów małżonka.

Dwuwiersz wypisany na grobowcu świadczy, że pogrzebano tam oboje. Oto on:
„Tu Piotra z wierną żoną Marią w grób złożono Z woli ojca Wilhelma wspaniały marmur położono".

Do tej pory istnieje w Polsce wiele kościołów murowanych, które — jak podają — zostały przez niego wzniesione.

Source (http://www.dbp.wroc.pl/biblioteki/wroclaw/attachments/article/714/Jan%20D%C5%82ugosz_Roczniki%20czyli%20Kroniki%20s% C5%82awnego%20Kr%C3%B3lestwa%20Polskiego_V-VI.pdf)



05-25-2016, 03:27 AM
Interesting stuff!

There is a book published that was published in 1994 on one of my Polish lines, called "The Descendants of Johann Jacob Brzoska and Marianna Barbara Klinowska in Poland, New Zealand and the United States".

There is evidence mentioned in the book about one of my Polish lines possibly originating from around Birka on the small Swedish island of Björkö. This island is near Stockholm and in eastern-central Sweden.

Around 975 AD Birka was abandoned and around this time the Brusi people arrived in Poland according to the book. The thought is the surname Brzoska developed from the name Brusi over time.

Captain Nordic
07-26-2016, 01:27 PM
Don't get to excited. Partially Polish, not significantly.
Danes are obviously Germanic, not Slavic.

08-24-2016, 02:56 PM
Abstract: Denmark has played a substantial role in the history of Northern Europe. Through a nationwide scientific outreach initiative, we collected genetic and anthropometrical data from ~800 high school students and used them to elucidate the genetic makeup of the Danish population, as well as to assess polygenic predictions of phenotypic traits in adolescents. We observed remarkable homogeneity across different geographic regions, although we could still detect weak signals of genetic structure reflecting the history of the country. Denmark presented genomic affinity with primarily neighboring countries with overall resemblance of decreasing weight from Britain, Sweden, Norway, Germany and France. A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R2 = 0.639±0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country.




08-24-2016, 03:01 PM
Not really that surprising, Denmark is small and has traditionally been a place where people migrate from, not so much to (although they did see allot of Germans and Norwegians migrate to Copenhagen in the past). Anybody know where the Norwegians they used are from? As some part of Norway had a lot of Danish settlement in the past, while others region much less so, that could affect the results a lot..

08-24-2016, 03:06 PM
"Gesta Hammaburgensis Ecclesiae Pontificum" (written between 1073 and 1076 by Adam of Bremen)
https://s10.postimg.io/vyyy8y5g7/image.jpg https://s10.postimg.io/6hgjpcnpz/image.jpg

"Of the islands that lie near the Sclavis [Slavs], we understand that three are of considerable importance. The first of them is called Fembre [Fehmarn]. It is opposite the Wagris [Wagiri], so it can be seen from Aldinburg [Oldenburg], like the one named Laland [Laaland]. The second, opposite the Wilzos [Wilzi], is possessed by the Rani or Runi, the most powerful of the Sclavorum [Slavic] peoples, without whose consent nothing may lawfully be done in matters of public concern; so much are they feared on account of their familiarity with the gods, or rather demons, whom this people holds in greater veneration than do the others. Both these islands, too, are infested by pirates and by very bloodthirsty robbers who spare no one who passes that way. For they kill all those whom others are accustomed to sell. The third island, that called Samland, is close to the Ruzzis [East Slavs] and Polanis [Poles]. It is inhabited by the Sembi or Pruzzi [Prussians], a most humane people, who go out to help those who are in peril at sea or who are attacked by pirates. Gold and silver they hold in very slight esteem. They have an abundance of strange furs, the odor of which has inoculated our world with the deadly poison of pride. But these furs they regard, indeed, as dung, to our shame, I believe, for right or wrong we hanker after a martenskin robe as much as for supreme happiness. Therefore, they offer their very precious marten furs for the woolen garments called faldones. Many praiseworthy things could be said about these peoples with respect to their morals, if only they had the faith of Christ whose missionaries they cruelly persecute. At their hands Adalbertus, the illustrious bishop of the Boemiorum [Bohemians], was crowned with martyrdom. Alhtough they share everything else with our people, they prohibit only, to this very day indeed, access to their groves and springs which, they aver, are polluted by the entry of Christains. They take the meat of their draft animals for food and use their milk and blood as drink so freely that they are said to become intoxicated. These men are blue of color, ruddy of face, and long-haired. Living, moreover, in inaccessible swamps, they will not endure a master among them.


Hericus [Eric], the king of the Sueonum [Swedes], entered into an alliance with Bolizlao [Boleslav], the most powerful king of the Polanorum [Poles]. Bolizlaus [Boleslav] gave his daughter or sister [Sigrid the Haughty or Swietoslawa] in marriage to Herico [Eric]. Because of this league the Dani [Danes] were jointly attacked by the Sclavis [Slavs] and the Sueonibus [Swedes]. In alliance with the third Ottone [Otto] the most Christian king Bolizlaus [Boleslav] subjected all Sclavaniam [Slavia] and Ruziam [East Slavs] together with the Pruzzos [Prussians], at whose hands Saint Adalbertus had suffered martyrdom. Bolizlaus [Boleslav] at this time translated his [Adalbert’s] remains into Poloniam [Poland]."

09-18-2017, 08:52 AM
A Polish admixture signal was detected in Zealand and Funen and our date estimates coincided with historical evidence of Wend settlements in the south of Denmark. We also observed considerably diverse demographic histories among Scandinavian countries, with Denmark having the smallest current effective population size compared to Norway and Sweden. Finally, we found that polygenic prediction of self-reported adolescent height in the population was remarkably accurate (R2 = 0.639±0.015). The high homogeneity of the Danish population could render population structure a lesser concern for the upcoming large-scale gene-mapping studies in the country.


A massive tenth-century AD ring fortress was recently identified at Borgring, south of Copenhagen in Denmark (Zealand).


The ring fortresses of Trelleborg type are enigmas in the archaeology of Viking Age Scandinavia. Comprising massive, timber-framed earth-and-turf ramparts, approximately 140–250m in diameter, together with traces of large buildings and other timber constructions, they stand out as notable early medieval European building works. These fortresses are all laid out in a strikingly similar geometric plan, which arranges the earthworks, houses and other features with meticulous accuracy. They were built in a short period around AD 975–980, in the reign of King Harald Bluetooth, in a part of Europe with little precedent for large-scale fortified sites.


Along the inner face of the rampart, the fill was apparently clad with closely stacked sods, forming an almost vertical, around 0.4m-high face (Figure 6.7). This was topped by a distinctive layer of yellow subsoil material, which was again covered with another packing layer of sods, observed some 0.4m farther into the rampart. These features may indicate that the inner side of the rampart was stepped, which would have made it easy to scale for the defenders. No observations are available from other Danish fortresses to compare with these features; a similar construction, however, has been suggested for Slavic fortresses in Mecklenburg (Donat 2000).



Map of southern Scandinavia showing the location of the Viking Age fortresses of Trelleborg type in relation to other important sites in Denmark and the surrounding countries. The underlying map shows the relative density of medieval (twelfth to thirteenth centuries AD) parish churches as an indication of pre-modern population density and historic main routes for land traffic. The fortresses are situated in densely populated regions at the intersections of old main roads and waterways.

Legend: dark blue circles: Trelleborg-type fortress; open blue circles: contemporaneous fortified cities; open blue square: fortified royal centre; white lines: network of highways c. 1900; grey lines: important medieval land routes.

Hope to eventually see some aDNA from Trelleborg-type fortresses. Perhaps those sites were built jointly by Slavs and Scandinavians.

09-18-2017, 11:04 AM



British percentage is probably common Jutes and Angles ancestry in Denmark and East England and sign od Danelaw settlement, not British admixture in Denmark obviously:)

But Polish admixture is hard to explain in that way. It is of course trace of early Slavic settlement, but obviously not form mercenaries but farmers / fishermen who settled here probably in peaceful way...

09-18-2017, 02:43 PM
Very interesting Waldemar (this is how I think my paternal line R1a/R-L1029/R-YP263 ended up in Ireland btw).

09-18-2017, 03:36 PM
Very interesting Waldemar (this is how I think my paternal line R1a/R-L1029/R-YP263 ended up in Ireland btw).

Yes, that's a possible scenario. As you probably already know, I also belong to R-YP263 (R-L1029>R-YP263>R-Y2912*, to be exact).

09-18-2017, 07:03 PM
As you probably already know, I also belong to R-YP263 (R-L1029>R-YP263>R-Y2912*, to be exact).

The best Y HG, we are a fine and distinguished bunch! :beerchug:

09-19-2017, 08:16 AM
The best Y HG, we are a fine and distinguished bunch! :beerchug:

Definitely, we're an interesting bunch of people with historically impressive set of skills (seafarers, warriors, craftsmen, etc.) which allowed our paternal ancestors a vast expansion (Scandinavia, Greece, Ireland, etc.) during the Middle Ages.

It's hard to believe how successful our ancestors were bearing in mind that R-YP263 was represented by a relatively small, closely related group of men at the beginning of the Common Era.

04-08-2018, 06:54 AM


04-08-2018, 07:18 AM
Here's an example of earlier Slavic dugout boat..



04-08-2018, 09:03 AM
Talking about the 'Polish' impact.....see:https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?13950-Impact-of-Unetice-or-Central-European-Bronze-Age!&p=376150#post376150

04-08-2018, 10:56 AM
The fascinating saga about the influence of Scandinavians at the courts of Polish rulers is mainly written by archaeologists. And the secrets of silver and slaves awaken the most emotions.

Rowdy adventurists from the North stayed in Polish territories in two periods. First, they established two settlements in the chain of emporia connecting the North Sea and the Baltic Sea. The Świelubie-Bardy complex near today's Kołobrzeg (8th / 9th c.) Is thanks to the Central Sweden's expatriates. The famous Truso on the then land of Prussia grew up in the area of ​​today's Elbląg in the 9th century. Newcomers from Denmark were founders. In the colonies of these Norman craftsmen produced amber, iron, horn, leather and metal items. They traded, and pirates stored loot.

For the second time, the Viking boats took a course on the land of the Slavs in the second half of the tenth century. The capital of Danish merchants and warriors was then the city of Wolin. Jómswikingasaga was written in Iceland in the 13th century. The work deals with the brotherhood of warriors who lived in the fortified town of Jómsborg. The scabbard of the inhabitants of the Viking enclave is art: spoons, knife blades, horn and horn frames decorated with a ring and chain weave. Researchers outlined the route of such decorated objects: Wolin, Szczecin, Żółte in Pomorze, Santok, Gniezno, Ostrów Lednicki, Ląd n. Warta, Giecz, Wrocław, Opole ... And so important towns of the Piasts! Archaeologists believe that after the fall of the Danish colony in Wolin, the Vikings moved deeper into the country. There they could sneak into Mieszko I. They had great political, economic and global contacts. They engaged in the haul of Scandinavian mercenaries to the Piast team, served water transport routes, had knowledge and experience in the organization of the state.

What role did the Normans play in the formation of the early Piast state? The discussion has been going on for ages. Mieszko was a Viking, and newcomers from the North created a Polish state - this is the most extreme theory. Recent research has denied this. - The first wave of Vikings stopped at the coast - emphasizes the archaeologist, dr hab. Błażej Stanisławski. - On the other hand, the Scandinavians of the second wave appeared when the Polish state already existed - he argues. Archaeologists are trying to tear the secret of the identity of strangers who stayed in the surroundings of Mieszko and Chrobry, digging up their cemeteries. Were they buried in Kałdus, Dziekanowice, Lutomiersk and Ciepła by the Scandinavians? The way of burial, often in characteristic chamber graves, may indicate this. The elite cemetery from the times of Bolesław Chrobry in Bodzi is an electrifying discovery of recent years. Researchers attribute high social status to this community based on grave artifacts. Jewelry, coins, beads, silver kaptorgi on the relic, the first in Poland langsaks (long fighting knife) and the viking sword parade create a collection of funeral gifts. The isotope research turned out to be a breakthrough. Analysis of the strontium isotope deposited in the teeth (show where the individual spent the first years of life) has stopped speculation.

- Previously, the inference was based mainly on the origin of the discovered monuments, and in the case of Bodzia - on the remains of human remains - explains prof. Andrzej Buko from the IAE PAN in Warsaw. - In 11 cases studied, 10 are people from North-West Europe. The rest came probably from Kievan Rus. The controversial concept of the relationship "Piastowie and Vikings" associates silver and slave trade. From the times when the Polish state was born, there are numerous treasures of oriental silver buried in the earth. It's a Scandinavian custom. At that time, the Piasts built castles. Traditionally, they are assigned defensive functions. A new idea is that they could be used to keep ... slaves. The Baltic ports were then links in the route that connected the European North and Islamic Central Asia. From there came the ore which flooded Polish lands. It is likely that he was the equivalent of people being driven to the caliphate. The brains of this operation were probably the Vikings with the necessary logistics. They controlled the trail and brokered trade, paying for slaves. The masses of oriental coins lay at the heart of the economic system of the Piasts. Could the power of the first rulers of Poland grow on the trade of a living commodity? and their dirty business with the Vikings?


04-17-2018, 08:45 AM
A 13-year-old boy and an amateur archaeologist have unearthed a “significant” trove in Germany which may have belonged to the Danish king Harald Bluetooth who brought Christianity to Denmark.


René Schön and his student Luca Malaschnitschenko were looking for treasure using metal detectors in January on northern Rügen island when they chanced upon what they initially thought was a worthless piece of aluminium.

But upon closer inspection, they realised that it was a piece of silver, German media reported.

Over the weekend, the regional archaeology service began a dig covering 400 sq metres (4,300 sq ft). It has found a hoard believed to be linked to the Danish king Harald Gormsson, better known as “Harry Bluetooth”, who reigned from around AD958 to 986.

Braided necklaces, pearls, brooches, a Thor’s hammer, rings and up to 600 chipped coins were found, including more than 100 that date back to Bluetooth’s era, when he ruled over what is now Denmark, northern Germany, southern Sweden and parts of Norway.

“This trove is the biggest single discovery of Bluetooth coins in the southern Baltic Sea region and is therefore of great significance,” the lead archaeologist, Michael Schirren, told national news agency DPA.

The oldest coin is a Damascus dirham dating to 714 while the most recent is a penny dating to 983.

The find suggests that the treasure may have been buried in the late 980s – also the period when Bluetooth was known to have fled to Pomerania, where he died in 987.

“We have here the rare case of a discovery that appears to corroborate historical sources,” said the archaeologist Detlef Jantzen.

Bluetooth is credited with unifying Denmark. The Viking-born king also turned his back on old Norse religion and introduced Christianity to the Nordic country.

But he was forced to flee to Pomerania after a rebellion led by his son Sven Gabelbart.


05-30-2018, 08:58 AM




https://www.academia.edu/1448115/Difficult_middles_hybridity_and_ambivalence_of_a_m edieval_frontier_the_cultural_landscape_of_Lolland _and_Falster_Denmark_