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rock hunter
06-15-2016, 08:00 PM
Black Death, mid-fourteenth century plague, is undoubtedly the most famous historical pandemic. Within only five years it killed 30-50% of the European population. Unfortunately it didn’t stop there. Plague resurged throughout Europe leading to continued high mortality and social unrest over the next three centuries.
Marseille was a major hub for European trade

Archaeology holds many of the answers to these questions if you know where to look for clues. An international team of scientists led by members of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, has taken one important step forward to understanding the European plagues of our not-so-distant past.

The report the reconstruction of complete pathogen genomes from victims of the Great Plague of Marseille (1720-1722), which is conventionally assumed to be the last outbreak of medieval plague in Europe. Using teeth from plague pits in Marseille, the team was able to access tiny fragments of DNA that had preserved for hundreds of years.

But, the calamity is now almost totally absent in Western Europe, triggering questions why the disease abruptly disappeared from Europe, where did the outbreaks started, where was it hiding between outbreaks.

Researchers from Germany’s Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History successfully reconstructed fully pathogen genomes from victims of the Great Plague of Marseille. They used teeth from plague pits to access tiny fragments of DNA that remained preserved for hundreds of years.

Computational analyst Alexander Herbig said, “To our surprise, the 18th century plague seems to be a form that is no longer circulating, and it descends directly from the disease that entered Europe during the Black Death, several centuries earlier.”

Kirsten Bos, a lead author of the study, also raised concern that the plague studied by the Max Planck researchers might actually have been present elsewhere in Europe.
The most logical theory for Plague in Europe

The first theory seems to fit well; the three separate plague pandemics (the Justinian, the Black Death, and the modern one) have been shown genetically to come from separate variations of the disease imported from Asia. And Marseille itself was an enormous trade hub in the Mediterranean, so the first theory—that the later Great Plague of Marseille was the result of a ship bringing the plague around again—would fit logically.

However, the lineage of Marseille’s plague is close to that of the original outbreak in the 14th century—showing that the Black Death didn’t truly die off in Europe in between outbreaks. Rather, the evidence points to the disease lying in wait in some yet-unidentified pool for four hundred years.

“It’s a chilling thought that plague might have once been hiding right around the corner throughout Europe, living in a host which is not known to us yet,” said Johannes Krause, director of the Department of Archaeogenetics at the MPI in Jena. “Future work might help us to identify the mysterious host species, its range and the reason for its disappearance”.

Archaeology holds many of the answers to these questions if you know where to look for clues. An international team of scientists has taken one important step forward to understanding the European plagues of our not-so-distant past. In the online journal eLife they report the reconstruction of complete pathogen genomes from victims of the Great Plague of Marseille (1720-1722), which is conventionally assumed to be the last outbreak of medieval plague in Europe. Using teeth from plague pits in Marseille, the team was able to access tiny fragments of DNA that had preserved for hundreds of years.

“We faced a significant challenge in reconstructing these ancient genomes,” comments computational analyst Alexander Herbig. “To our surprise, the 18th century plague seems to be a form that is no longer circulating, and it descends directly from the disease that entered Europe during the Black Death, several centuries earlier”. Being distinct from all modern forms of plague, the scientists believe they have identified an extinct form of the disease.

Marseille was a major hub for European trade, but the plague studied by the Max Planck scientists may actually have been present elsewhere in Europe. “Our results suggest that the disease was hiding somewhere in Europe for several hundred years,” she noted, told the FoxNews.

The I4U notes that, researchers say that Marseille, a port city in southern France, was hub of trade in the region at that time. So, there is a possibly that plague may have brought there from somewhere else through ship and cargo.

“It’s a chilling thought that plague might have once been hiding right around the corner throughout Europe, living in a host which is not known to us yet,” said Johannes Krause, director of Department of Archaeogenetics at Max Planck Institute.
Notes about European Black Death
The plague in 14th and 18th centuries was caused by Yersinia pestis
Bacteria thought to have killed 30% to 50% of the European population
Study found same strain of bacteria in victims that died 300 years apart
Follows study of German victims’ DNA which came to same conclusion

Archaeology holds many of the answers to these questions if you know where to look for clues. An international team of scientists led by members of the Max Planck Institute (MPI) for the Science of Human History in Jena, Germany, has taken one important step forward to understanding the European plagues of our not-so-distant past. In the online journal eLife they report the reconstruction of complete pathogen genomes from victims of the Great Plague of Marseille (1720-1722), which is conventionally assumed to be the last outbreak of medieval plague in Europe. Using teeth from plague pits in Marseille, the team was able to access tiny fragments of DNA that had preserved for hundreds of years.

“We faced a significant challenge in reconstructing these ancient genomes,” says computational analyst Alexander Herbig. “To our surprise, the 18th century plague seems to be a form that is no longer circulating, and it descends directly from the disease that entered Europe during the Black Death, several centuries earlier”. Being distinct from all modern forms of plague, the scientists believe they have identified an extinct form of the disease.

Kirsten Bos, a lead author of the publication, cautions that the geographical source of the disease cannot be identified yet. Marseille was a big hub of trade in the Mediterranean, so the Great Plague of Marseille could have been imported from any number of places by ship and cargo. But she concedes that it equally could have been close to home. “Our results suggest that the disease was hiding somewhere in Europe for several hundred years.”

“It’s a chilling thought that plague might have once been hiding right around the corner throughout Europe, living in a host which is not known to us yet” explains Johannes Krause, director of the Department of Archaeogenetics at the MPI in Jena, and he adds: “Future work might help us to identify the mysterious host species, its range and the reason for its disappearance”.

Jean M
06-15-2016, 09:13 PM
http://www.shh.mpg.de/201958/plaguecellhost2016
European Black Death as source of modern plague


A single strain of plague bacteria sparked multiple historical and modern pandemics. This was revealed by the analysis of three reconstructed historical genomes from the causative agent of plague, Yersinia pestis, isolated from plague victims between the 14th and 16th century. The close relationship between strains causing different outbreaks in Europe led the international research team headed by the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History to suggest Europe as a medieval plague hotspot.

Actual published paper:

Maria A. Spyrou, Rezeda I. Tukhbatova, Michal Feldman, Joanna Drath, Sacha Kacki, Julia Beltrán de Heredia, Susanne Arnold, Airat G. Sitdikov, Dominique Castex, Joachim Wahl, Ilgizar R. Gazimzyanov, Danis K. Nurgaliev, Alexander Herbig, Kirsten I. Bos, and Johannes Krause (2016), Historical Y. pestis genomes reveal the European Black Death as the source of ancient and modern plague pandemics, Cell Host & Microbe. http://www.cell.com/cell-host-microbe/abstract/S1931-3128(16)30208-6

Webb
06-16-2016, 06:28 PM
http://www.google.com/url?sa=t&rct=j&q=&esrc=s&source=web&cd=3&cad=rja&uact=8&ved=0ahUKEwjYwPOOlq3NAhUDU1IKHWfwB0UQFggpMAI&url=http%3A%2F%2Fwww.viralnova.com%2Fplague-found%2F&usg=AFQjCNEKZ5SWIEJVDvF3UohqQ_JkfqsLaA&sig2=EyIUEgBaAilV81lN6zdCwA

This might be interesting to some. This is from quite recently. A strain of Bubonic Plague was discovered in a flea specimen from Lake Tahoe.