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BalkanKiwi
07-06-2016, 09:38 PM
Oceanian Studies Discussion

Welcome!

This is a place to discuss the latest research and study findings relating Southeast Asia and Oceania in general. If you are going to post a link to a study, please make sure it follows Section 4 of the forum's Terms of Service (http://www.anthrogenica.com/faq.php).

Three things to post when sharing a study:

1. Article title
2. A summary of the article
3. A link to the article.

BalkanKiwi
07-07-2016, 12:10 AM
Amerijoe has posted (http://www.anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?7766-Oceanian-Genetics-Beginners-Guide-and-FAQ&p=168776&viewfull=1#post168776) a great article regarding Polynesian migration. The University of Queensland (a uni in my city) have conducted research used chemical fingerprinting on stone tools to show sailors travelled throughout the Polynesian islands for several centuries after colonisation. They did this chemical fingerprinting using tools found in the Cook Islands. If anything this confirms that Polynesian's migrated with a purpose.

Articles

http://phys.org/news/2016-07-sailors-ancient-fingerprints-polynesia.html

http://www.pnas.org/content/early/2016/06/30/1608130113

Amerijoe
07-07-2016, 10:13 PM
Tattooing in the South Pacific

http://www.livescience.com/55289-prehistoric-tattoos-made-with-glass-tools.html?utm_source=listrak&utm_medium=email&utm_campaign=20160707-oap

Saetro
08-24-2016, 11:12 PM
Amerijoe has posted a great article regarding Polynesian migration.

Have just read a great chapter on Polynesian navigation - "Tupaia goes home" in an unexpected location: Pinpoint: how GPS is changing our world, by Greg Milner, Granta, 2016. (For BalkanKiwi's benefit - BCCL has a copy.)

Not sure I understand the process yet, but it obviously took a lot of skill.

BalkanKiwi
08-25-2016, 04:59 AM
Have just read a great chapter on Polynesian navigation - "Tupaia goes home" in an unexpected location: Pinpoint: how GPS is changing our world, by Greg Milner, Granta, 2016. (For BalkanKiwi's benefit - BCCL has a copy.)

Not sure I understand the process yet, but it obviously took a lot of skill.

Thanks brother! Good find. Without having read it, I think the art of non-instrument navigation is a dying skill. I'm glad there are some organisations out there who are trying keep it around for the younger generations.

BalkanKiwi
09-26-2016, 12:57 AM
A genomic history of Aboriginal Australia

http://www.gizmodo.com.au/2016/09/72000-years-dna-uncovers-indigenous-australian-ancestry/

Original study - http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/vaop/ncurrent/full/nature18299.html

Some really interesting findings. I've been waiting for an extensive Aboriginal Australian study to be completed.

Gravetto-Danubian
09-26-2016, 01:24 AM
It would have been good to be free view for people. But here is a summary :

• Australia, Tasmania & New Guinea were one land mass, Sahul, for most of the last 100, 000 years.

• The earliest evidence for modern Humans is c. 47 – 55, 000 years ago, arriving via “Sunda” (Coastal SEA). They found that Papuans (P) & Aust. Aborigines (AA) are most closely related to each other than other populations of the world.

• Their modelling favours the single dispersal scenario i.e, AA & P derive from the same initial population which brought all other Eurasian AMHs, an not some earlier, ‘pre-Toba’ group; although not unequivocally (other evidence favours a two-wave model).

• The ancestors of Australo-Papuans diverged from other Eurasians c. 58 kya (‘other’ being west Eurasians and East Eurasians).

• They have Neanderthal admixture from before thy split off other out-of –African groups, but their Denisovan admixture is not present in West Eurasians and East Asians, occurring after Australo-Papuans had split off the main trunk.


• AA and P split c. 37 kya, and AA are as diverged from Papuans, as individual Papuans are from each other.

• There was a significant desertification of the landscape during the LGM- especially in Australia, resulting in population drops, but also perhaps the physiological and morphological adaptations which came to characterize the populations.

• There was some mild ongoing contact between Australo-Papuans and Eurasians, the latest one occurring about 4, 000 years ago, from South Asia, already mentioned in earlier genetics papers, and also evidenced by the arrival of the Dingo & Pama–Nyungan languages

Megalophias
09-26-2016, 03:10 PM
There was some mild ongoing contact between Australo-Papuans and Eurasians, the latest one occurring about 4, 000 years ago, from South Asia, already mentioned in earlier genetics papers, and also evidenced by the arrival of the Dingo & Pama–Nyungan languages

The previous study's finding of South Asian gene flow is mentioned in the introduction but failed to be replicated in the results: "We also investigated possible South Asian (Indian-related) gene flow into Aboriginal Australians, as reported recently. However, we found no evidence of a component that can be uniquely assigned to Indian populations in the Aboriginal Australian gene pool using either admixture analyses or f3 and D-statistics (Supplementary Information section S05), even when including the original Aboriginal Australian genotype data from Arnhem Land. The different size and nature of the comparative datasets may account for the discrepency."

A previous study of Aboriginal Y chromosomes was criticized by members here for excluding putatively colonial haplogroups from analysis and therefore potentially missing interesting signals. In this study all were included, n=44. It comes to 32% C1b and 25% K2b; 18% mixed R1b-L11 and 5% each of I1-Z58, I2a-L460, E1b-M35 (M123 and V13), and J2-M67; 5% O1a-M199 and 2% either O2a-M88 or O3a-Page127 (can't tell from ISOGG version). No R1a or other potentially South Asian markers (other than J2) were in the sample, though, which is not all that big.

Among the mtDNA (n=83) there was also 2% H1 and 1% E1a2. Maternal E1a and paternal O1a are typical Austronesian markers.

No rapid star-like expansions could be seen in the tree of Y markers except for one that took place ~5000 years ago... in Europe. Unfortunately they didn't identify the subclades of C1b or MS, so you can tell exactly what sub-branch of L21 introgressed from the British colonists but can't distinguish between Papuan and Australian branches of Sahul haplogroups. :(

The C1b clade has a very deep primary branching, which seems to be considerably older than the TMRCA of Australian C1b from the previous study. The minor branch might represent Papuan C1b in the Australian gene pool, but it is found in the least admixed (Western Central Desert) population, with no detectable Papuan ancestry, and on the opposite side of the continent.

Gravetto-Danubian
09-27-2016, 02:03 AM
The previous study's finding of South Asian gene flow is mentioned in the introduction but failed to be replicated in the results: "We also investigated possible South Asian (Indian-related) gene flow into Aboriginal Australians, as reported recently. However, we found no evidence of a component that can be uniquely assigned to Indian populations in the Aboriginal Australian gene pool using either admixture analyses or f3 and D-statistics (Supplementary Information section S05), even when including the original Aboriginal Australian genotype data from Arnhem Land. The different size and nature of the comparative datasets may account for the discrepency."

A previous study of Aboriginal Y chromosomes was criticized by members here for excluding putatively colonial haplogroups from analysis and therefore potentially missing interesting signals. In this study all were included, n=44. It comes to 32% C1b and 25% K2b; 18% mixed R1b-L11 and 5% each of I1-Z58, I2a-L460, E1b-M35 (M123 and V13), and J2-M67; 5% O1a-M199 and 2% either O2a-M88 or O3a-Page127 (can't tell from ISOGG version). No R1a or other potentially South Asian markers (other than J2) were in the sample, though, which is not all that big.

Among the mtDNA (n=83) there was also 2% H1 and 1% E1a2. Maternal E1a and paternal O1a are typical Austronesian markers.

No rapid star-like expansions could be seen in the tree of Y markers except for one that took place ~5000 years ago... in Europe. Unfortunately they didn't identify the subclades of C1b or MS, so you can tell exactly what sub-branch of L21 introgressed from the British colonists but can't distinguish between Papuan and Australian branches of Sahul haplogroups. :(

The C1b clade has a very deep primary branching, which seems to be considerably older than the TMRCA of Australian C1b from the previous study. The minor branch might represent Papuan C1b in the Australian gene pool, but it is found in the least admixed (Western Central Desert) population, with no detectable Papuan ancestry, and on the opposite side of the continent.

Indeed. I should have simply said ongoing contact with Eurasia, instead of India/ south Asia specifically.

Speaking of which, the lack of Pap-Austral. type Y lineages in south Asia (K*, little C, etc), as well as the shallower age of mtDNA M compared to SEA speaks of a major de-peopling event in India, at some point in the late Pleistocene / early Holocene, does it not ?

BalkanKiwi
10-05-2016, 09:29 PM
New results from a study, "The First People to Settle Polynesia Came from Asia"

Quick summary


The first settlers of the far-flung Pacific islands of Tonga and Vanuatu likely arrived from Taiwan and the northern Philippines between 2,300 and 3,100 years ago, a new genetic analysis suggests.

Ancient DNA extracted from skeletons at two archaeological sites on the islands helps paint this picture of how the remotest reaches of the Pacific were first colonized.

"The people of Vanuatu today are descended from Asia first of all. They were straight out of Taiwan and perhaps the northern Philippines," study co-author Matthew Spriggs, an archaeologist and anthropologist at the Australian National University,

http://www.livescience.com/56382-original-polynesians-hailed-from-taiwan.html

I find their thoughts on the females staying in groups but the males moving on, such as Papuan males moving to Lapita-like groups intriguing. It would probably explain the admixing of Papuan into other Oceanian groups.

BalkanKiwi
10-26-2016, 12:12 AM
"Pacific Islanders appear to be carrying the DNA of an unknown human species"


Hints of an unidentified, extinct human species have been found in the DNA of modern Melanesians - those living in a region of the South Pacific, northeast of Australia.

According to new genetic modelling, the species is unlikely to be Neanderthal or Denisovan - two ancient species that are represented in the fossil record - but could represent a third, unknown human relative that has so far eluded archaeologists.

http://www.sciencealert.com/pacific-islanders-appear-to-be-carrying-the-dna-of-an-unknown-human-species

Tjada
11-23-2016, 08:50 PM
DNA uncovers mystery migration to the Americas

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-33612869

BalkanKiwi
03-16-2017, 03:32 AM
Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial genome variation – an increased understanding of population antiquity and diversity


Aboriginal Australians represent one of the oldest continuous cultures outside Africa, with evidence indicating that their ancestors arrived in the ancient landmass of Sahul (present-day New Guinea and Australia) ~55 thousand years ago. Genetic studies, though limited, have demonstrated both the uniqueness and antiquity of Aboriginal Australian genomes. We have further resolved known Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups and discovered novel indigenous lineages by sequencing the mitogenomes of 127 contemporary Aboriginal Australians. In particular, the more common haplogroups observed in our dataset included M42a, M42c, S, P5 and P12, followed by rarer haplogroups M15, M16, N13, O, P3, P6 and P8. We propose some major phylogenetic rearrangements, such as in haplogroup P where we delinked P4a and P4b and redefined them as P4 (New Guinean) and P11 (Australian), respectively. Haplogroup P2b was identified as a novel clade potentially restricted to Torres Strait Islanders. Nearly all Aboriginal Australian mitochondrial haplogroups detected appear to be ancient, with no evidence of later introgression during the Holocene. Our findings greatly increase knowledge about the geographic distribution and phylogenetic structure of mitochondrial lineages that have survived in contemporary descendants of Australia’s first settlers.

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep43041

BalkanKiwi
10-02-2017, 10:22 PM
Tonga Was Once The Heart of a Mighty Trading Empire in Prehistoric Oceania


The Tongan state was the only maritime polity in Oceania to encompass an entire archipelago and, through long-distance voyaging, to extend its influence to other island groups through political and economic exchanges. Stone tools recovered from the central places of the Tongan state were geochemically analyzed to provide the first archaeological assessment of maritime interaction in the Central Pacific, with a high proportion of tools (66%) identified as long-distance imports from Fiji, Samoa, and the Society Islands. Exotic lithics were an important source of political capital used by Tongan elites, and an important consequence of centralization was the development of interaction centers through which people, products, and information about political organizations reached many parts of the prehistoric Pacific.

http://www.sciencealert.com/tonga-was-once-the-heart-of-a-mighty-trading-empire-in-prehistoric-oceania#.WdDFzS5b25o.facebook

http://www.pnas.org/content/111/29/10491

BalkanKiwi
10-03-2017, 10:05 AM
Sweet Potatoes Suggest Easter Island Had More People Than Previously Thought

http://www.sciencealert.com/easter-island-could-have-once-had-a-thriving-population-we-never-knew-about

BalkanKiwi
10-13-2017, 08:38 AM
Here's The True Story Behind The Collapse of The Mysterious Easter Island Culture

http://www.sciencealert.com/easter-island-truth-sustainable-environment-real-history

BalkanKiwi
01-22-2018, 10:29 AM
Who were the first humans to reach New Zealand?

https://www.stuff.co.nz/science/100629585/who-were-the-first-humans-to-reach-new-zealand

More of a news article than a typical research paper, however its nice to see a genetics article relating to Polynesians.

BalkanKiwi
03-05-2018, 09:25 AM
DNA sheds light on settlement of Pacific

http://www.bbc.com/news/science-environment-43265137

BalkanKiwi
07-18-2018, 10:13 AM
Ancient dog DNA reveals how humans first settled New Zealand

https://massivesci.com/articles/ancient-dogs-history-archaeology-new-zealand/

BalkanKiwi
07-18-2018, 10:13 AM
Ancient dog DNA reveals how humans first settled New Zealand

https://massivesci.com/articles/ancient-dogs-history-archaeology-new-zealand/

BalkanKiwi
04-12-2020, 03:41 AM
It's been a while since I've posted a study.

Human migration in Oceania recreated through paper mulberry genetics

Summary


The migration and interaction routes of prehistoric humans throughout the islands of Oceania can be retraced using genetic differences between paper mulberry plants, a tree native to Asia cultivated for fibers to make paper and introduced into the Pacific in prehistoric times to make barkcloth.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/06/190619142534.htm

BalkanKiwi
04-12-2020, 04:13 AM
Archaeology is unravelling new stories about Indigenous seagoing trade on Australia’s doorstep

Introduction


It has long been assumed that Indigenous Australia was isolated until Europeans arrived in 1788, except for trade with parts of present day Indonesia beginning at least 300 years ago. But our recent archaeological research hints of at least an extra 2,100 years of connections across the Coral Sea with Papua New Guinea

https://theconversation.com/archaeology-is-unravelling-new-stories-about-indigenous-seagoing-trade-on-australias-doorstep-111528

BalkanKiwi
04-16-2020, 06:04 AM
Evolutionary history of modern Samoans - Published 2020


Archaeological studies estimate the initial settlement of Samoa at 2,750 to 2,880 y ago and identify only limited settlement and human modification to the landscape until about 1,000 to 1,500 y ago. At this point, a complex history of migration is thought to have begun with the arrival of people sharing ancestry with Near Oceanic groups (i.e., Austronesian-speaking and Papuan-speaking groups), and was then followed by the arrival of non-Oceanic groups during European colonialism. However, the specifics of this peopling are not entirely clear from the archaeological and anthropological records, and is therefore a focus of continued debate. To shed additional light on the Samoan population history that this peopling reflects, we employ a population genetic approach to analyze 1,197 Samoan high-coverage whole genomes. We identify population splits between the major Samoan islands and detect asymmetrical gene flow to the capital city. We also find an extreme bottleneck until about 1,000 y ago, which is followed by distinct expansions across the islands and subsequent bottlenecks consistent with European colonization. These results provide for an increased understanding of Samoan population history and the dynamics that inform it, and also demonstrate how rapid demographic processes can shape modern genomes.

https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2020/04/14/1913157117

https://www.scoop.co.nz/stories/SC2004/S00030/dna-offers-clues-to-ancient-samoan-settlement.htm

witness
04-16-2020, 09:42 PM
This DNA study suggest Polynesian origins may (at least partially) derive from Eastern Indonesia

https://www.cell.com/ajhg/references/S0002-9297(07)61818-7

These videos from a Moluccan Youtuber named EverlastingYouth explore this theory based on linguistic commonalities between Moluccan Indigineous Bahasa Tanah and multiple different Oceanian words.

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=hUtNiNr0cBI&t=17s

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=M_Fx80Zur4c&t=1s

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=upOQjldSSqM

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=e3HrFJXffuY&t=60s

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=iYwzMBHnvtc&t=42s

BalkanKiwi
04-17-2020, 10:25 AM
This DNA study suggest Polynesian origins may (at least partially) derive from Eastern Indonesia

https://www.cell.com/ajhg/references/S0002-9297(07)61818-7

These videos from a Moluccan Youtuber named EverlastingYouth explore this theory based on linguistic commonalities between Moluccan Indigineous Bahasa Tanah and multiple different Oceanian words.

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=hUtNiNr0cBI&t=17s

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=M_Fx80Zur4c&t=1s

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=upOQjldSSqM

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=e3HrFJXffuY&t=60s

https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=iYwzMBHnvtc&t=42s

I've gone and created a linguistics thread to keep this one on topic.

https://anthrogenica.com/showthread.php?20108-Oceanian-Linguistics

BalkanKiwi
07-14-2020, 03:18 AM
Native American gene flow into Polynesia predating Easter Island settlement


The possibility of voyaging contact between prehistoric Polynesian and Native American populations has long intrigued researchers. Proponents have pointed to the existence of New World crops, such as the sweet potato and bottle gourd, in the Polynesian archaeological record, but nowhere else outside the pre-Columbian Americas1,2,3,4,5,6, while critics have argued that these botanical dispersals need not have been human mediated7. The Norwegian explorer Thor Heyerdahl controversially suggested that prehistoric South American populations had an important role in the settlement of east Polynesia and particularly of Easter Island (Rapa Nui)2. Several limited molecular genetic studies have reached opposing conclusions, and the possibility continues to be as hotly contested today as it was when first suggested8,9,10,11,12. Here we analyse genome-wide variation in individuals from islands across Polynesia for signs of Native American admixture, analysing 807 individuals from 17 island populations and 15 Pacific coast Native American groups. We find conclusive evidence for prehistoric contact of Polynesian individuals with Native American individuals (around ad 1200) contemporaneous with the settlement of remote Oceania13,14,15. Our analyses suggest strongly that a single contact event occurred in eastern Polynesia, before the settlement of Rapa Nui, between Polynesian individuals and a Native American group most closely related to the indigenous inhabitants of present-day Colombia.

https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2487-2

witness
07-14-2020, 09:11 PM
Native American gene flow into Polynesia predating Easter Island settlement



https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2487-2

Here is the DNA result of a Seramese Moluccan with a low but definitely present level of Amerindian.And this is the second time I seen this,I know another Seramese from the same village who also had a similar amount of American.Both of theirs was Southern or Central too.

https://ibb.co/N79W4nG

Rather mysterious,because Southeast Asians and Austronesians are the farther Mongoloids from Amerindians.

BalkanKiwi
07-14-2020, 10:57 PM
Here is the DNA result of a Seramese Moluccan with a low but definitely present level of Amerindian.And this is the second time I seen this,I know another Seramese from the same village who also had a similar amount of American.Both of theirs was Southern or Central too.

https://ibb.co/N79W4nG

Rather mysterious,because Southeast Asians and Austronesians are the farther Mongoloids from Amerindians.

Those results are interesting. It would have been interesting if the study also included participants from SE Asia.

On Eurogenes K13 my grandmother gets 1.2% Amerindian which is higher than her Oceanian. I've assumed, still likely assume, its due to shared DNA with South Americans, and not actually from a South American ancestor. It may even be something connected to her English or Irish in some way. I suppose if Oceanian and Amerindian overlapped on a chromosome painting, and with Polynesian matches on that segment, it might be something for close on islands closer to South America.

EDIT:

More studies are needed, that's for sure, but it looks like they tested a Cook Islands sample along with Vanuatu in their ADMIXTURE analysis, and neither picked up any South American admixture. The Tahitian sample had trace amounts of South American.

witness
12-18-2020, 10:38 PM
Here is an excerpt from a Geneticist about Eastern Indonesia

https://ibb.co/3WqyyDh

BalkanKiwi
12-28-2020, 11:24 PM
Ancient DNA sheds light on the peopling of the Mariana Islands


To address these questions the researchers obtained ancient DNA data from two skeletons from the Ritidian Beach Cave site in northern Guam, dating to around 2,200 years ago. "We found that the ancestry of these ancient skeletons is linked to the Philippines," says Pugach. "These findings strengthen the picture that has emerged from linguistic and archaeological studies, pointing to an Island Southeast Asia origin for the first settlers of the Marianas," says co-author Mike T. Carson, an archaeologist at the Micronesian Area Research Center at the University of Guam. We also find a close link between the ancient Guam skeletons and early Lapita individuals from Vanuatu and Tonga in the Western Pacific region," adds Pugach. "This suggests that the Marianas and Polynesia may have been colonized from the same source population, and raises the possibility that the Marianas played a role in the eventual settlement of Polynesia.

https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2020/12/201222132044.htm

Its certainly possible that the Marianas contributed to Polynesian settlement. Where they migrated to is the question, as there would have been multiple waves of people at different times migrating and mixing. For example, whether those from the Marianas traveled south to central Polynesia (Tahiti, Tuvalu, Tokelau etc), and mixed with those who had migrated east from Papua New Guinea/Vanuatu, I'm not sure.

BalkanKiwi
02-02-2021, 02:04 AM
Not an actual published paper, but rather a recent Tongan news article by Dr Burley and Professor Clark highlighting what's been discovered so far.

Ancient DNA provides new understanding of Oceanic settlement - https://matangitonga.to/2021/01/29/ancient-dna-provides-new-understanding-oceanic-settlement