PDA

View Full Version : DNA Could Explain Why Italian Island Has So Many 100-Year-Olds



rock hunter
07-21-2016, 01:56 AM
DNA Could Explain Why Italian Island Has So Many 100-Year-Olds
Biotech company buys DNA samples from nearly 13K Sardinians
By Michael Harthorne, Newser Staff
Posted Jul 20, 2016 4:09 PM CDT


(Newser) – About one in every 2,000 people in Ogliastra, a province in eastern Sardinia, live to be 100, the Financial Times reports. According to Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology News, that's five times the normal rate in the developed world and nearly 50 times greater than the rate in the US. To figure out what makes the residents of this mountainous region in the middle of the Mediterranean so long-lived—and hopefully use that knowledge to develop drugs and treatments to help out the rest of us—biotech company Tiziana Life Sciences just paid more than $280,000 for a "biobank" of DNA samples from nearly 13,000 Ogliastra residents, the Guardian reports. It's one of the "largest and oldest" collections of DNA samples in the world.

Mountains in Ogliastra have isolated its villages for generations, leading to a "high rate of inbreeding" and a genetically homogeneous population. That could mean residents share genetic traits protecting them from certain diseases. “Part of it is the environment and the diet, of course, but part of it might be something genetic that we don’t yet know about,” Tiziana CEO Gabriele Cerrone tells the Times. Cerrone says Ogliastra is one of only three regions in the world with an impressively high number of centenarians. There are currently 91 living in the province. Its centenarian population is second only to that of Okinawa in Japan. (Meanwhile, the number of centenarians in the US is spiking.)

rock hunter
07-21-2016, 02:00 AM
P.S.

Almost 50% of Sardinians belong to one of these two divisions of the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroup H: H1 and H3. Among Europeans, haplogroup H3 is most prevalent among the Sardinian, Galician, and Basque peoples. Other mtDNA haplogroups found among Sardinians include HV0, J1c, J2a1a1, J2b1a, T1a*, T2b, U1a1c3, U5b, and U6d1a (from northwestern Africa).

The most common Y chromosomal (Y-DNA) haplogroup among Sardinians is I2a1 (I-M26), which is also found among some Corsicans, Sicilians, and mainland Italians. A subdivision of I2a1 that's found among Sardinians is called I2a1b (I-L160). The Y-chromosomal haplogroup G2a2a2 (G-L91) is found in Sardinia as well as Corsica, Sicily, North Africa, and the Middle East. About 1% of Sardinians carry Sub-Saharan Y-DNA haplogroups, namely A1b1b2b and E1a1, whose frequencies among them are roughly equal.

http://www.khazaria.com/genetics/sardinians.html

Afshar
07-21-2016, 11:24 AM
I think its more related to their diet of local products, but would still be interesting to see if they will find the "source"

rock hunter
07-21-2016, 02:04 PM
Maybe diet, maybe more complex , I see haplogroups common in some of my
Georgian (The Soviet ,not the southern U.S. ) ancestors ,an area also known
for the longevity of its inhabitants. Both are mountainous regions ,all hostile
to the more common forms of agriculture and so they may have common diets .
Are mountainous regions hostile to certain haplogroups as well as plants?

Jean M
07-21-2016, 02:20 PM
The piece in the OP comes from http://www.newser.com/story/228379/dna-could-explain-why-italian-island-has-so-many-100-year-olds.html

Which took it from the Financial Times. In fact the only news is that "biotech company Tiziana Life Sciences just paid more than $280,000 for a "biobank" of DNA samples from nearly 13,000 Ogliastra residents."

The longevity question - genes or diet - was discussed by National Geographic in 2013. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2013/05/longevity/hall-text


On a crisp January morning, with snow topping the distant Aspromonte mountains and oranges ripening on the nearby trees, Giuseppe Passarino guided his silver minivan up a curving mountain road into the hinterlands of Calabria, mainland Italy’s southernmost region. As the road climbed through fruit and olive groves, Passarino, a geneticist at the University of Calabria, chatted with his colleague Maurizio Berardelli, a geriatrician. They were headed for the small village of Molochio, which had the distinction of numbering four centenarians—and four 99-year-olds—among its 2,000 inhabitants.

Soon after, they found Salvatore Caruso warming his 106-year-old bones in front of a roaring fire in his home on the outskirts of the town. Known in local dialect as “U’ Raggiuneri,” the Accountant, Caruso was calmly reading an article about the end of the world in an Italian version of a supermarket tabloid. A framed copy of his birth record, dated November 2, 1905, stood on the fireplace mantle.

Caruso told the researchers he was in good health, and his memory seemed prodigiously intact. He recalled the death of his father in 1913, when Salvatore was a schoolboy; how his mother and brother had nearly died during the great influenza pandemic of 1918-19; how he’d been dismissed from his army unit in 1925 after accidentally falling and breaking his leg in two places. When Berardelli leaned forward and asked Caruso how he had achieved his remarkable longevity, the centenarian said with an impish smile, “No Bacco, no tabacco, no Venere—No drinking, no smoking, no women.” He added that he’d eaten mostly figs and beans while growing up and hardly ever any red meat.

Passarino and Berardelli heard much the same story from 103-year-old Domenico Romeo—who described his diet as “poco, ma tutto; a little bit, but of everything”—and 104-year-old Maria Rosa Caruso, who, despite failing health, regaled her visitors with a lively version of a song about the local patron saint.

On the ride back to the laboratory in Cosenza, Berardelli remarked, “They often say they prefer to eat only fruits and vegetables.”

“They preferred fruit and vegetables,” Passarino said drily, “because that’s all they had.”

Although eating sparingly may have been less a choice than an involuntary circumstance of poverty in places like early 20th-century Calabria, decades of research have suggested that a severely restricted diet is connected to long life. Lately, however, this theory has fallen on hard scientific times. Several recent studies have undermined the link between longevity and caloric restriction.

In any case, Passarino was more interested in the centenarians themselves than in what they had eaten during their lifetimes. In a field historically marred by exaggerated claims and dubious entrepreneurs hawking unproven elixirs, scientists studying longevity have begun using powerful genomic technologies, basic molecular research, and, most important, data on small, genetically isolated communities of people to gain increased insight into the maladies of old age and how they might be avoided. In Calabria, Ecuador, Hawaii, and even in the Bronx, studies are turning up molecules and chemical pathways that may ultimately help everyone reach an advanced age in good, even vibrant, health......

If nothing else, the plethora of new studies indicates that longevity researchers are pushing the scientific conversation to a new level. In October 2011 the Archon Genomics X Prize launched a race among research teams to sequence the DNA of a hundred centenarians (dubbing the contest “100 over 100”).

Afshar
07-21-2016, 05:07 PM
Maybe diet, maybe more complex , I see haplogroups common in some of my
Georgian (The Soviet ,not the southern U.S. ) ancestors ,an area also known
for the longevity of its inhabitants. Both are mountainous regions ,all hostile
to the more common forms of agriculture and so they may have common diets .
Are mountainous regions hostile to certain haplogroups as well as plants?
In my opinion (speaking as an anatolian Turk who had also 2 100+ancestors) mountainous regions harbour very healthy weeds and plants, and milk/meat from grazing cattle is also more healthy in my opinion. Its not scientific data but it worked out well for sure.

evon
07-21-2016, 06:30 PM
I put my money on nature rather than nurture here, as there are numerous other locations with a similar climate and geology etc and yet they do not share this trait... There is a few other islands with similar longevity, such as the southern Japanese islands, which also likely share a common genetic marker due to their isolation..

rock hunter
07-22-2016, 01:53 AM
300 years ago, a great many ate what today would be called
a very healthy diet yet they still died young . Genetics must
be a causative factor. There must be stronger and weaker
mutations,stronger and weaker haplogroups , that's just how it works .

Sikeliot
07-22-2016, 04:40 AM
I have remote Sardinian ancestry. The longevity in my family is not on that side.

Cyrianne
07-22-2016, 10:15 AM
I agree with Afshar. Diet is more likely than anything. There are countless remote populations, or populations that eat very healthy [those "fad diets" people go gaga over, bet the locals from the regions scratch their heads and go wtf] compared to the "modern" diet the average human is shoveling into their gobs, that live to be very old. I have encountered quite a few people when living in China with aunt/uncle [whom have been there for thirty years] who are well into their late 90s and they eat quite differently than what being north American I'd see as a "normal diet".


300 years ago, a great many ate what today would be called
a very healthy diet yet they still died young . Genetics must
be a causative factor. There must be stronger and weaker
mutations,stronger and weaker haplogroups , that's just how it works .

Yet if records are correct I had ancestors living well into their 70s even 80s during the 1600s and a number of relatives in the 1700s were 100 years of age. If there is any Sardinian ancestry it is so far back in history that I'd call it irrelevant.

Thing is, things such as disease, war, and predation by animals were far more responsible for early deaths than "weak humans/genes" during that time. Remove those issues and they've likely had lived very long lives. Seriously the harsh environment would have removed the "weak" humans, those either weak through disease or disability, and I won't be surprised if before such "weak" humans could reproduce or reproduce in great numbers. If such "weak" humans can't reproduce then the gene pool by nature's natural selection would result in stronger less "weak" individuals.


It is just how such harsh environments nowadays eradicate plants & animals that can not survive unless they are diapered by humans.

I mean was it corn or wheat a few years ago that scientists were saying would never survive if fertilizers and/or pesticides were removed? If a plant can not survive by itself without such "crutches", what good is it for human consumption? The same could be said with the countless animals force fed so many antibiotics & chemicals before slaughter it is something of a miracle they don't glow in the dark.


I have a close friend from Okinawa, the southern Japanese islands. Everyone was going absolutely ape a few years ago about the Okinawa diet because living to 100+ was by no means uncommon there. People from Okinawa don't eat like typical Japanese though, and the Japanese themselves are generally viewed as eating better than Americans. I'll see if I can track down the article as proof which stated how Americanized Japanese had bad hearts & veins due to the diet [mostly high red-meat consumption to blame] they'd been exposed to in the US compared to their native counterparts.


Genetics may play a part. However, even if your genes are plated in gold it won't matter if you have a crap diet and a crap routine. It is sort of like expecting genes that supposedly make one smarter to actually indeed make you smarter. If you do nothing to take advantage of those genes you are gifted with than you won't live to be 100+ and you'll still be thicker than a brick.

rock hunter
07-22-2016, 10:44 PM
There are always exceptions to the rules , i had ,she had , he made it to 110 and so on
but all things equal, diet ,environment ,medical care ,job, everything! some will die
young and some will hit 100 That's just Genetics

My Uncle was a P.O.W in the pacific I need not describe his diet but
it nearly killed him yet he lived to 98 and died after all that of a hospital
infection but that does not prove a thing either, I want logic and facts.

It is illogical to say all haplotypes share the same strengths ,weaknesses ,abilities
and genetics have little to do with life or shall we burn our darwin ?

Saetro
07-23-2016, 04:28 AM
Yes, but where is their control group - people with identical genetics who live as couch potatoes on fast food, smoke 2 packs a day, and drink heavily?

Cyrianne
07-23-2016, 08:32 AM
There are always exceptions to the rules , i had ,she had , he made it to 110 and so on
but all things equal, diet ,environment ,medical care ,job, everything! some will die
young and some will hit 100 That's just Genetics

Are you trying to say the typical American who shoves down 10+ pounds of garbage food a week eats the same as lets, given the Italians, someone from the Mediterranean? If that was the case the Mediterranean diet wouldn't have ever hit the news.

As for everyone gets the same you remind me of my grandmother's American friend. Upper class lady who obviously grew up in an ivory tower, who actually had the gale of saying everyone in the US gets the same medical treatment - I had to leave the room before I burst into hysterics at that comment.

No not everyone gets the "same". For example, a child who grows up in a household with chronic smokers is likely going to end up with COPD even if the child never touches a cig in his or her life. I know one kid whose parents smoke like trains; he is already on so many lung enhancement / support drugs that he'll be lucky to make 20 without COPD.



My Uncle was a P.O.W in the pacific I need not describe his diet but
it nearly killed him yet he lived to 98 and died after all that of a hospital
infection but that does not prove a thing either, I want logic and facts.

How long was he a P.O.W? Two weeks? Two months? Two years? Not everyone spent the same amount of time and so your claim he was a P.O.W without a time frame is in a way irrelevant.

I spent 14 days eating barely anything supplemented by whatever we could catch. Survival training, military. It was great fun when one eats so little that you have to wean yourself back into a regular diet by way of soup for about a week as your body can't process anything properly. I am quite sure a couch potato would have thought he or she was indeed "dying" on such a diet.


I mean certainly Americanized Japanese think the American diet is deadly, but Americans still eat it. And willingly at that.



It is illogical to say all haplotypes share the same strengths ,weaknesses ,abilities
and genetics have little to do with life or shall we burn our darwin ?

Why not? Are you an alien? Do you come from some extremely isolated population who has never married outside that group for centuries?

Population movement is so excessive nowadays, and even back in the day, for you not to carry some of these long-lived genes is only if you lived very far away and your family never married into this group. Ever.

It sort of reminds me of someone on 23&me whining about their high Italian DNA when, after I weaseled their family's geographical location in the US from them, was worth a very good laugh as that state and near where they had lived for generations had been one of the first regions to welcome Italians. Obviously no one in her believed WASP family had ever bothered mentioning someone's affair with an Italian.


I mean the excessive age is by no means uncommon all over the globe. Asfhar mentioned their relatives, I knew many in China & Japan who were well into their late 90s and their 100s. My relatives, where the Italian DNA is so remote it is indeed irrelevant, lived to be quite old aged in the 1600s and 1700s. Both my grandmothers - one whose family has been in England for a very, very long time and the other's whose father's family is incredibly old Irish - are well into their 90s. One is 99 and the other turned 102 this March.


Genes can be carried for centuries. How do you think a family of dark haired individuals for generations may suddenly have a blonde child, by magic?


As Saetro mentioned there's no legit control group apparently in this study. And a study without a control group is biased and as such to be taken with a rather large grain of salt.

Gravetto-Danubian
07-23-2016, 08:42 AM
I once saw a show on people who lived very long
A common thread was (a) they didn't have children (2) lived simple lives, often vegetarian, no alcohol, no vices

Kudos to them, but I'm happy to die at 83

rock hunter
07-23-2016, 03:21 PM
Well that touched a nerve lol
Am I an alien? hummm some would say we all are but I digress

If you try that again without the inane rambling about upper class smoking garbage eating ivory towered American WASP couch potatoes with copd
and hidden Italian girlfriends with High Italian DNA then I might try and re-read it more carefully .


Calm it down

If you are saying that there are no such
thing as heredity advantageous traits
then you know not what you speak..

rock hunter
07-23-2016, 03:23 PM
Raising children is like being slowly pecked to death by chickens!

rock hunter
07-23-2016, 03:24 PM
This is true but it was a fast reply lol