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DMXX
08-08-2012, 06:42 PM
The Missing Link of Jewish European Ancestry: Contrasting the Rhineland and the Khazarian Hypotheses
Elhaik E. Cornell University Library. August 2012. arXiv e-print (arXiv:1208.1092)



Abstract

The question of Jewish ancestry has been the subject of controversy for over two centuries and has yet to be resolved. The "Rhineland Hypothesis" proposes that Eastern European Jews emerged from a small group of German Jews who migrated eastward and expanded rapidly. Alternatively, the "Khazarian Hypothesis" suggests that Eastern European descended from Judean tribes who joined the Khazars, an amalgam of Turkic clans that settled the Caucasus in the early centuries CE and converted to Judaism in the 8th century. The Judaized Empire was continuously reinforced with Mesopotamian and Greco-Roman Jews until the 13th century. Following the collapse of their empire, the Judeo-Khazars fled to Eastern Europe. The rise of European Jewry is therefore explained by the contribution of the Judeo-Khazars. Thus far, however, their contribution has been estimated only empirically; the absence of genome-wide data from Caucasus populations precluded testing the Khazarian Hypothesis. Recent sequencing of modern Caucasus populations prompted us to revisit the Khazarian Hypothesis and compare it with the Rhineland Hypothesis. We applied a wide range of population genetic analyses - including principal component, biogeographical origin, admixture, identity by descent, allele sharing distance, and uniparental analyses - to compare these two hypotheses. Our findings support the Khazarian Hypothesis and portray the European Jewish genome as a mosaic of Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries, thereby consolidating previous contradictory reports of Jewish ancestry.


For the supplementary images, click the "Spoiler" button:



http://i47.tinypic.com/a4965e.png
Figure S1
Map of region names as defined in this study. We note that the terms Middle East, Near East, and Caucasus often have overlapping and inconsistent meanings, both historically and currently in different fields of study. For simplicity, we limit our geographic terminology throughout the paper to the terms shown in the map.


http://i46.tinypic.com/25p3abm.png
Figure S2
Scatter plot of Eurasian populations along the first two principal components (Table S3). Han and Pygmies are included but not shown. Each letter code corresponds to one individual. Polygons surround all of the individual belonging to geographically proximate population groups.


http://i49.tinypic.com/70ur2d.png
Figure S3
Dual-PCA scatter plots. PCA plots of three outgroup populations (Mbuti and Biaka Pygmies, French Basques, and Han Chinese), which for simplicity are shown only in the first plot, European Jews and a population of interest – all of equal sizes. European Jews were aggregated and selected at random from the pool of Eastern and Central European Jews (EEJ and CEJ, respectively). Each letter code corresponds to one individual. Polygons surrounding all of the individuals in each population are used to estimate the overlap.


http://i48.tinypic.com/jpvmeg.png
Figure S4
The biogeographical origin of Druze. First two principal components calculated for Druze (red) using a training set of four populations: three fixed outgroups Pygmies, French Basque, and Han (black) and Armenians (blue) - all of equal size. The PC axes were rotated to emphasize the similarity to the world’s geographic map. Druze were assigned to geographic locations by fitting independent linear models for latitude and longitude as predicted by PC1 and PC2. Each colored shape represents an individual. The mean and standard deviation of the inferred geographical coordinates are 38.63.45 N, 36.251.41 E.


http://i47.tinypic.com/23maqe0.png
Figure S5
The biogeographical origin of European Jews. First two principal components calculated for Eastern and Central European Jews (red) using a training set of four populations: three fixed outgroups Pygmies, French Basque, and Han (black) and one population showed to cluster with European Jews (blue) - all of equal size. Calculations were carried for A) Eastern European Jews and Georgians, B) Eastern European Jews and Azerbaijani Jews, C) Central European Jews and Georgians, and D ) Central European Jews and Azerbaijani Jews. The PC axes were rotated to emphasize the similarity to the world’s geographic map. European Jews were assigned to geographic locations by fitting independent linear models for latitude and longitude as predicted by PC1 and PC2. The mean and standard deviation of the inferred geographical coordinates are A) 38.14.2 N, 42.50.7 E, B) 35.15.2 N, 421.2 E, C) 46.74.1 N, 400.5 E, and D ) 47.88.5 N, 39.61.2 E. Each colored shape represents an individual. Major cities are marked in cyan.


http://i49.tinypic.com/245ysdl.png
Figure S6
Population structure inferred by supervised admixture analysis (K=6). Six ancestral populations were used: Biaka Pygmies (white), Palestinians (pink), Turks (brown), French Basque (red), Chuvash (purple), and Han Chinese (black). The x-axis represents individuals from populations sorted according to their ancestral components and arrayed geographically, roughly from North to South. There is a thin vertical bar for each individual, color-coded to represent the admixture proportions of the ancestral populations.


http://i45.tinypic.com/veyj4.png
Figure S7
Pairwise distances between uniparental markers. Pairwise distances between populations for mtDNA (top) and Y-chromosomes (bottom) as estimated from the negative Kronecker function. High numbers indicate high haplotype similarity. Values in the main diagonal should be ignored.


[Link (http://arxiv.org/abs/1208.1092)] [PDF (http://arxiv.org/ftp/arxiv/papers/1208/1208.1092.pdf)]

I have not read the paper in its' entirety, but it'd be interesting to see whether Elhaik has used recent Y-DNA R1a1a subclade data as evidence of Ashkenazi Jews having Khazar ancestry (e.g. R1a-Z93+ L342+).

However, I am under the impression based on the Abstract and supplementary data this study tackles the auDNA evidence mostly.

AJL
08-08-2012, 09:09 PM
I have not read the paper in its' entirety, but it'd be interesting to see whether Elhaik has used recent Y-DNA R1a1a subclade data as evidence of Ashkenazi Jews having Khazar ancestry (e.g. R1a-Z93+ L342+).

However, I am under the impression based on the Abstract and supplementary data this study tackles the auDNA evidence mostly.

Looks like it.

All single-region hypotheses have flaws in this case. The L342 does look like a pretty solid tie to Khazars; but the IBD/IBS are hinting at Ashkenazim as a fairly tight cluster that is primarily Mediterranean/northern Near Eastern with some European and some Caucasus-area ancestry. There's also some indications of remote traces of something from the east of Asia (mainly seen in a couple of mtDNA lineages) and some traces of African (such as yDNA E1a1).

DMXX
08-08-2012, 09:14 PM
All single-region hypotheses have flaws in this case. The L342 does look like a pretty solid tie to Khazars; but the IBD/IBS are hinting at Ashkenazim as a fairly tight cluster that is primarily Mediterranean/northern Near Eastern with some European and some Caucasus-area ancestry.


Precisely; the presence of Z93+ in the Near-East makes it possible the Ashkenazim L342+ is derived from there, much like the Ashkenazim R2a-M124, who seem to form at least one tight cluster with one another.



There's also some indications of remote traces of something from the east of Asia (mainly seen in a couple of mtDNA lineages) and some traces of African (such as yDNA E1a1).

Are there any noticeably East Eurasian Y-DNA lines among those who have tested?

AJL
08-08-2012, 09:33 PM
Are there any noticeably East Eurasian Y-DNA lines among those who have tested?

Debatable -- I think there might be some isolated cases of C* though.

Ezana
08-08-2012, 10:17 PM
You should have skimmed through it. It doesn't pass the sniff test. Just because Jews cluster more closely to modern Armenians and Georgians than to Palestinians doesn't mean that they're likely to have Khazar ancestry. The math is all fine, but the assumptions and the conclusions are off.

AJL
08-08-2012, 11:20 PM
You should have skimmed through it. It doesn't pass the sniff test. Just because Jews cluster more closely to modern Armenians and Georgians than to Palestinians doesn't mean that they're likely to have Khazar ancestry. The math is all fine, but the assumptions and the conclusions are off.

Good point. It's possible there is some editorializing in the emphasis/stress. The writers say "a mosaic of Caucasus, European, and Semitic ancestries" whereas evidence seems more favourable to the reverse order.

In any case I haven't seen any historical or archaeological argument for significant Khazar gene flow into Sephardi or Mizrahi populations, yet I believe from the latest Dodecad run the evidence is Ashkenazim cluster closer to these than to any Caucasus population and vice versa.

There does seem to be a northward pull in Ashkenazim relative to Palestinians or Jordanians, say. This could be coming from the Caucasus. But could it also be caused by a general southeasterly pull of the entire rest of the Near East following the Islamic Conquest, which Jews were less affected by? If you compare Ashkenazim to the more ancient and northern Near Eastern populations such as Druze, Assyrians, Samaritans, etc., do they still appear more from the Caucasus than average given geography? I don't know. I suspect a slight pull toward Europe may be more palpable than a pull toward the Caucasus but I could be wrong.

There were also documented cases of Jews seeking converts, as Christians and Muslims did, in the Roman Empire and elsewhere, though Jews appear to have abandoned this practice fairly early on.

Day Tripper
08-09-2012, 04:46 PM
You should have skimmed through it. It doesn't pass the sniff test. Just because Jews cluster more closely to modern Armenians and Georgians than to Palestinians doesn't mean that they're likely to have Khazar ancestry. The math is all fine, but the assumptions and the conclusions are off.

I think their assumption that pre-Islam Palestinians ~= modern Palestinians is particularly shaky. Significant Arab and SSA ancestry (http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1180338/) in Palestinians would throw things off considerably. As you say, GIGO, no matter how robust the steps between GI and GO.

Phil75231
08-19-2012, 04:30 AM
Why couldn't the pull northward simply be the result of Jews absorbing occassional European genes? I know religious differences kept interbreeding from happening as freely as it naturally could, but the two groups were not exactly air-tight sealed from one another.

Besides, if the Khazars converted to Judaism, then why would not later Jewish migrants to Russia intermarry with Khazars? In fact, I think it more incredible to believe that the Jewish migrants did not acquire some non-trivial amount of Khazar genes than otherwise.

parasar
12-27-2012, 07:43 PM
R1-Z21122 evidence supports the Khazar theory.

AJL
12-29-2012, 12:59 AM
R1-Z21122 evidence supports the Khazar theory.

Well yes, R-Z2122 has so far been found in:

one eastern Ukrainian
two Steppe Turks
half of all Ashkenazi Levites

Z2122 is negative in Kyrgyz and in L657. This does rather support that Z2122 arose in Scythia, making a Khazar source for Ashkenazi Levites quite plausible.

However, to the broader question of how Khazar are Ashkenazim altogether, since R-Z2122 represents perhaps about 3% of Ashkenazi yDNA, one is tempted to say, about 3%...

newtoboard
12-29-2012, 04:09 PM
Well yes, R-Z2122 has so far been found in:

one eastern Ukrainian
two Steppe Turks
half of all Ashkenazi Levites

Z2122 is negative in Kyrgyz and in L657. This does rather support that Z2122 arose in Scythia, making a Khazar source for Ashkenazi Levites quite plausible.

However, to the broader question of how Khazar are Ashkenazim altogether, since R-Z2122 represents perhaps about 3% of Ashkenazi yDNA, one is tempted to say, about 3%...

What do you mean Scythia? Scythia is a vast land and I doubt Z2122 arose in Scythian speaking populations.

DMXX
12-29-2012, 05:51 PM
What do you mean Scythia? Scythia is a vast land and I doubt Z2122 arose in Scythian speaking populations.

In this context, AJL meant the lands immediately above the Black Sea, which were known to European (Greek) historians as 'Scythia'. Consider it equivalent to the area inhabited by the Sarmatians, their successors.

Mamluk
01-30-2013, 07:03 PM
TheTick already posted this link in the Cultural Anthropology section, but it should also go on this thread. It supports the Khazar hypothesis.
http://gbe.oxfordjournals.org/content/5/1/61.full.pdf (Contrasting the Rhineland and Khazarian Hypotheses)

Mamluk
02-02-2013, 06:28 PM
^My apology for re-posting this link to an article which was the starting post on this thread by DMXX months ago! When re-reading it recently, it was as if I was looking at it for the first time. How embarrassing!

AJL
02-03-2013, 02:07 AM
No worries -- I was a bit confused by the relinking, is all!