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JohnHowellsTyrfro
09-30-2016, 09:49 PM
A new research paper suggests dog domestication could be related, at least in part, to genetics and there could be a relationship with some human social disorders. I must admit the report is a bit too technical for me.

https://www.theguardian.com/science/2016/sep/29/secret-of-connection-between-dogs-and-humans-could-be-genetic

http://www.nature.com/articles/srep33439

Jean M
11-09-2016, 10:18 PM
DNA analysis of ancient teeth shows dogs gained ability to digest starches at the same time as humans


(Phys.org)—A team of researchers from France, Sweden and Romania has found genetic evidence that indicates that domesticated dogs developed an ability to digest starch during the same time period as humans. In their paper published in the journal Royal Society Open Science, the team describes how they conducted a DNA analysis of ancient dog teeth and other bones and what they found by doing so.

Prior research has suggested that dogs and humans became companions approximately 15,000 years ago—a time during which people were still hunter-gatherers. This meant that both humans and dogs were still eating mostly meat, though the dogs were likely getting mostly left-overs.

Three years ago, a team in Sweden found that domestic dogs have many more copies of the gene AQmy2B than wolves—the gene is known to be involved in helping to digest starches, which suggested that dogs have evolved in a way that allows them to more easily co-exist with humans (who also have many more copies of the gene than other carnivores.) More recent research has shown that wild dogs, coyotes and wolves have just two copies of the Amy3B gene, suggesting the domestic dog's ability to digest starch is truly unique among canines.

In this new effort, the researchers wondered how far back in time dogs developed the extra gene copies. To find out, they obtained teeth and bone fossils from dog and wolf specimens that have been dug up from various sites in Eurasia and which had been dated back to 5,000 to 7,000 years ago. By conducting a DNA analysis of the fossils, the researchers found that at least four of the dogs had at least eight copies of the gene—they were not able to discover how many copies the wolves had. This finding by the researchers overturns theories that have suggested that the gene evolved in dogs in more modern times as humans bred them to bring about many more breeds.

Read more at: http://phys.org/news/2016-11-dna-analysis-ancient-teeth-dogs.html

rozenfeld
04-25-2017, 04:50 PM
https://www.nytimes.com/2017/04/25/science/dogs-dna-ancestry.html

Original article:

http://www.cell.com/cell-reports/fulltext/S2211-1247(17)30456-4

Genomic Analyses Reveal the Influence of Geographic Origin, Migration, and Hybridization on Modern Dog Breed Development

Heidi G. Parker, Dayna L. Dreger, Maud Rimbault, Brian W. Davis, Alexandra B. Mullen, Gretchen Carpintero-Ramirez, Elaine A. Ostrander

Open Access

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2017.03.079

Highlights
• Neighbor joining cladogram of 161 breeds establishes 23 supported clades
• Crossing between diverse clades was done recently to add new traits
• Migration of a breed to a new region alters both immigrant and indigenous breeds
• Tracking recent crosses can identify the source of mutations in multiple breeds

Summary

There are nearly 400 modern domestic dog breeds with a unique histories and genetic profiles. To track the genetic signatures of breed development, we have assembled the most diverse dataset of dog breeds, reflecting their extensive phenotypic variation and heritage. Combining genetic distance, migration, and genome-wide haplotype sharing analyses, we uncover geographic patterns of development and independent origins of common traits. Our analyses reveal the hybrid history of breeds and elucidate the effects of immigration, revealing for the first time a suggestion of New World dog within some modern breeds. Finally, we used cladistics and haplotype sharing to show that some common traits have arisen more than once in the history of the dog. These analyses characterize the complexities of breed development, resolving longstanding questions regarding individual breed origination, the effect of migration on geographically distinct breeds, and, by inference, transfer of trait and disease alleles among dog breeds.

Afshar
05-04-2017, 08:08 AM
http://www.cell.com/cms/attachment/2092350048/2076539183/gr1_lrg.jpg