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Thread: U5a2c3a in Bell Beaker: Yes, at least twice!

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    Cool U5a2c3a in Bell Beaker: Yes, at least twice!

    I did not notice this at first, since I am usually pretty fixated on y-dna results, but my own mtDNA haplogroup, U5a2c3a, which I would not describe as just super common, shows up twice in Bell Beaker results in the recent Olalde et al paper, The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe.

    Samples I1382 and I2455 both belong to mtDNA haplogroup U5a2c3a.

    I1382, a male, y-dna R1b-P312, from the Olalde et al Supplementary Info, pages 11-12:

    Quote Originally Posted by Olalde et al
    Mondelange - PAC de la Sente (Moselle, France)

    Contact person: Arnaud Lefebvre and Michiel Gazenbeek

    This site is located in the Moselle valley, about 20 km north of the town of Metz. It was found during a rescue excavation in 2007 that uncovered 25 burials, nine of them dated to the later Bell Beaker tradition or to the transition to the Bronze Age.

    . . .

    Burial 515 (I1382): The grave has a rectangular shape, with a flat bottom and a west-east orientation. Three of the corners show semicircular digging that probably contained posts of 25 cm in diameter. The grave measures 2.4 m long and 1.3 m wide and is 0.8 meters deep. The filling is made of brownish sandy silt containing small pebbles. The individual was an adult male lying of his left side, facing west. The upper limbs are flexed, with the right hand over the left humerus and the left hand placed in front of the face. The lower limbs are also flexed with the knees oriented to the north. Genetic data indicate that this individual is a second-degree relative of I1381. There are numerous funerary elements within this grave. A stone wristguard is placed next to the left shoulder. Two vessels are placed close to the feet, one near the axis of the body and the other one next to the south wall. One flint arrow point was found between both vessels, at 10 centimeters over the bottom of the pit. The two beakers, one decorated and the other not - with a peculiar morphology - suggest an evolved, late Bell Beaker phase, with oriental influences. The radiocarbon date from this skeleton is:

    I1382/3-Grave515: 2435–2136 calBCE (3805±35 BP, GrA-4468)
    I2455, a female, from the Olalde et al Supplementary Info, page 44:

    Quote Originally Posted by Olalde et al
    Over Narrows (Needingworth Quarry, Cambridgeshire, England)

    Contact person: Christopher Evans

    A small Beaker cemetery underlay a Collared Urn-associated Bronze Age round barrow (part of the Low Grounds barrow-group), located on one of the mid-stream Over Narrows ridges where the River Great Ouse debouches into the fenland marshes. Its main series of burials occurred within a deep pit-grave. First was F.1080 (Skeleton 5487, I2454), an adult female, 18–25 years of age. Lying crouched on her right side (head to the north), she had a jet bead necklace and a Beaker placed by her head. The pit-grave had, thereafter, been recut and an adult female, over 40 years old (F.1079, Skeleton 5486, I2455), was interred in a tightly crouched position with her head to the west. Both females were successfully analyzed for ancient DNA.

    Two infants were inserted into the feature’s upper profile, with a third laid out within a discreet pit beside (F.1074 & F.1075). Off to one side was a separate burial, F.1068 (Skeleton 5451), a young female adult of 17–20yrs. Lying crouched on her right side (head to the northwest), she was accompanied by a fineware Beaker.

    We obtained genome-wide ancient DNA data from two individuals:

    I2454/OVE08 feature F.1080 skeleton 5487: 2200–1980 calBCE (3703±28 BP, OxA-24595)

    I2455/OVE08, feature F.1079 skeleton 5486: 2130–1910 calBCE (3631±28 BP, OxA-2459)
    The female is especially interesting, since theoretically she could be my ancestor. I'm not saying she is, but, although unlikely, it is possible.

    I was looking forward to the Olalde et al raw data before for the additional y-dna information. Now I am also looking forward to it to see how closely these two match me on mtDNA.
    Last edited by rms2; 07-07-2017 at 08:29 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by rms2 View Post
    I did not notice this at first, since I am usually pretty fixated on y-dna results, but my own mtDNA haplogroup, U5a2c3a, which I would not describe as just super common, shows up twice in Bell Beaker results in the recent Olalde et al paper, The Beaker Phenomenon and the Genomic Transformation of Northwest Europe.

    Samples I1382 and I2455 both belong to mtDNA haplogroup U5a2c3a.

    I1382, a male, y-dna R1b-P312, from the Olalde et al Supplementary Info, pages 11-12:



    I2455, a female, from the Olalde et al Supplementary Info, page 44:

    Are the mtDNA SNP results available for any of these samples? I have an age estimate of about 7000 years for U5a2c3a. It would be interesting to see if they have additional SNP or are ancestral for this subclade -- it could help test the age estimate.

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    Here is what they have in the spreadsheet for I2455, the female from Cambridgeshire, England:

    Heteroplasmy at pos 16270 (40% C, 60% T)

    73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3197C, 4769G, 7028T, 7960C, 8860G, 9477A, 10619T, 10709C, 11465C, 11467G, 11719A, 12308G, 12372A, 13617C, 14766T, 14793G, 15326G, 16256T, 16270 (60%), 16526A

    Here is what they have for I1382, the male from Moselle, France:

    73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3197C, 4769G, 7028T, 7960C, 8860G, 9477A, 10619T, 10709C, 11465C, 11467G, 11719A, 12308G, 12372A, 13617C, 14766T, 14793G, 15326G, 16256T, 16270T, 16526A

    I have not compared them to my own results yet.
    Last edited by rms2; 07-08-2017 at 10:08 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by rms2 View Post
    Here is what they have in the spreadsheet for I2455, the female from Cambridgeshire, England:

    Heteroplasmy at pos 16270 (40% C, 60% T)

    73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3197C, 4769G, 7028T, 7960C, 8860G, 9477A, 10619T, 10709C, 11465C, 11467G, 11719A, 12308G, 12372A, 13617C, 14766T, 14793G, 15326G, 16256T, 16270 (60%), 16526A

    Here is what they have for I1382, the male from Moselle, France:

    73G, 263G, 750G, 1438G, 2706G, 3197C, 4769G, 7028T, 7960C, 8860G, 9477A, 10619T, 10709C, 11465C, 11467G, 11719A, 12308G, 12372A, 13617C, 14766T, 14793G, 15326G, 16256T, 16270T, 16526A

    I have not compared them to my own results yet.
    I don't have heteroplasmy at 16270 like the female. I have 16270T like the male.

    I don't have Coding Region results for 8860G, 10619T, 14766T, 15326G like they do. My results came from Chromo2 and are not the full sequence. I also have a couple of things they don't: 16223T and 16294T.

    Otherwise, I match them exactly.

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    They are both generic U5a2c3a with no extra mutations, which seems generally consistent with their dates being about 2300 years younger than the age of U5a2c3a. It would have raised some concerns about the age estimate or the test accuracy if they had multiple extra mutations.

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    To avoid proliferation of new topics, i'll post here the results for a new ancient U5a2c sample (thanks to Ian Logan for posting this on Genealogy-DNA.

    A Danish haplogroup U5a2c sequence from a 10,000 year old skeleton. See: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/nuccore/MF992925
    Ancient 10,000ybp Hansen Denmark MF992925 A73G A263G C311N 315.1C A750G A1438G A2706G T3197C A4769G C7028T C7114Y A8860G G9477A G10572R C10581Y C10619T A11467G G11719A A12308G G12372A T13617C C14766T A14793G C14990Y A15326G C15904Y C16192T C16256T C16270T C16332Y G16526A


    This sample has 6 heteroplasmies but I'd guess these are probably a result of contamination or poor reads. I would not expect many extra mutations in a sample this old. Behar has an age estimate of about 11,500 years for U5a2c (although the Blatterhole U5a2c3 sample is dated 10,600 ybp so U5a2c might be older than the Behar estimate).

    The new sample is consistent with a western or central European origin for U5a2c. Modern U5a2c* samples include 3 from Italy, 2 from France and 1 from Ireland. I would guess that during the LGM U5a2 was present in the region from the southern France to the Balkans and that U5a2c originated somewhere in that region.

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    That thanks doesn't mean I necessarily agree with the conclusion, but that I am grateful for the information and the perspective.

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    Glad you found out more.

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