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Thread: U152 and the Italian Copper Age

  1. #1
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    U152 and the Italian Copper Age

    Link: http://www.r1b.org/?page_id=242

    A new study by Boattini et al. (2013) has made evident the high frequency of U152 in northern and central Italy (table 1).[1] This distribution has also been observed in prior studies.[2][3][4] For the first time however, we get a clearer picture of the U152′s intra-Italy regional frequency, and we can begin to infer some links to archaeological cultures.


    Table 1 – U152 frequency (Boattini et al. 2013)

    There is a clear north-south gradient for U152 frequency, but it is slight from the Alps to central Italy and the drop-off accelerates in southern Italy. The tested areas with the highest U152 frequencies are Brescia (51.3%) and Cuneo (40%) in northern Italy, followed by Pistoia (38.5%) in Tuscany. Undifferentiated U152(xL2) has a frequency peak in Brescia and Pistoia (38.5%). If small commercial testing is any indication, Brescia’s U152(xL2) is made up largely of Z36 and to a lesser extent, Z56.[5] In Tuscany, Z36 shares its importance with Z56.[6] STR values of DYS385b ≥16 in U152* samples from LaSpezia/Massa (3 of 3) and Pistoia (2 of 5) might indicate high levels of Z56 subclade Z144/Z145/Z146.

    L2(xL20) has its highest frequency in La Spezia/Massa (25.0%) and Treviso (24.2%) and L20 has its highest frequency in L’Aquila (3.3%), although if we look at the small pockets of L20 overall, it looks to be somewhat more common in the north than in the south. L2 as a percentage of overall U152 frequency reaches 39.2% on the Italian Peninsula, 25% in Sardinia and 20% in Sicily. This is in contrast to L2 outside of Italy (table 2). In Italy, L2 only makes up a majority of U152 lineages in the north-east region, and is highest in Treviso overall (80.0%). Unfortunately, subclades Z49 and Z367 were not tested in Boatinni’s L2(xL20) samples.



    Boattini et al. also ran Spatial Principal Component Analyses (sPCA) based on frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups. They found a three-partitioned structure of Italian population: 1) North-Western Italy (including most of the Padana plain and Tuscany.), 2) South-Eastern Italy and the whole Adriatic coast, and 3) Sardinia. Lineages contributing more to the differentiation along the first sPCA were R-U152*, and to a lesser extent, R-L2* and R-P312* in North-Western Italy, and G-P15 in South-Eastern Italy (Figure 1a), and I1-M26 in Sardinia (Figure 1b).


    Figure 1. Spatial Principal Component Analysis (sPCA) based on frequencies of Y-chromosome haplogroups.

    Copper Age Populations of Northern and Central Europe:

    The results of Boattini’s age estimates suggest that most of the Y-chromosomal diversity present in modern day Italians was originated from few common ancestors living during late Neolithic times and the Early Metal Ages. Interestingly, the observed paternal population clusters are similar to dental (Figure 2) and cranial (Figure 3) morphological clusters of Italian Copper Age populations.[11][12] These show a close affinities between the Copper Age people of Northern and Center-West Italy. They also show a relationship between Southern Italian groups. While the Sardinian Copper Age groups are more similar to that of Southern Italy, they are still outliers when compared to all peninsular groups. If haplogroup U152 was already the differentiating Y-DNA group in Copper Age Northern and Central Italy, ancient Y-DNA studies should focus on finding it in the Remedello Culture (Brescia), the Spilamberto Group (Emilia-Romagna) and the Rinaldone Culture (Tuscany and northern Latium). Of particular interest is the Remedello Culture, which groups closely with Bell Beakers in cranial studies.[13]


    Figure 2 – Dental traits of Copper Age Italian Populations


    Figure 3 – Cranial groupings of Italian Copper Age skulls

    Ancient Y-DNA from Bell Beaker remains have been found to be R1b.[14] However, it is difficult to see Bell Beakers as a starting point for R1b in Italy, as there is substantial cultural and geographical continuity with the preceding Copper Age groups of Northern and Central Italy.[15] Given that, it is likely that a U152 presence in Italian Bell Beaker groups was the result of continuity from their immediate Copper Age predecessors. The influence of the Central European Bell Beaker Begleitkeramik group does seem to have made an impact in the formative phase of the Polada Culture in northern Italy and the late Bell Beaker period in Tuscany.[16][17] The changes brought on by the Polada Culture are so apparent that, by unanimous opinion, a movement of human groups has been presumed between Central Europe and the Po Valley.[18][19][20] The direction or origin of the gene flow is difficult to assess however. This Early Bronze Age phenomenon may explain why L2 as a percentage of U152 is highest in north-east Italy and makes up a larger amount of U152 outside of Italy.

    While mtDNA haplogroup H in Europe was likely established by the Mid Neolithic (~4000 BC), a substantial genetic contribution from subsequent pan-European cultures such as the Bell Beakers in the Late Neolithic (~2800 BC) may have contributed to its high modern day frequency.[21] The relationship between U152, Bell Beakers and mtDNA haplogroup H needs to be studied further. It is noteworthy that H1 is a North-East centered group that spreads southwards along the Apennines and H3 highlights the same North West – South East pattern observed for Y-chromosomes.

    References: (see the link above)
    Last edited by R.Rocca; 07-24-2013 at 11:21 AM.
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543 >> PR5365, Pietro Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

  2. The Following 9 Users Say Thank You to R.Rocca For This Useful Post:

     alan (07-26-2013),  Alpine Hominin (07-24-2013),  Diana (07-28-2013),  DMXX (07-24-2013),  emmental (07-24-2013),  Jean M (07-24-2013),  Rathna (07-24-2013),  rms2 (07-24-2013),  Scarlet Ibis (07-24-2013)

  3. #2
    Quote Originally Posted by Richard A. Rocca View Post
    Given that, it is likely that a U152 presence in Italian Bell Beaker groups was the result of continuity from their immediate Copper Age predecessors. The influence of the Central European Bell Beaker Begleitkeramik group does seem to have made an impact in the formative phase of the Polada Culture in northern Italy and the late Bell Beaker period in Tuscany.[16][17] The changes brought on by the Polada Culture are so apparent that, by unanimous opinion, a movement of human groups has been presumed between Central Europe and the Po Valley.[18][19][20] The direction or origin of the gene flow is difficult to assess however. This Early Bronze Age phenomenon may explain why L2 as a percentage of U152 is highest in north-east Italy and makes up a larger amount of U152 outside of Italy.

    While mtDNA haplogroup H in Europe was likely established by the Mid Neolithic (~4000 BC), a substantial genetic contribution from subsequent pan-European cultures such as the Bell Beakers in the Late Neolithic (~2800 BC) may have contributed to its high modern day frequency.[21] The relationship between U152, Bell Beakers and mtDNA haplogroup H needs to be studied further. It is noteworthy that H1 is a North-East centered group that spreads southwards along the Apennines and H3 highlights the same North West – South East pattern observed for Y-chromosomes.
    Perhaps the answer will come from the subclades above R-U152, i.e. from the node R1b1* to R-L51 I spoke about also in another thread about the Morley spreadsheet.
    About hg. H it is a long struggle. By the 105 1KGP (I am publishing here also in my Rathna's assessment) at least in Tuscany it seems that there are so many H1, many other H and many H* but only one H3. Anyway perhaps you know I think having demonstrating that Italy had R0a (and R0a'b) and HV from at least the Paglicci people, i.e. from before the LGM. We will see if those HV died and others came from elsewhere as Jean Manco said or if all these subclades were born here in Italy.
    Last edited by Rathna; 07-24-2013 at 06:57 AM.

  4. #3
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    Richard - Your link is broken. This one works: http://r1b.org/?page_id=242

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  6. #4
    Only one H3 amongst the 105 Tuscans of the 1KGP, even though it is an H3*:

    NA20809
    A263G 310insC A750G A1438G G1719A A4769G G4924A T6776C A8860G A15326G T16519C

    with two autonomous mutations in the CR: G1719A and G4924A.
    Last edited by Rathna; 07-24-2013 at 08:29 AM.

  7. #5
    Quote Originally Posted by Richard A. Rocca View Post
    While mtDNA haplogroup H in Europe was likely established by the Mid Neolithic (~4000 BC), a substantial genetic contribution from subsequent pan-European cultures such as the Bell Beakers in the Late Neolithic (~2800 BC) may have contributed to its high modern day frequency.[21] The relationship between U152, Bell Beakers and mtDNA haplogroup H needs to be studied further. It is noteworthy that H1 is a North-East centered group that spreads southwards along the Apennines and H3 highlights the same North West – South East pattern observed for Y-chromosomes.
    The mutation G4924A found in the Tuscan H3* is so rare that the fact that it is found in H3b3

    JQ703291 Behar Haplogroup [H3b3] 07-APR-2012
    A263G 309.1C 309.2C 315.1C A750G A1438G A2581G A4769G C4850T G4924A T6776C A8860G A12397G A15326G G16129A T16519C
    and probably this is the person
    " Mitosearch: AEA28
    Mutations
    HVR1 HVR2
    1. 16129A 00263G
    2. 16519C 00309.1C
    3. 00309.2C
    4. 00315.1C

    Haplogroup: H3b
    Tested with: Family Tree DNA
    Contact person: LaRee Funston Contact this user

    Most distant known maternal ancestor on the direct female line
    First Name: Alice
    Last Name: Cole
    Year Born: 1591
    Year Died: 1636
    Country of Origin: Wiltshire, England"

    should make us think that the Tuscan sample is the ancestor of these H3b3 in heteroplasmy. These samples come from the Isles, then, even though H3 is born very likely in the Cantabrian Refugium and expanded from there, a little percentage of it was present by ancient times also in Italy and expanded Northwards with many other haplogroups.
    Mitosearch 4GCHV has an Italian contact person (Jim Donati), but we don't know the owner and his origin.

  8. #6
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    For possible geneflow, we have ceramics of the mid-Danubian Wieselburg-Culture in NE Italy and Polada lakes dwelling building techniques that are the same as those found in Lake Constance which borders Switzerland, Germany and Austria and is the close to the source of the Rhine.

    Of interest is the role of Rinaldone Culture in the spread of copper metallurgy to Italy and southern France. I'll have to dig up some of the information I have on that and post it.
    Paternal: R1b-U152 >> L2 >> FGC10543 >> PR5365, Pietro Rocca, b. 1559, Agira, Sicily, Italy
    Maternal: H4a1-T152C!, Maria Coto, b. ~1864, Galicia, Spain
    Mother's Paternal: J1+ FGC4745/FGC4766+ PF5019+, Gerardo Caprio, b. 1879, Caposele, Avellino, Campania, Italy
    Father's Maternal: T2b-C150T, Francisca Santa Cruz, b.1916, Garganchon, Burgos, Spain
    Paternal Great (x3) Grandfather: R1b-U106 >> L48 >> CTS2509, Filippo Ensabella, b.~1836, Agira, Sicily, Italy

  9. #7
    Quote Originally Posted by Richard A. Rocca View Post
    For possible geneflow, we have ceramics of the mid-Danubian Wieselburg-Culture in NE Italy and Polada lakes dwelling building techniques that are the same as those found in Lake Constance which borders Switzerland, Germany and Austria and is the close to the source of the Rhine.

    Of interest is the role of Rinaldone Culture in the spread of copper metallurgy to Italy and southern France. I'll have to dig up some of the information I have on that and post it.
    Richard, about the pile dwellings I wrote a lot on Worldfamilies and perhaps eng.molgen:
    1) the oldest findings were found on Lago di Varese 4500YBC
    2) pile dwellings are found in Italy on the Apennines till Abruzzo
    3) I hypothesized that they were born in the Adriatic before the submersion, otherwise we don't understand why they are build also on a rise

    Of course archaeology is important, but also genetics. These Sardinian SNPs (PF) are full of surprises! Anyway I'll read carefully everything you'll publish upon the argument.

  10. #8
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    Quote Originally Posted by Rathna View Post
    Richard, about the pile dwellings I wrote a lot on Worldfamilies and perhaps eng.molgen:
    1) the oldest findings were found on Lago di Varese 4500YBC
    2) pile dwellings are found in Italy on the Apennines till Abruzzo
    3) I hypothesized that they were born in the Adriatic before the submersion, otherwise we don't understand why they are build also on a rise

    Of course archaeology is important, but also genetics. These Sardinian SNPs (PF) are full of surprises! Anyway I'll read carefully everything you'll publish upon the argument.
    Bearing in mind that one idea is that U-152 is La Tene, I would mention that some La Tene areas in Britain are Lake Dweller societies. In particular, I would mention the Lake Dweller village around Glastonbury Tor. I am sure many are aware of this area being the origin of many British Mythologies ( Arthur and Guenivere buried here... or at least a grave site mentioning them) Arthur of course, brings to mind the Lady of the Lake, perhaps a religion the Lake Dwellers would have found similar. It certainly brings to mind practices at La Tene, such as the throwing of swords into a lake.

    Rich C
    u152 pf 4363
    Last edited by Claxon; 07-25-2013 at 11:56 PM.

  11. #9
    Quote Originally Posted by Claxon View Post
    Bearing in mind that one idea is that U-152 is La Tene, I would mention that some La Tene areas in Britain are Lake Dweller societies. In particular, I would mention the Lake Dweller village around Glastonbury Tor. I am sure many are aware of this area being the origin of many British Mythologies ( Arthur and Guenivere buried here... or at least a grave site mentioning them) Arthur of course, brings to mind the Lady of the Lake, perhaps a religion the Lake Dwellers would have found similar. It certainly brings to mind practices at La Tene, such as the throwing of swords into a lake.

    Rich C
    u152 pf 4363
    Claxon, La Tene is the half of the first millennium BC, we are speaking of the half of the fifth millennium, and you are a PF-man too. On the Morley spreadsheet I am seeing: 24162, 28112, B1388.
    Many matches with my K1a1b1e are arriving every day from the Isles, but the origin is in Italy. British have all the mutation 477C I haven't.

  12. #10
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    Quote Originally Posted by Rathna View Post
    Claxon, La Tene is the half of the first millennium BC, we are speaking of the half of the fifth millennium, and you are a PF-man too. On the Morley spreadsheet I am seeing: 24162, 28112, B1388.
    Many matches with my K1a1b1e are arriving every day from the Isles, but the origin is in Italy. British have all the mutation 477C I haven't.
    Yes, I understand that. I should have mentioned that my linking of coincidental ideas did not really relate to the discussion at hand. As you know, my interests are very much along mythological lines... but I do know that science trumps mythology.
    As an afterthought in my defense, mythology does relate to "folk memory" of events, which MAY have taken place centuries earlier. ( sword, lake) ( perhaps five millennia earlier) In other words, the La Tene artefacts found in the La Tene area, may reflect an understanding from much earlier times.

    I think there are two more u152 PF4363, making three Kipling, one Parker and myself ( Clarkson) As we are all quite close genetically, we are probably of one family name in a post surname time period. We are exploring the possibility we are descended from a Laurence Clarkson, the Ranter, who was quite active sexually in England in @ 1650. It would be great if we could find a Clarkson from Preston, Lancashire, ( his home) to test. He had a child with a Mary Middleton in Chelmsford in @ 1650, which is where my Clarkson family comes from.
    Rc
    Last edited by Claxon; 07-26-2013 at 01:39 PM.

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