Poll: Which Bell Beaker model is closest to being right?

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Thread: Poll: Bell Beaker Models

  1. #1
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    Poll: Bell Beaker Models

    Polls are supposed to be kind of fun. Hopefully this one will be.

    Please read the summaries of the various Bell Beaker models below before voting.

    Voting for a model does not mean you necessarily agree with every detail its proponents have advanced. It just means that model comes closest to your current thinking. Feel free to post your own opinions, how you would modify a model or combine elements of more than one model, etc.

    The Bell Beaker model summaries, with the exception of the Gimbutas Model and the Manco Model, come from pages 476-479 of "Bell Beakers from West to East" in Ancient Europe, 8000 B.C. to A.D. 1000: Encyclopedia of the Barbarian World; Bogucki, Peter and Crabtree, Pam J., editors; New York: Scribner and Sons, 2004 (available online as an e-book here).

    The Spanish Model:

    The first all-encompassing model for explaining the genesis of Bell Beakers was proposed by Spanish researchers Pedro Bosch-Gimpera (1926) and Alberto del Castillo Yurrita (1928). In archaeological literature, their theory is called the Spanish Model. It stated that the Bell Beaker phenomenon started on the Iberian Peninsula and from there its peoples, practicing trade, expanded as far as central Europe.
    The Dutch Model:

    Later research, concentrating on the typology of finds in various regions, complicated the picture of Bell Beakers. A breakthrough in this regard were the studies published in 1955 by Dutch researchers J. D. (Johannes D.) van der Waals and Willem Glasbergen that presented a scheme of evolution for the bell beaker vessels. In their opinion this form developed from the beakers of the Corded Ware culture on the Lower Rhine. In the literature this view is known as the Dutch Model.
    The Immobilist Model:

    In the 1970s the Dutch Model gained strong support because a series of carbon-14 datings confirmed its typological sequence. It was an argument that convinced most archaeologists, mainly on the Continent, to accept the Dutch Model. At approximately the same time in the British Isles, new concepts were gaining voice. These addressed concepts far removed from the traditional question about the genesis of an archaeological culture linked to a specific people. Archaeologists such as David L. Clarke called on their colleagues to address the issue of the Bell Beakers from new perspectives. This general appeal was followed by concrete proposals, examining Bell Beakers as a result of processes that were being played out in the social or religious spheres rather than representing the actual movements of peoples. Colin Burgess proposed that Bell Beakers be analyzed as a cultural “package”: a collection of artifacts displaying a single type of cultural behavior, which in this instance involved the custom of communal libations. This concept was further developed by Andrew Sherratt, who proposed that Bell Beakers reflect the introduction of fermented beverages and the social privileges associated with the consumption of alcohol. Stephen Shennan devoted much attention to the thesis that Bell Beakers are not a classical archaeological culture but a gathering of specific objects that appear in various cultural contexts. Such perspectives resulted in a change of approach in research on the Bell Beakers. The questions of the genesis and “Beaker People” became less important to archaeologists. The term “Bell Beaker culture” was no longer used, and archaeologists substituted “Bell Beaker phenomenon,” “beaker package,” or simply “Bell Beakers.” Interpretations of the phenomenon reached for a totally different concept of understanding and generally placed Bell Beakers in the frame of a large cultural change that took place as the Neolithic Age passed to the Bronze Age and social stratification was emerging.
    The Reflux Model:

    About the same time that the Dutch Model was formulated, Edward Sangmeister proposed the so-called Reflux Model of Bell Beaker origins and distribution. Typological studies done in many regions showed that not all Bell Beaker attributes were connected with Spain, one of the main problems being the fact that corded decoration was absent there. Sangmeister proposed that after the initial phase of Bell Beaker development and expansion from the Iberian Peninsula in the direction of central Europe, a second phase of development took place, this being the “reflux” or reverse flow of Bell Beakers back to the Iberian Peninsula in a new version that had been enriched by central European contributions. Sangmeister, like some of his contemporaries, was becoming aware that it was increasingly difficult to find a single region where Bell Beaker attributes originated.
    The Gimbutas Model is the hypothesis that Bell Beaker arose from the mixing of Yamnaya and Vucedol in the Carpathian basin in the third millennium BC. The following comes from page 390 of Gimbutas' book, The Civilization of the Goddess:

    Quote Originally Posted by Marija Gimbutas
    The Bell Beaker culture of western Europe which diffused between 2500 and 2100 B.C. between central Europe, the British Isles, and the Iberian Peninsula, could not have arisen in a vacuum. The mobile horse-riding and warrior people who buried their dead in Yamna type kurgans certainly could not have developed out of any west European culture. We must ask what sort of ecology and ideology created these people, and where are the roots of the specific Bell Beaker equipment and their burial rites. In my view, the Bell Beaker cultural elements derive from Vucedol and Kurgan (Late Yamna) traditions.
    The Manco Model, which author and historian Jean Manco advances in her books, Ancestral Journeys and Blood of the Celts, is kind of a cross between the Spanish Model, the Gimbutas Model, and the Reflux Model, with steppe people arriving in Iberia early, creating BB there, spreading east from Iberia and spreading west from the Carpathian basin simultaneously, in a network of kindred peoples.

    The following are excerpts from her book, Ancestral Journeys.

    From pages 162-163:

    Quote Originally Posted by Jean Manco
    Copper workers may have arrived in Iberia initially with a small company of migrants, to be gradually reinforced over time by others seeking pastures new. Carved stone anthropomorphic stelae mark the trail of these copper workers, so let us call them the Stelae People.
    (Ms. Manco makes it clear on pages 161-163 that the stelae to which she refers began on the Pontic steppe and mark the trail across Europe from there to Iberia.)

    From page 161:

    Quote Originally Posted by Jean Manco
    The Beaker people seem to have arrived swiftly in Iberia. Some of their earliest sites are found in Portugal. Or to be more exact, they appear to be the same people who had brought copper-working earlier. There is no change in the metal-working technology when Bell Beaker pottery began to be made.
    Last edited by rms2; 08-23-2017 at 02:50 PM.
     


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    I have not followed all the discussions since the Bell beaker papers appeared and I don't know how thinking has evolved as a result of them. But from my distant point of view (I'm mostly concerned with V13 and the Balkans) it seems like the large correlation between P312 and Bell Beaker has been confirmed, it would seem reasonable that some elements were developed in Spain by a genetically unrelated people and than adopted by a P312-dominated clan and spread further over Europe.
    If I had to guess right now I would say that P312 was one of many clans somewhere in the Eastern European Steppe in the early third millenium BC. As so many Steppe-people after them would do they moved westward towards Bohemia/Southern Germany. They were very skilled with bows and developed a certain ideology that drove them to spread out wide (as many Steppe people after them would do). This would bring them over most of Europe. I have to admit that U106's role in this is not so clear. Although that's not exactly what Gimbutas meant it's the closest so I'll vote for that. In my opinion cultures like Vucedol (but also i.e. Ezero) were the results of remnants of Neolithic populations and new influx from Sredny Stog and other Steppe peoples (marked mostly by I2 and R1B-Z2103). I think the P312 guys arrived in a later wave but might have adopted some of the developments of previous groups when they arrived in their vicinity.

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    I would say it's a mix of the spanish model and Gimbautas.

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    I think that it is safe to predict that my model will never be named after me. It will be the Heyd 2017 model.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    I think that it is safe to predict that my model will never be named after me. It will be the Heyd 2017 model.
    Well if it pans out at least here it will be known as your modal.

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    Personally I can't make my mind up between The Dutch & Gimbutas Model.

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    Quote Originally Posted by jdean View Post
    Personally I can't make my mind up between The Dutch & Gimbutas Model.
    I have the same tendency. And yet they seem fundamentally different.

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    Quote Originally Posted by jdean View Post
    Well if it pans out at least here it will be known as your model.
    I can't stop you, but the model will do much better with an archaeologist as sponsor. In fact it already has.

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    Unless I'm missing something I vote "none of the above". I'm partial to the Małopolska/Bohemia/Moravia area where a specific subtype of corded ware similar to eastern beaker in certain respects existed. I currently think this might be the area where P312 was introduced into/adopted Bell Beaker.

    I'm not well versed in the associated chronology, so that may throw a wrench into the above opinion.
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    Id go for my own modification of Harrison and Heyd with some Manco added in

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