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Thread: A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics

  1. #1
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    A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics

    A female Viking warrior confirmed by genomics



    Abstract

    Objectives

    The objective of this study has been to confirm the sex and the affinity of an individual buried in a well-furnished warrior grave (Bj 581) in the Viking Age town of Birka, Sweden. Previously, based on the material and historical records, the male sex has been associated with the gender of the warrior and such was the case with Bj 581. An earlier osteological classification of the individual as female was considered controversial in a historical and archaeological context. A genomic confirmation of the biological sex of the individual was considered necessary to solve the issue.

    Materials and methods

    Genome-wide sequence data was generated in order to confirm the biological sex, to support skeletal integrity, and to investigate the genetic relationship of the individual to ancient individuals as well as modern-day groups. Additionally, a strontium isotope analysis was conducted to highlight the mobility of the individual.

    Results

    The genomic results revealed the lack of a Y-chromosome and thus a female biological sex, and the mtDNA analyses support a single-individual origin of sampled elements. The genetic affinity is close to present-day North Europeans, and within Sweden to the southern and south-central region. Nevertheless, the Sr values are not conclusive as to whether she was of local or nonlocal origin.

    Discussion

    The identification of a female Viking warrior provides a unique insight into the Viking society, social constructions, and exceptions to the norm in the Viking time-period. The results call for caution against generalizations regarding social orders in past societies.

    http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/1...jpa.23308/full

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     A Norfolk L-M20 (09-08-2017),  Adrian Stevenson (09-11-2017),  Babatunde (09-08-2017),  Baltimore1937 (09-15-2017),  Bollox79 (09-10-2017),  corner (09-08-2017),  Dewsloth (09-08-2017),  evon (09-08-2017),  hel (09-09-2017),  parasar (09-13-2017),  [email protected] (09-08-2017),  spruithean (09-08-2017)

  3. #2
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    She's apparently T2b:

    The Viking warrior female showed genetic affinity to present-day inhabitants of the British Islands (England and Scotland), the North Atlantic Islands (Iceland and the Orkneys), Scandinavia (Denmark and Norway) and to lesser extent Eastern Baltic Europe (Lithuania and Latvia) (Figure 4a,b and Supporting Information Figure S4.2a,b). Furthermore, the woman is significantly more similar to these modern northern Europeans than to southern Europeans (Supporting Information Table S4.5). All of those geographical locations are situated within the Viking World. A detailed comparison with modern-day Swedish individuals from across the entire country shows genetic affinities between the female warrior and southern and south-central Swedes (Figure 4c).
    R1b>M269>L23>L51>L11>P312>DF19>DF88>FGC11833 >S4281>S4268>Z17112>BY44243

    Ancestors: Francis Cooke (M223/I2a2a) b1583; Hester Mahieu (Cooke) (J1c2 mtDNA) b.1584; Richard Warren (E-M35) b1578; Elizabeth Walker (Warren) (H1j mtDNA) b1583;
    John Mead (I2a1/P37.2) b1634; Rev. Joseph Hull (I1, L1301+ L1302-) b1595; Benjamin Harrington (M223/I2a2a-Y5729) b1618; Joshua Griffith (L21>DF13) b1593;
    John Wing (U106) b1584; Thomas Gunn (DF19) b1605; Hermann Wilhelm (DF19) b1635

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  5. #3
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    Quote Originally Posted by Dewsloth View Post
    She's apparently T2b:
    I'm related to her!! I always noticed a trend in the T2b and T2b2b projects at FTDNA... my group T2b2b being most common in Ireland... but with a clear connection to Scandinavia... now I am twice as interested in this ;-). I wonder what the connection is for T2b in Ireland and Norway/Sweden... perhaps in Ireland descendants of Vikings now that it's been found in that type of grave? Gotta change my sig ;-p.
    Last edited by Bollox79; 09-09-2017 at 03:54 PM.
    Y-DNA: 4th GGF Adam Weaver born 1785 in Pennsylvania (most likely Rhineland German) - Sergeant, US 17th Inf, War of 1812: R1b-U106-DF98-S1911-S1894/S1900-S4004/FGC14818/FGC14823-FGC14816/FGC14817 shared with 6drif-3 - one of the "Headless" Roman Gladiator/Soldiers!

    mtDNA: 3rd GGM Bridget O'Danagher b. 1843 Lorrha/Dorrha, Ireland - T2b2b - Pagan Migrant Icelander SSG-A3 (grave 4) - Sķlastašir in Eyjafjaršarsżsla, North Iceland is T2b2b.

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     JMcB (09-09-2017),  Saetro (09-09-2017),  [email protected] (09-09-2017)

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    I have noticed that majority of my mtDNA T2B9 matches are of Scandinavian or currently living in a Nordic country - what has surprised me as my maternal background is Portuguese for as far we can get documental trails).

  8. The Following 2 Users Say Thank You to Lusvarghi For This Useful Post:

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