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Thread: Ross and Viking/Nordic History

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    Ross and Viking/Nordic History

    Ross and Viking/Nordic History

    INTRODUCTION
    Much of the Ross and Viking/Nordic connection to Ross-shire, Scotland is from Viking sagas, relative to the settlement of Nordic Iceland from Scotland. The first three connections below are from these sagas. And we have some corroboration from Scots and from Irish histories. Discovered also is the original meaning for the place Ross in Scotland from the Viking word hross meaning horse or great horse. All of the Vikings in this post began as Norse from Norway. A researcher of my own Ross line I have seen this story advance some from old books newly online.

    King O'Beolan (Bjolan) the half Viking:
    Some of the first Viking ancestors from Norway, after a long while in the Isles of Scotland, sailed to Iceland and Normandy and became distinguished families of considerable fame. But King O'Beolan (Bjolan) a half Viking, b. abt. 886, stayed in Scotland. O'Beolan was described as a Scottish King by the Vikings [8], while the place in Scotland has been identified as the Applecross districts by the Applecross Historical Society [2]. His mother was probably a tribal Princess, associated with family names as Mac Cormac/Ciarmaic, [7, 10] descended from the Royal House of Tara of old Ireland. King O'Beolan's father is consistent with Helgi Bjolan (Beolan), son of Kitell Flatnose Bjornsson, Norse King of Mann and the Hebrides. [11] The main line of the Highlander Clan Ross was from them.
    From Ireland St. Maelrubha had sailed to Scotland in 671 and established the Monastery and the Abbey of Applecross on the shores of todays Wester Ross. St. Maelrubha, who was the 1st Abbot of Applecross, Scotland, was born in County Derry, Ireland and educated in Bangor County (Catholic Encyclopedia), and was a descendant of Niall, High King of Ireland (Wikipedia). Much later the said tribal King O'Beolan (Bjolan) part Norse became the hereditary lay Abbot of Applecross, and Chief of the Applecross districts in Scotland. [2] O'Beolan's descendands are found in Scotland and Ireland.
    Active communication with Ireland continued (see notes). Irish sources have his tribal authority extended into the homeland of Ireland as King of South Brega, of County Meath. [9] Descendants in Ireland probably included King Beollan Ciarmac, d. 969, and Donnchad Mac Gilla Mo Chroma, Abbot of Dunshauglan, died 1027. [10] In Sligo, Ireland were a long list of O'Beollain lay priests and coarbs from the 11th through 16th century. The first recorded was Murchadh O'Beollain, archinneach of Drumcliff, who died, 1053 in Sligo, Ireland. [15] A part of Ireland and Nortwestern Scotland had combined history at one time.
    As an early spelling the name Ó'Beólláin appeared in Scotland as well as Ireland. But in the original Viking sagas he was a Scottish King named Bjolan [8]. And King Bjolan's wife was Kadlin with a daughter Nidbjorg. Scots histories say King Beolan/Beollan, or Chief O Beolan. [2] Beolan/Beollan was a Gaelic nickname passed down from the stated Norseman Helgi Bjolan (Connection I). The Kings of Scotland coexisted with significant tribal and district Kings until the Kings of all Scotland became more established. Chief was eventually adopted for clan and for other tribal leaders including the more renowned ones.

    Descendants of King O'Beolan and Kadlin in Scotland:
    Though the Viking/Nordic sources said the wife of Scottish King Bjolan was Kadlin, an Irish source says Cadlinar (Kathleen). [7, 9] A Viking of Norse nobility, Kadlin was the daughter of the well-known pirate Rollo, later the first Duke of Normandy. From King O'Beolan and Kadlin in Scotland were the O'Beolan Abbot's of Applecross, and from the Abbots were the O'Beolan Earls of Ross. And they had a daughter Nidbjorg (Nithbeorg in Irish source) by whom many noted families in Iceland descended.
    The O'Beolan lay Abbots, who already had extensive government and church authority over their own districts, became the Earl's of Ross. Earl was an extension of authority now with control over the lands of Ross-shire. In addition new lands of their own were granted to them in familiar Wester Ross and the Isles.
    The first of the Abbots to become Earl was the valiant Farquhar, Earl of Ross, a great swordsman, who rescued the King of Scotland and the King's army, with Farquhar's own tribal forces and allies (History of the MaKenzies). For them, from the castles of isolated Wester Ross, alliances were a necessity of the times, and he was later rewarded as Earl of Ross. He was buried in Easter Ross in 1753. The Earls were surnamed Earl of Ross, or O'Beolan, although Farquhar also referred to himself as MacTaggart, meaning son of the priest.
    Earl Farquhar was also declared Chief of the Clan Ross, and under the Earls of Ross the Clan Ross became the premier clan in Scotland at one time, with many clans from them. Not until after the Earls on the male line was the name Ross fully adopted.
    Note: A lot of spelling variants are seen. Included are the ones noticed the most, or seem most relevant.

    MEANING OF NAME ROSS
    Ross meant horse or horse keeper from the Viking word hross. The place Ross was named by Vikings before it became a Gaelic shire. Similarly in Germanic Ross stood for noble steed. From earlier Teutonic the name Ross meant mighty horse. (I like this first meaning as my own Western Cowboys rode fine horses.)

    Secondary meanings:
    In Europe Ross, Rois and Ros meant Horse or horse owner. Nordic Ros for example was for horse or rose
    (https://www.nordicnames.de/wiki/Ros). Ross belongs to more than one unrelated groups, and seems to have added meanings as red hair or roses, perhaps from a reddish appearance (beautiful to fiery).
    Later in Gaelic, the words rois and ros have their own depictions: Rois (found in Clan Ross) means woodland. Ros in Gaelic means headland or promontory. (To my Cowboy Ranchers...horse point or mustang ridge.)

    The flying horses of mythology:
    The name Rois is first seen in Greek mythology within Pyrois, the name of the Fiery Horse of the Sun (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Horses_of_Helios). Elsewhere, in Denmark was discovered a bronze-age artifact of a horse pulling a golden disc of the sun. And, Ros Beiaard is a giant magical horse of Dutch tradition. In Germany there is the place Rosstrappe, a giant footprint made by a mythical flying horse.

    NORDIC/VIKING CONNECTIONS
    (by names.)
    I. HELGI BJOLAN (BEOLAN) KETILLSSON, son of KETILL FLATNEF (FLATNOSE) BJORNSSON, King of Mann and the Hebrides, 9th and 10th centuries:
    O'Beolan requires a first Beolan without the O, or Bjolan as the Vikings spelled it. Helgi the full Viking was the first by that name. Bjolan (Beolan) was a Gaelic nickname given to Helgi. [1, 11] Though it resembles Norse Bjorn from Bjornsson it is from a Gaelic word Beul or Beoil, meaning mouth or inlet. [11]

    Ketill Flatnef (Flatnose) Bjornsson of Norway:
    Speaking of Ketill Flatnose Bjornsson, the father of Helgi Bjolan Ketillsson, Ketill was originally sent by the King of Norway to subdue rebellions in the Isles of Scotland. He took on more recognition than expected and became King of Mann and the Hebrides. King Ketill Flatnose Bjornson was son of Bjorn (bear) of Norway (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ketill_Flatnose). A number of the children of King Ketil had traveled from Norway, to the Hebrides of Scotland, and several eventually settled in Iceland. Ketill's children included Helgi Bjolan; Helgi's sister Aude the deep-minded, who married King Olaf the White of Ireland; sister Thorunn, married to Helgi inn magri, another notable of Ireland; and brother Bjorn Ketillson, all amazing stories. King Kitell passed away in the Hebrides.
    Artifacts found in Iceland of Scottish/Irish origin now add credence to the story of Aud and her father Ketill in Scotland. [6]

    Helgi Bjolan (Beolan) and the Hebrides:
    King Ketill's son Helgi Bjolan (Beolan) was in the Isles of Scotland for many years. Helgi later sailed from the Hebrides for Nordic Iceland taking his family with him sometime after the death of his father.
    More than precious artifacts were left when Helgi went to Iceland from Mann and the Hebrides. Included are two good Scots sources.
    The Society of Antiquaries of Scotland said in 1897 that a Scottish King was of the name Beollan. And there is an Irish surname Beollan they say. (Mann is near Ireland, while the Hebrides are above Applecross, Scotland.) And mentioned is Helgi Bjolan, and the later Scottish King Beollan as follows:
    "When King Harald heard of this, he sent west Ketil flatnef, the son of (Bjorn) buna, to win back the (islands). Ketil did so, but more for his own hand than in King Harald's interests. His son, Helgi bj6Ia (bjola), went to Iceland from the Hebrides, and took possession of Kjalarness on the West coast. It is very probable that this surname of 'bj61a' (bjola) or 'bj61an' (bjolan) is the Irish .... (Beollan). A Scottish king of that name, belonging to the 9th century, is mentioned in Ldri ii, 11, and the use of Gaelic names as appendages to Norse ones appears in other cases..."
    Note: The computer transcription for the Antiquities Society link did not go so well for some words - like the 6 in Bjolan. This new Google link has the original, p. 250 (https://books.google.com/books?id=fB...IAAJ&pg=PA250&...). This contains a saga referred to, Chapter XI, p. 47 (https://archive.org/stream/booksettl...lwgoog/bookset...). [8]

    A Viking ancestor of the O'Beolan Priests:
    Furthermore, the scholarly book, Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland, by C Thomas Cairney, PhD, 1989, clarifies that the Viking Helgi Bjolan (Beolan) was "namesake" of the O'Beolan Abbots of Applecross (the ancestors of the Earls of Ross) as follows:
    "The earlier Pictish abbots of Applecross were probably "co-arbs" (bloodrelated successors) of St. Mael Rubha in the Pictish mode of matrilineal descent. Since Applecross, as a Celtic tribal abbey, was continuously active throughout he Viking period, we can infer a similar continuity of co-arbial succession among its abbots. Therefore the O’Beolains, despite a patrilineal connection to Helgi Bjolan (which would have served them well at the time), represent continuity with the old line. Surnames in the earlier "0" form came into use in Ireland in the tenth century..." The link is as follows: (http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/cairney/37.htm).
    Note: St. Maelrubha arrived on the shores of Wester Ross from Ireland about 671 and established the continuous Abbey of Applecross. This source would mean a mixed Viking, and a house of Tara descendant (Priest), at some point became the hereditary Abbot of Applecross, related on the female line back to Ireland. To happen this way the full Viking Helgi Bjolan (Beolan) probably had a marriage alliance to an Applecross Princess as implied. Marriage alliances were a thing of the times. See next item for descendant King Bjolan/O'Beolan, the 1st O'Beolan Abbot, the part Viking married to Kadlin/Kaolin.

    II. KADLIN, the daughter of ROLLO/ROLFE the Norse pirate, who later became the first Duke of Normandy, 9th and 10th centuries:
    Kadlin was the wife of King Bjolan (Beolan) of the Viking saga, probably the son of Helgi Bjolan and an Applecross Princess, Mac Cormac/Ciarmac.
    Kadlin is mentioned more than once as daughter of Rolfe (Rollo). In the following she is the mother of Nidbjorg: Laxdaela Saga edited by Pálsson, p.117 (32), (https://books.google.com/books?id=um...c7MC&pg=PA117&...) In another saga previously linked [8] she is the wife of King Bjolan (Beolan) of Scotland and mother of Nidbjorg.
    Regarding Kadlin the sagas tell us Rollo/Rolfe (meaning fame/wolf) of Noble birth left Norway to evade their King. The conqueror Rollo was in the Isles of Scotland and Ireland, and the presumption is his family was with him. [7] That would include daughter Kadlin (and now with a favorable marriage alliance). Later, Rollo, a very large and tall man, went to Normandy (in France) and became a famous Duke. History tells us Viking contact was maintained between the Vikings of Scotland, Ireland and Normandy. From Normandy a descendant of Rollo is known as William the Conqueror. This following copyrighted site speaks of Rollo, Chief O'Beolan and their relationship to the Earls of Ross (https://www.scotsconnection.com/clan_crests/Ross.htm).
    Note: As a tribal position the use of King was eventually replaced by the designation of Chief of Clan.
    Other places have her name as Cadlinar/Kaolin (Kathleen) daughter of Rolfe (Rollo). According to Wkipedia, Cadlinar was married to an "Irish prince named Beollán mac Ciarmaic, later King of South Brega (Lagore)". [7] The Antiquaries Society of Scotland as previously noted already made a connection in 1897 between the Beollans of Ireland and the Scottish King Beollan of the Viking Sagas. The Beollans appear to have had significant descendants in both Scotland and Ireland.
    The copyrighted book Viking Pirates and Christian Princesses by Hudson says something about the family of Kadlin (Cadlinar) from an Irish perspective. Identified are Nithbeorg and Deichter the daughters of the King of South Brega [note 9] of the "treacherous Vikings" (from the poetic Irish "Banshenchas"). In this book King Ciarmac and his son Prince Beollan of Lagore were deceased after a battle in 969 in Ireland.
    Note: Family trees have a birth date for Scottish King Bjolan (Applecoss districts) of the Viking saga about 886. That would probably mean a later generation on the line than thought for King Ciarmaic. But the Viking father of Nithbeorg from the Irish source compares well to King Bjolan (Beolan) of the Viking saga.
    Thus Irish sources seem to support the idea that King Bjolan (Beolan) and Kadlin existed in combined Scottish and Irish history. The O'Beolan presence must have been extensive at that time, a great family by their own rights.

    III. NIDBJORG O'BEOLAN, daughter of KING BJOLAN/O'BEOLAN and KADLIN, 10th century - married to Icelander HELGI OTTARSSON - a connection to Iceland where they lived:
    Another son of King Ketill Flatnose Bjornson, named Bjorn, went from Norway to the Hebrides for a short-time and then to Iceland (Wikipedia). Bjorn may have been the elder son of Ketill as he stayed in Norway to manage his father's lands, that is until the King took control of the estate. The story was Ketill had not paid the desired tribute.
    From Iceland Bjorn's grandson Helgi Ottarsson went and harried Scotland. And Helgi carried away the daughter Nidbjorg of King Bjolan/O'Beolan and of Kadlin, the daughter of Rollo. [8]
    Interestingly, the pedigree of the daughter Nidbjorg who married Helgi Ottarson of Iceland is online. They are of considerable fame there. And descendants by the saga in Iceland include a Sage, an Archbishop and some poets. That might make her the first Christian on that line. Grandfather Bjorn was never baptized. But Nidbjorg already had Christian family in Iceland of the family of Helgi Bjolan (Beolan), if I have this right.

    Figuring the generations:
    If you want to get complicated, the generations to King Kitell Flatneff Bjornsson from both Helgi Ottarson, and likewise from his wife Nidbjorg O'Beolan, add-up to three: That is if King Bjolan is the son of Helgi Bjolan Kettilsson. Information outside the saga is needed to figure that. Nor does the saga indicate a family relationship with King Bjolan. That also benefits from Scot sources. Exactly who was King Bjolan who remained in Scotlaned? We have another good source.
    What complicates this less is a tradition from Applecross, Scotland. And from the former Director Ian MacKenzie of the Applecross Historical Society we learn he was Chief O Beolan (raised to Abbot of Applecross), who was attacked by Vikings and repaired the damage to the castles by the farms (note 2 below). (The dates of this oral history about Chief O Beolan may be contracted with an earlier period of time.) This history also begins with St. Maelrubha of Ireland who established Applecross on the West Coast of Scotland, b. abt. 631.

    IV. Viking KING SOMMERLED of The Isles, d. 1164, ancestor of FARQUHAR MaC TAGGART, Earl of Ross:
    Farquhar (Mac Taggart/O'Beolan), Earl of Ross was descended from Malcolm MacHeth, Earl of Ross by way of MacHeth's daughter who married an O'Beolan Priest. The Norse association here is with Malcolm MacHeth who was married to the sister of the fierce Viking/Gaelic King Sommerled, of the Isles of Scotland (https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Earl_of_Ross). The first scholars said this. And solid evidence of a strong family alliance with Earl Malcolm MacHeth and King Sommerled is that Sommerled went to Malcolm's rescue, and the sons of Malcolm fought in a later battle along-side Sommerled. And Farquhar, Earl of Ross himself was said to have married a descendant of the Sommerled family (http://www.greatclanross.org/htext5.html). It was in battle that Sommerled met his demise after leading his allies into Scotland with a large force.

    V. The COUNTESS WIVES of the other Earls of Ross probably had some Scandinavian background.

    DNA RESOURCES
    By way of inquiry, does anyone know about R-M269, ancient male DNA seen for some males of the Ross-shire line? The following site has the origin through Europe for male R-M269 - to Norway (http://www.norwaydna.no/wp-content/u...3/07/Hammer_M2...).
    About Icelanders Wikipedia reports the following: "Most mitochondrial DNA lineages found today in contemporary Icelanders can be traced to the native populations in Ireland and Scotland and Scandinavia." (See also note 6 regarding Icelandic artifacts possibly of a Hebrides origin.)

    COMMENTS
    The early Scots used the word Danes sometimes to describe the Vikings from all of Scandinavia. Nordic is often associated today with Scandinavian countries as Iceland, while Norse is a term for Vikings mostly from Norway.
    What can you add? Sometimes it may be more significant than it seems.
    And let me know of any goofs in this post.
    Lots of new things online, and more is being added - includes some good stuff.
    A great story that needs tellin', as their own Western Ranchers would say.
    Thanks for your comments. And thanks for adding your stories.

    NOTES
    (not in sequence.)
    1. Clans and Families of Ireland and Scotland: IV. The Kingdom of the Picts: Christianity, Paganism and the Making of Gaelic Scotland, pp. 36-7
    (http://www.electricscotland.com/webclans/cairney/37.htm).
    Here is more from Cairney's copyrighted book about the O'Beolain patrilineal connection to Helgi Bjolan as follows: "...Helgi, the son of Ketill Flatnefr, nine-century Norse ruler of the Hebrides, was himself known by the Gaelic nickname of "Bjolan" (Beolain), nicknames being the usual second element in Norse personal names. Nor should we be surprised to find that Helgi Bjolan’s relatives brought Christianity to Iceland in the ninth century. The very survival of Applecross as an abbey on the coast of Viking Ross points to fortuitous Norse patronage. Helgi Bjolan is undoubtedly the namesake of the O’Beolains, since his father was ruler of the Hebrides (Applecross faces these) and his nephew was King of Ross. Beolain is certainly not a typical Gaelic name...
    ...The main line of the co-arbial abbots of Applecross later became vested in the Earldom of Ross under the Normanized Kings..."
    Comment: The source also says, p 36, that Viking royalty married Celtic princesses. (King and Princess also applied to tribes when you go back far enough.) In addition the source refers to an unidentified King of Ross. Most likely he was the deceased son of Helgi's sister Aud the Deep minded, Thorstein the Red, who had for a time conquered Ross and some other parts of Scotland.
    2. Applecross History...Ian MacKenzie, former Director, 1996 (http://imram.oac.ie/sites/default/fi...ROSS%20HISTORY...)
    Includes info on Chief O Beolan, Abbot of Applecross. It was he who was attacked by Vikings per the saga, Google doc. Also gives something of the history of the Abbots from in part oral history. Reeves in his early History of St. Maelrubha was in contact with Applecross tradition, which included O'Beolan at that time, and was familiar with some of the problems with oral history, as was the much later Director MacKenzie. Applecross talk was about O'Beolan at the time of Reeves work in the 18's.
    3. The History of Normandy and of England: I-IV,
    (https://books.google.com/books?id=hI...IAAJ&pg=PA543&...).
    This work favors the idea of Rollo/Rolfe on the line by his daughter Niobjorg.
    4. Gilleoin na h' Airde (https://www.greatclanross.org/htext5.html).
    Mentioned in this and a number of other references is Gilleoin of Aird who lived in the 10th century with ancestry from an old charter.
    They appear to be mostly Celtic ancestors of the female line prior to Gilleoin on the charter by William Earl of Ross. Mackenzie History has the generations beyond Gilleoin as follows: McGilleoin na h'Airde, ic Eirc, ic Loirn, ic Fearchar, Mc Cormac, ic Abertaig, ic Feradaig." The "ic" is for son of or "mhic". Adopting the female line for peerage these would be family names.
    Alexander Mackenzie identifies him as follows: "Gilleon na h'Airde, the 'Beolan' of the Norse Sagas, who lived in the tenth century." Given the same person as King Bjolan (Beolan) of the sagas, b. 886, the time-frames of the ancestors of Gilleoin of Aird of the charter are more loosely defined than thought (http://www.fullbooks.com/History-Of-...ckenzies1.html).
    By the way, Maelrubha went on missionary expeditions to the Isles. I found some similar names. Rubha an Dùnain, a headland near Cuillin hills of the Isle of Skye, is west of Loch na h-Airde. The "Viking Canal" leads from Loch na h-Airde to the coast. Some lochs were significant landmarks to them. And facing on the inner coast of the Isle Lewis of the Outer Hebrides is another headland called Aird, and which in Gaelic is Aird an Rubha (Wikipedia). And Lewis of the Hebrides was later added to the lands of the Earls of Ross.
    Gilleoin na h' Airde is given by Alexander Mackenzie as a common ancestor of the O'Beolan Earls and the local Clan Anrias (Gillanders) of Ross-shire. That might mean the clan Anrias would not be directly related to the O'Beolans on the male hereditary line until before the 1st Earl of Ross. (But I think on the female and children lines it must have been multiple times. Look at all the clans related with different names.)
    Tell us more.
    5. Another fine old book is now online, History of the Outer Hebrides by W.C. MacKenzie, 1903, pp. 13-14. This one tells us Helgi, son of King Ketil Flatnef, was converted to Christianity with some of his family. And it says that Helgi replaced his father Ketil after his death as ruler of the Hebrides. Helgi is said to have met his sister Aud and her son Thorstein in the Hebridis. (What happened to Helgi's holdings in Mann and the Hebrides when he went to Iceland?) Other sources say Aud the Deep-Minded meet Helgi again when she sailed to Iceland.
    Was Helgi Bjolan married to a Scottish Princess of the Irish Royal House of Tara, and with a grown son (and children) - as did his sister, Aud the Deep-minded, a warrior son? Alliances with Noble Viking families were significant occurrences of the time. Aud the Deep-minded had married well the King of Ireland in the new land with a son Thorstein, and his own family, before many of them left for Iceland from the Hebrides.
    6. Concerning Aud the Deep-minded who sailed to Iceland from Scotland, Wikipedia has as follows: "However, it is no longer possible to dismiss these tales of Aud and her father Ketil as unverifiable oral traditions, as this Scottish tradition in Icelandic oral history is of far greater antiquity than the thirteenth century saga age. The National Museum of Iceland contains an impressive collection of somewhat debased penannular brooches and pins of undoubted Celtic provenance from the ninth and tenth centuries which would fit well in the context of the Hebridean Norse–Gael."
    7. This is new, a little complex, but provides more family history from an Irish source: King Beollan mac Ciarmaic.
    Wikipedia under the heading Rollo says the following: "According to the medieval Irish text An Banshenchas and Icelandic sources, another daughter, Cadlinar (Kaðlín; Kathleen) was born in Scotland (probably to a Scots mother) and married an Irish prince named Beollán mac Ciarmaic, later King of South Brega (Lagore). A daughter of Cadlinar and Beollán named Nithbeorg was abducted by an Icelandic Viking named Helgi Ottarsson...and became the mother of the poet Einarr Helgason and grandmother of Guðrún Ósvífrsdóttir (protagonist of the Laxdœla saga)."
    Comment:
    Some tree references to Kadlin/Kathleen have her of Normandy. Rollo's wife of Normandy was Poppa de Bayeux. Kadlin was possibly an older sister of William Longsword, son of Rollo and Poppa de Bayeux of Normandy. Another foreign language place for Rolfe Ganger on Wikipedia gives a birthdate of 890 for Kadline. That sounds like Normandy time-wise. Wikipedia about Rollo has 893 for son William Longsword of Rollo and Poppa de Bayeux in France.
    Note:
    We have a reference to an Irish King Beollan mac Ciarmaic. And we have a Scottish ancestor named Mac Cormac (Cormaic), of the O'Beolan's, of several generations back (note 4 - see also Clan Gillanders, Wikipedia; and 1467manuscript.co.uk, # 14, for a new translation). And we have a Clan Chernaich earlier with the Kings of South Lagore (see note 16).
    8. Most of the names used here are from the Viking source and are a little different from the Irish text, or other references. Transcribed from one of the Viking sagas is the following: "Another son of Ottar was Helgi; he harried Scotland, and took thence captives, Midbjorg, the daughter of Bjolan the King, and Kadlin, the daughter of Gaungu Hrolf or Rolf the Ganger; he married her, and their son was Osvif the Sage, and Einar Skalaglam who was drowned in Einar's Skerry, in Selasund (Sealsound)..." (see link, Connection.)
    9. Viking Pirates and Christian Princes: Dynasty, Religion, and Empire... by Benjamin T. Hudson, PhD, p. 64.
    This new copyrighted, academic source published by Oxford University press is available online. There are two people, Prince Beollan as the son of King Ciarmac of County Meath, Ireland deceased in 969, along with his son.
    Comments: This looks like it could be the next generation for King Ciarmaic, and another generation for Prince Beollan Mac Ciarmac, both after King Bjolan/Beolan of the Viking saga, (b. abt. 886 on tree submissions).
    And in this book Nithbeorg based on the poetic Irish Banshenchas was the daughter of the King of South Brega, of the "treacherous Vikings." That appears to be a reference to Scottish King Bjolan/Beolan of the Viking saga.
    10. King Beollan Mac Ciarmaic is on the lists of the Irish Kings of South Brega (Lagore) on Wikipedia and on other references.
    The Royal family also lived in County Meath in the 7th and 10th century in a Crannog an artificial Island that was quite defensible. A clan of scholars, teachers and priests lived close-by - Clan Chernaich of Loch Gabair (see note 14).
    The next King on the list for Loch Gabhair, who is after King Beollan Ciarmaic, has a personal name of Gilla: "Gilla Mo Chonna mac Fogartach mac Ciarmac (rí Deiscert Breg), died 1013".
    Gilla Mochroma seems to have two sons. A search online shows an abbot in Ireland, Donnchad Mac Gilla Mo Chroma, Abbot of Dunshauglan, died 1027, and his brother Gilla Sechnaill King of South Brega (New History of Ireland..., by T.W. Moody, F.X. Martin, F.J. Byrne, p. 886).
    And speaking of the most ancient house of Tara, Skeene in Celtic Scotland, Vol 3 says the Kingdom of Tarah was an earlier Pictish sovereignty, a major Kingdom. Or by a reference from the Library of Ireland, Tara was an ancient residence of the supreme Kings of Ireland (http://www.libraryireland.com/Social...ientIreland/II...).
    11. An old academic source suggests Beollan is from Bjolan son of Kitell Flatnose. Dr. George Black, born in Stirling 1865, in the Surnames of Scotland says Beollan is from the Gaelic word beul meaning mouth (forebears.io/surnames/beollan). (Another source says little mouth.) Black also identifies two names derived from Beollan in Scotland.
    Comment: Scottish Gaelic translations online of beul add the word beòil for mouth, and a meaning of opening (the beginning of the day, or an entrance to a bay or a loch, note 4, for example.) Or the name Bolan in Irish is said in one place to mean little poet (a verbal reference).
    12. The Irish Annals of the Four Masters, 1103 (Proceedings of the Society of Antiquaries of Scotland, Volume 1, p. 82).
    This Irish text shows Beollan arman (arman meaning Chief or hero) in reference to the daughters of the foreigners. Listed with Beollan are several others of the foreigners...Norse married to local women? And Thornsten, son or Eric, and the name Pol are included.
    Comment: They were still identifying them as from the foreigners, 1103. Like names to these in Scotland are with Aud the Deep-Minded who had a son Thornstein who was born in Ireland, and the name Poil is on the history of Clan Gillander (Wikipedia) before Gilleion na Airde, and Eirc is after him, although who these were living in what is now Dublin needs review. The dates of 1103-4 provided are much later.
    King Kitell Flatnose Bjornsson of the Hebrides had the prestige to arrange marriages for two of his daughters in Ireland. We see possible descendants of Bjornsson's own son Helgi Bjolan (Beollan) in Ireland and others in Scotland.
    14. Names in Irish Annals (http://medievalscotland.org/kmo/Anna...sculine/Beolla...). This has a list of the Beollan names (Index of names in Irish Annals, by Kathleen M. O'Brien, copyrighted). On the list is Beollan Litil. (The word Litil is defined as a Norse nickname for little, see Hudson, 9.) And one name of interest indexed is as follows: "Beollán, mac Ciarmhaic, tigherna Locha Gabhar".
    Comment: Earlier from a Wikipedia list of the Kings of Lagore is found: "Tigernach mac Fócartai, (died 865) (rí Locha Gabor, lethrí Breg)". Does this name Tigerna connect the Beollans with one of the later (not necessarily the earlier) Kings of Lagor (Loch Gabor/Gabhar) and the Clan Cernaich? Thanks for this list - and for the other references from those connecting the Beollans/O'Beollans of various places. Included is Bjorn from Ketill Bjornsson, of the Hebrides and originally from Norway, the first with a name Bjorn that looks something like Bjolan.
    15. Michael O'Clery and others, 1856 (Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland..., Volume 7, p 264).
    This work contains O'Beollain names in the Irish Annals who were hereditary lay priests, most of them coarbs of Drumcliff, County Sligo, Ireland:
    (https://books.google.com/books?id=96...MAAJ&pg=PA264&...).
    This 1856 book records that Murchadh O'Beollain, airchinneach of Drumcliff, died in 1053 (in Sligo, Ireland). (Airchinneach means hereditary steward of church lands.) Ua Beollain O'Beollain, coarb of Drumcliff, died 1374, has an alternate name of O'Boland. This source in the main text gives a rare glimpse of their personalities as of hospitable and excellent reputations.
    Some depictions of Clan Bolan of Ireland have the clan from County Sligo, of the Gaelic name O'Beollain, from a Norwegian who came to Ireland long ago. The name "Scottish Ó Beólláin" is also found as an old spelling with Fearchar Earl of Ross (Wikipedia). And Cairney [Connection I] uses O’Beolain for the Scottish Abbots, and alternate Beolain for Bjolan. [note 1]
    16. Clan Cernaich:
    And found on the the lists of the Irish Kings of Loch Gabhor much before King Beollan Carmaic is as follows: "mac Cernach Sotal (a quo Clan Chernach Sotal)" He is of about the 7th century. Clan Chernach is identified. Or Clan Cernaich (Kingdom of Midhe The Middle Kingdom, rootsweb): "Clan Cernaich Sottail appear to have been early kings of Loch Gabor, in Deisceart Breagh."
    Inquiry: Does this mean the later Kings of Loch Gabor were not direct but indirect descendants of the first? Was this clan still active?
    Meaning of - a quo clan sotal - online sotal means scholar or teacher. Clan Chernach - of the scholar/teachers - clergy were scholars and teachers of that time; Or Sotal in Gaelic is the proud or arrogant. And "a quo" is a legal term meaning from which, or following from - Cernach from which the Clan Chernach was formed?

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     Amerijoe (01-11-2018),  angscoire (01-11-2018),  Robert1 (01-11-2018),  sktibo (01-31-2018),  uintah106 (01-28-2018)

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    https://www.familytreedna.com/public...x?section=ymap

    See above for Ross DNA Project results . The majority of Ross males who have tested are R1b-L21 , including in the old Ross clan heartland . I doubt that they are Viking down the male line as L21 is normally associated with Celts , although it's existence in the Isles long pre-dates what we we now identify as 'Celtic culture'. There are some scattered Ross R1a and R1b-U106 types , and these are far more likely to be associated with Germanic settlers , such as Vikings or Angles . I should also say that I too have Ross ancestors (not down the male line) who hailed from the eastern edge of the Cairngorns in Aberdeenshire .
    Last edited by angscoire; 01-11-2018 at 07:52 PM.

    YDNA likely journey simplified : Battle Axe Culture > Nordic Bronze Age > Scandinavian Iron Age > Norsemen > Scots > probably Somerled

    Ancestry: English, Scottish & Irish

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    Quote Originally Posted by angscoire View Post
    https://www.familytreedna.com/public...x?section=ymap

    See above for Ross DNA Project results . The majority of Ross males who have tested are R1b-L21 , including in the old Ross clan heartland . I doubt that they are Viking down the male line as L21 is normally associated with Celts , although it's existence in the Isles long pre-dates what we we now identify as 'Celtic culture'. There are some scattered Ross R1a and R1b-U106 types , and these are far more likely to be associated with Germanic settlers , such as Vikings or Angles . I should also say that I too have Ross ancestors (not down the male line) who hailed from the eastern edge of the Cairngorns in Aberdeenshire .
    The Rosses from Norman settlers in Scotland are R-L21. These came much later in the 12th Century.

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    I the FDNA I-L38 project we also have some Ross-samples, and I just finished a paper on the "Vikings" of I-L38: https://sites.google.com/site/haplog...ngs-of-i-l38Ps
    Ps: the I-L38 Ross sample belong to the S27697+ subbranch of I-L38.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bradly88 View Post
    The Rosses from Norman settlers in Scotland are R-L21. These came much later in the 12th Century.
    If some of these L21's have reliable paper trails going back to the 12th century or thereabouts then that would be of help . They would also have to be thoroughly tested through the Big Y to tease out subclades and then we could discuss dates . Then we could try and match the DNA to clan history , such as Clan Donald have done :

    https://www.clandonaldusa.org/index....ct/85-dna-bigy

    I don't know , maybe this has already been done with Clan Ross. It is usually extremely tough to get to a point where one can say that DNA matches the history from a millennia ago . Not trying to burst your bubble you understand! I'm just urging caution as an alleged 'Somerled descendant' .
    Last edited by angscoire; 01-11-2018 at 09:23 PM.

    YDNA likely journey simplified : Battle Axe Culture > Nordic Bronze Age > Scandinavian Iron Age > Norsemen > Scots > probably Somerled

    Ancestry: English, Scottish & Irish

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    What branch of U106 are the Ross U106'ers

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    R1b-Z18

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    This probably isn't too useful but my father is descended from a Ross man who came from Scotland - Easter-Ross - to Canada in the early 1800's. This individual was my father's 3rd Great-Grandfather. What is strange is that my father often gets what I consider to be unusually high Scandinavian percentages on DNA tests and tools, for someone with no Scandinavian connections except a 4th G-Grandparent from Orkney. We're still dealing with small numbers here for the Ross ancestors, but they are significant players in the genetic genealogy for my family. We seem to have more DNA relatives from this connection than any other, meaning that we have almost certainly inherited genes from this line. While I'm sure this might not be the only source for Scandinavian percentages appearing on my father's tests, it may definitely be one of the contributors. He does not even have any German or Dutch ancestry, so it must be coming from his British sources. The recent Irish DNA Atlas results indicate Scandinavian admixture in all parts of Ireland, so I suppose it isn't too far of a stretch to assume that this could be the case in Ross-Shire as well.

    As (another?) descendant of the Rosses of Ross-Shire, I thank you for this post. Very interesting!
    Paper trail ancestry to the best of my knowledge:
    English (possibly containing some Welsh ancestry) 31.25%, Scottish 17.96%, Scotch-Irish 12.5%, Eastern German 12.5%, Eastern European (Likely Polish possibly including Romanian) 12.5%, French 7.81%, Native American (Saulteaux and Assiniboine) 2.34%, and Colonial American, 3.125%, which cannot be traced with certainty. With certainty, there is Dutch (at least 1.36%) and some English.

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    Thank-you for your research into the history of the Ross clan. I have recently found that I am a direct male descendant of Farquhar MacTaggart Earl of Ross via Rev George Aeneas Ross 5th Laird of Balblair and living in the U.S. I have never had any DNA testing performed and I am interested if you have any recommendations when it comes to getting tested.

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    I have a female, Elizabeth of Rossyth Stewart 1420-1474, married to a Bruce line on my maternal side (assuming I'm even connected, ha ha). I have not expanded on researching her as I want to conserve space in my main tree. But now I am building a companion tree on my maternal side. So I'll probably poke deeper into her line. If she is of the royal Stewarts, then it is rather timely, as I just finished a book about Charles I of England who lost his head to Cromwell's Puritan army.
    Last edited by Baltimore1937; 03-11-2018 at 04:40 AM.

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