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Thread: Mesopotamian Archaeology and Related News

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    Mesopotamian Archaeology and Related News

    A thread for the discussion of Mesopotamian archaeology.

    To begin, I would like to post the abstract of a paper I recently came across:

    Chemical and Mineralogical Approaches to the Organization of Late Bronze Age Nuzi Ware Production

    Nathaniel Erb-Satullo

    Erb-Satullo, N. L., A. J. Shortland and K. Eremin. 2011. Chemical and Mineralogical Approaches to the Organization of Late Bronze Age Nuzi Ware Production. Archaeometry 53(6):1171-1192.

    In order to investigate the nature and organization of high-status ceramic production in the Late Bronze Age, samples of Nuzi Ware from four different sites were analysed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM–EDS) and inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP–AES). Chemical and mineralogical evidence suggests that Nuzi Ware was produced in at least two distinct regions, one probably in the Adhaim Basin in northern Iraq and another possibly in the Orontes catchment in southeastern Turkey. The existence of individual production units probably developed in response to the local elites’ desire to imitate the tastes of the Mitanni aristocracy, resulting in a mapping of political relationships on to material culture.

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    Nebuchadnezzar IV

    Did not know this before today.

    Wikipedia

    In 522 BC, with the disturbances that occurred after the death of Cambyses II and the proclamation of Bardiya as King, the Armenians revolted. Darius I of Persia sent an Armenian named Dâdarši to suffocate the revolt, later substituting him for the Persian Vaumisa who defeated the Armenians on May 20, 521 BC. Around the same time, another Armenian named Arakha ('Arakha' meaning 'crown prince' in Armenian), son of Haldita, claimed to be the son of the previous king of Babylon, Nabonidus, and renamed himself Nebuchadnezzar IV. His rebellion was short-lived and was suppressed by Intaphrenes, Darius's bow carrier.

    Statue of Nebuchadnezzar IV


    The Nebuchadnezzar that most folks are familiar with is Nebuchadnezzar II.

    See here for the Wikipedia article on Nabonidus.

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    Mystery of the missing Hanging Gardens of Babylon solved?

    Link to full article: Mystery of the missing Hanging Gardens of Babylon solved? Expert claims to have found the elusive wonder of the world

    [Bold by me]

    Hanging Gardens of Babylon are one of the Seven Wonders of the World
    They were 80ft high and featured elaborate terraces and floating plants
    Ancient texts claim they were built in the Iraqi city of Babylon in 600BC
    This lead many to believe Babylonian Emperor Nebuchadnezzar built them
    Yet closer analysis suggests they were built 350 miles [to the north] in the Assyrian capital of Nineveh by King Sennacherib
    By Victoria Woollaston

    PUBLISHED: 09:52 EST, 26 November 2013 | UPDATED: 12:10 EST, 26 November 2013
    Last edited by Humanist; 11-26-2013 at 08:38 PM.

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    Past Horizons covers the story: http://www.pasthorizonspr.com/index....garden-babylon

    I just watched the television programme this news story is based on. I was fascinated. There is a book, if anyone wants to know more: http://www.amazon.co.uk/The-Mystery-.../dp/0199662266

    The Mystery of the Hanging Garden of Babylon is an exciting story of detection involving legends, expert decipherment of ancient texts, and a vivid description of a little-known civilization. Recognised in ancient times as one of the Seven Wonders of the World, the legendary Hanging Garden of Babylon and its location still remains a mystery steeped in shadow and puzzling myths.

    In this remarkable volume Stephanie Dalley, a world expert on ancient Babylonian language, gathers for the first time all the material on this enigmatic World Wonder. Tracing the history of the Garden, Dalley describes how the decipherment of an original text and its link to sculpture in the British Museum has enabled her to pin down where the Garden was positioned and to describe in detail what it may have looked like. Through this dramatic and fascinating reconstruction of the Garden, Dalley is also able to follow its influence on later garden design.

    Like a palimpsest, Dalley unscrambles the many legends that have built up around the Garden, including the parts played by Semiramis and Nebuchadnezzar, and following the evolution of its design, she shows why this Garden deserves its place alongside the Pyramids and the Colossus of Rhodes as one of the most astonishing technical achievements of the ancient world.
    Last edited by Jean M; 11-26-2013 at 09:54 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Jean M View Post
    I just watched the television programme this news story is based on. I was fascinated.
    Is it the one below? Blocked in my area (United States?), unfortunately.


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    Yes that is the one. I would have put in a link if I thought everyone would be able to view it.

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    "An Assyrian View on the Medes"

    Came across an interesting bit in a paper by the Assyriologist, Karen Radner.


    An Assyrian View on the Medes. In G. B. Lanfranchi, M. Roaf & R. Rollinger (ed.), Continuity of Empire: Assyria, Media, Persia. History of the Ancient Near East Monographs 5 (Padova 2003) 37-64.


    In respect to the early history of the Medes, the inscription of the Kalhu stela is important for several reasons. First of all, Hanasiruka is the first known individual to be called a Mede by the Assyrians; his name is not of Indo-European origin and currently cannot be safely attributed to any known language.

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    "Integration and interpretation of architectural and faunal evidence from...Tušhan"

    Integration and interpretation of architectural and faunal evidence from Assyrian Tushan, Turkey

    Tina Greenfield, Dirk Wicke, Timothy Matney
    Bioarchaeology of the Near East, 7:xx–xx (2013)

    [T]he analysis of the faunal remains yields some initial insights into the Assyrian diet. Caprines (sheep and goat) provided more than 54% of the total remains from the palace, while cattle remains were far fewer (20.9%) and pigs although of greater importance in the Late Assyrian period (14.7%) than previously, are still a minor component of the diet (Jongsma-Greenfield & Greenfield 2013).



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    Judean "Enslavement" Under The Babylonians

    Wikipedia

    Around the 6th century BCE, the Neo-Babylonian Empire conquered the ancient Kingdom of Judah, destroying much of Jerusalem and exiling its population far to the East in Babylon. During the Babylonian captivity, many Israelites were enslaved within the Babylonian Empire and learned the closely related Semitic language of their captors, Aramaic. The Babylonians had taken mainly the governing classes of Israel while leaving behind presumably more-compliant farmers and laborers to work the land.[citation needed] Thus for a significant period, the Jewish elite became influenced by Aramaic.[18]

    Compare with some recent scholarly work on the subject:

    Slavery between Judah and Babylon: The Exilic Experience

    F. RACHEL MAGDALENE, UNIVERSITÄT LEIPZIG; AND CORNELIA WUNSCH, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON

    In: L. Culbertson (ed.), Slaves and Household in the Near East (Oriental Institute Seminars, vol. 7) Chicago, Illinois: The Oriental Institute of the University of Chicago 2011, pp. 113–134."

    [T]he [Judean] exiles in rural Babylonia seem to possess none of the normal attributes of those in chattel slavery. From our brief study of these texts, we have learned that these Judeans were treated much like Babylonians and other non-Judean deported communities. They were given land with the same expectation of taxes and service as common Babylonians. Many integrated well into Neo-Babylonian society, and some were able to prosper in rural Babylonia, becoming affluent farmers, businessmen, and local officials, who might own their own chattel slaves of diverse ethnic backgrounds. All, in fact, were assigned a status that afforded them protection from being sold into chattel slavery. In sum, they apparently used the social, economic, legal, and political systems in place to advance themselves in the situation in which they found themselves. Over four generations, these Judeans became much like those Babylonians who were not from the most privileged urban families.

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    Actually the name 'Hanasiruka' resembles to much personal names of the Kassites!

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