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Thread: Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain

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    Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain

    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/02/18/267443

    Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain

    Selina Brace, Yoan Diekmann, Thomas J. Booth, Zuzana Faltyskova, Nadin Rohland, Swapan Mallick, Matthew Ferry, Megan Michel, Jonas Oppenheimer, Nasreen Broomandkhoshbacht, Kristin Stewardson, Susan Walsh, Manfred Kayser, Rick Schulting, Oliver E Craig, Alison Sheridan, Mike Parker Pearson, Chris Stringer, David Reich, Mark G Thomas, Ian Barnes

    doi: https://doi.org/10.1101/267443

    Abstract

    The roles of migration, admixture and acculturation in the European transition to farming have been debated for over 100 years. Genome-wide ancient DNA studies indicate predominantly Anatolian ancestry for continental Neolithic farmers, but also variable admixture with local Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Neolithic cultures first appear in Britain c. 6000 years ago (kBP), a millennium after they appear in adjacent areas of northwestern continental Europe. However, the pattern and process of the British Neolithic transition remains unclear. We assembled genome-wide data from six Mesolithic and 67 Neolithic individuals found in Britain, dating from 10.5-4.5 kBP, a dataset that includes 22 newly reported individuals and the first genomic data from British Mesolithic hunter-gatherers. Our analyses reveals persistent genetic affinities between Mesolithic British and Western European hunter-gatherers over a period spanning Britain's separation from continental Europe. We find overwhelming support for agriculture being introduced by incoming continental farmers, with small and geographically structured levels of additional hunter-gatherer introgression. We find genetic affinity between British and Iberian Neolithic populations indicating that British Neolithic people derived much of their ancestry from Anatolian farmers who originally followed the Mediterranean route of dispersal and likely entered Britain from northwestern mainland Europe.

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    Where are the Y-haplogroups listed in this preprint?

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    Quote Originally Posted by Generalissimo View Post
    Where are the Y-haplogroups listed in this preprint?
    I couldn't find them. Supplementary table S1 has mtDNAs(for example Cheddar man's mtDNA is U5b1), but no Y-chromosomes.

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    Since Cheddar Man's pigmentation has dominated the topic around this paper, from the supplement (Supplementary Material):

    "Loschbour (Luxembourg, Mesolithic) -
    Eye Colour - Final prediction: Intermediate (blue/green) eye colour;
    Hair Colour - Final Prediction: Black/Dark Brown hair colour;
    Skin Pigmentation - Final prediction: Intermediate skin - Explanation: The highest probability of approximately 0.9 for intermediate indicates a light skinned (white) individual. He would not have the darkest possible skin pigmentation but does have tanning ability, so could be perceived as darker than white (pale) in the summer months."

    So Loschbour was light skinned, according to the modeling used to predict La Brana and Cheddar have dark skin. If correct would mean WHG were heterogenous for skin colour for some reason?

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    Probably reading this wrong but one of the Scottish Neolithic mtDNA seems to be B4a...

    Raschoille_4 I5370 (56.414567, -5.469178) 4000-3300 BC NA Early_Neolithic 0.00320x 0.65562x 0.98 [0.63, 1.0] B4a1 XX

    From Supplementary table 1
    Last edited by Bas; 02-19-2018 at 01:25 AM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by rozenfeld View Post
    https://www.biorxiv.org/content/early/2018/02/18/267443

    Population Replacement in Early Neolithic Britain

    We find overwhelming support for agriculture being introduced by incoming continental farmers, with small and geographically structured levels of additional hunter-gatherer introgression. We find genetic affinity between British and Iberian Neolithic populations indicating that British Neolithic people derived much of their ancestry from Anatolian farmers who originally followed the Mediterranean route of dispersal and likely entered Britain from northwestern mainland Europe.
    I find this comment quite sensical, it might even have taken several generations or perhaps centuries with local mixing along the way.

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    Quote Originally Posted by rozenfeld View Post
    . . . We find overwhelming support for agriculture being introduced by incoming continental farmers, with small and geographically structured levels of additional hunter-gatherer introgression. We find genetic affinity between British and Iberian Neolithic populations indicating that British Neolithic people derived much of their ancestry from Anatolian farmers who originally followed the Mediterranean route of dispersal and likely entered Britain from northwestern mainland Europe.
    The only problem with British Neolithic people deriving much of their ancestry from Anatolian farmers is the y-dna of the remains of male British Neolithic farmers from the recent Olalde et al paper. It was all I2a.

    If British Neolithic farmers were of Anatolian derivation, shouldn't at least some of them have been G2a?

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    No haplogroups besides Cheddar Man's mtDNA reported in this paper? Seriously?

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    Quote Originally Posted by J Man View Post
    No haplogroups besides Cheddar Man's mtDNA reported in this paper? Seriously?
    mtDNA is listed for all samples in supplementary table S1.

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    A quick takeaway from the 6 British Mesolithic individuals:

    -All prefer Loschbour over KO1, WHG over EHG,SHG and El_Miron, in that order of preference

    -Cnog Coig is closer to the above-mentioned HGs

    -Adding to this, Cnog Coig already seems like a bit of an outlier being the only Mesolithic that does not strongly prefer Loschbour over KO_1, (Z=2) compared to Z=8 for the others. This sample is also the only sample that is not mtDNA U5, being V/HV instead. Cnog Coig lived close to or overlapped the start of the British Neolithic, so possible partial farmer ancestry maybe?

    -Cheddar Man and Ogof Yr Ychen 1 are the only Brit Mesos that prefer Iberia_EN over Central_Euro_EN

    -The British Mesos don't seem to show a strong preference for Cheddar Man over Loschbour. Two of them are even showing slight preference for Loschbour (Z=1+2). The England_EN samples do show a strong preference for Cheddar Man. Wales_EN, slight preference for CM and Scotland_EN, slight preference for Loschbour.

    -Their admixture analysis shows 3 of the 6 British Mesos with 2-5% anatolia neolithic admixture. This can't be literal and must be something else, surely. The other 3 are fully HG.



    And again, the strange mtDNA B4a in one of the Neolithic individuals are some of the highlights I could find. It is a pre-print after all, so some of this might be corrected.

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