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Thread: Haplogroup L in the Iberian Peninsula

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    Haplogroup L in the Iberian Peninsula

    I am just reposting here some tables I posted in other threads as I think it is the first time we have a clear picture of mtDna L in the Iberian Peninsula based on rather large samples from all regions.

    1) Spain

    In July 2016, Ruth Barral-Arca et al, "Meta-Analysis of Mitochondrial DNA Variation in the Iberian Peninsula" reported the below frequencies for Spain (S1/S2 Tables) :



    And as we can see, if we exclude small samples, Galicia has the highest frequency of mtDna L at about 3% (16/548). If we consider that in that region, mtDna L comes from Berbers and is not linked to Slave Trade, it could mean, as Berbers have about 20% mtDna L, a NW African maternal contribution of about 15%. Note that if Berbers of the Middle Ages did not have such high frequency of L than modern Berbers it could mean an even more important contribution.


    2) Portugal

    For Continental Portugal, Ruth Barral-Arca et al reported an average of sub-Saharan mtDNA L lineages at 6.2% (88/1429).

    But contrary to Spain, very likely some L are linked to Slave Trade.

    Here is another table showing frequencies for mtDna L found (as well North African U6) in all Portuguese samples tested so far by different studies for different regions :


    Source:wikipedia

    The mean frequency for mtDna L, typical for sub-Saharan populations (but also found on average at 20% in North Africans), reaches 6-7% in Portugal. Increasing frequencies are observed for northern Portugal (3.2%) through the center (7%) and to the south (12.5%, similar to Madeira). Azores frequency is similar to North Portugal.

    Highest mtDna L frequency ever reported in Europe was found in South Portugal at 22% in Alcacer do Sal by Pereira et al 2010, Genetic Characterization of Uniparental Lineages in Populations from Southwest Iberia with Past Malaria Endemicity in a sample of 50 non related individuals (11 different sequences : L1b1, L1c2, L2a, L2a1, L2a1a, L2b, L3d, L3d, L3e1a, L3e2, L3e2b). Here what the author writes about it :

    "In Alcacer do Sal, the frequency of sub-Saharan mtDNA L lineages was the highest ever reported (22%) in Europe...The presence of Sub-Saharan maternal lineages in Alcacer do Sal is likely associated with the influx of African slaves between the 15th and 19th centuries"

    "As for Alcacer do Sal, the exceptionally high frequency of L lineages (22%), two times greater than the frequency usually found in Portugal, is interesting... "

    "Overall, the frequency of the sub-Saharan L types in Portugal is very high for the European context. Previous studies addressing this issue (Pereira et al., 2000) clearly demonstrated that this feature of the Portuguese maternal gene pool denotes the influx of African lineages that occurred during the Atlantic slave trade, a major modern human migration that lasted from the mid-15th century until the late-18th century. During this period, many enslaved Africans were brought to Portugal where, mainly in the south, they eventually composed more than 10% of the population (Lahon, 1999; Thomas, 1998)."

    "In Alcacer do Sal, the remarkable sub-Saharan component denotes the demographic impact of African people whose presence in the region gained significance with the onset of the slave trade in the 15th century. By the 16th century, the whole Sado Basin, where Alcacer do Sal is located, had experienced an important African immigration as a way to compensate for the demographic deficit that accompanied the Portuguese Overseas Expansion. Later, in the 18th century, a new wave of slaves was recruited to Alcacer do Sal to work in salt production and rice cultivation, two important economic activities in the region (Cruz et al., 2001). Both activities are highly demanding in terms of need for labor and were carried out under an environment of endemic malaria that was eradicated only during middle 20th century. Hence, the immigration of African people into Alcacer do Sal might have intensified not only because of the demand for work but also because of their increased resistance to malarial infection; this intensification would explain why Alcacer do Sal has retained stronger signs of the forced African emigration than is observed elsewhere in Portugal. The African influence shapes the maternal and paternal pools of Alcacer do Sal differentially; this fact is widely documented in admixture events between Europeans and Africans. When such events involve the incorporation of African lineages in a prevailing European background, usually the maternal pool retains stronger signs of the assimilation of African lineages, as was indeed observed in Alcacer do Sal."


    So very likely many of these L lineages were introduced in Portugal by Slave Trade and some by the Moors.
    Last edited by E_M81_I3A; 03-15-2018 at 09:56 PM.
    Global 25 Ancient Scaled: Anatolia_N 54.4, EHG 19.2, Morocco_Iberomaurusian 10, Iran_N 8.2, Yoruba 4.8, WHG 3.4
    Global 25 Scaled Closest Individuals (Moderns and Ancients): Iberia_Southeast_c.10-16CE:I7425 3.29%, Iberia_Southeast_c.10-16CE:I8146 3.93%, Lebanon_Medieval_Mixed:SI-41 3.97%

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    And just to add a large sample (n=750) from Andalucia from a study by Hernandez et al. 2015 that was not reported by Ruth Barral-Arca et 2016.

    So for Andalucia it gives now a frequency of mtDna L =52/2003 = 2.60 % based on a BIG sample.

    Although the absolute value of observed L frequency is low, it reveals a considerable North West African female contribution, if we keep in mind that haplogroup L is found at moderate frequency in North West Africa itself and virtually absent in the rest of Europe. Indeed, because the frequency in North West Africa is about 20% the estimated minimum input is 13% in Andalucia (minimum because as said previously Berbers of the Middle Ages very likely had less L than Modern Berbers as it increased during Islamic Slave Trade).

    Also worth to mention that the vast majority of these L sequences are very unlikely to be prehistoric because so far only one L has been found out of more than 300 ancient samples from Iberia (0.3%). See for example The maternal genetic make-up of the Iberian Peninsula between the Neolithic and the Early Bronze Age (2017). : "The present study, based on 213 new and 125 published mtDNA data of prehistoric Iberian individuals...". Only one L (and no U6...) out of more than 300.
    Last edited by E_M81_I3A; 03-18-2018 at 10:22 AM.
    Global 25 Ancient Scaled: Anatolia_N 54.4, EHG 19.2, Morocco_Iberomaurusian 10, Iran_N 8.2, Yoruba 4.8, WHG 3.4
    Global 25 Scaled Closest Individuals (Moderns and Ancients): Iberia_Southeast_c.10-16CE:I7425 3.29%, Iberia_Southeast_c.10-16CE:I8146 3.93%, Lebanon_Medieval_Mixed:SI-41 3.97%

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    Spain
    In Iberia we know it's of NW Africa origin (mostly) but how would you explain the presence of mtDNA L in other parts of Europe (except for South Italy) ?


    Slovaks n = 2/207 0.97% Malyarchuk et al.2006

    Czechs n = 1/279 0.36% Malyarchuk et al., 2008

    German-Danish n = 1/161 0.62% Richards et al. 1996
    Germany n = 1/335 0.30% Achilli et al 2007
    Germany n = 4/333 1.20% Pliss et al. 2005

    Albania n = 1/42 2.38% Belledi et al. 2000
    Bosnia n=1/144 0.70% Achilli et al 2007
    Bulgaria n=1/141 0.71% Achilli et al 2007
    Balkans n= 1/556 0.18% Regueiro et al. 2012 + King et al. 2011


    Poland n = 1/542 0.20% Achilli et al 2007
    Poland n = 1/436 0.22% Malyarchuk et al., 2002
    Poles n = 1/849 0.12% Malyarchuk et al., 2008


    British n=1/100 1.00% Piercy et al. 1993
    England n = 2/335 0.60% Achilli et al 2007
    England n = 1/142 0.70% Helgason et al., 2001
    Great Britain n = 1/114 0.90 % García et al. 2011
    Scotland n = 1/891 0.10 % García et al. 2011


    Finnish n = 1/50 2.00% Sajantila et al. 1995
    Finland n = 1/121 0.83% Achilli et al 2007
    Finns n = 3/580 0.52% Pliss et al. 2005


    Norway n = 1/74 1.40% Passarino et al 2002
    Norwegians n = 2/397 0.50% Pliss et al. 2005


    Russia n = 2/683 0.29% Malyarchuk et al. 2008


    France n = 1/332 0.30% Achilli et al 2007
    France n = 5/692 0.72% Richards et al. 2007
    France n = 3/433 0.69% García et al. 2011
    France n = 2/320 0.63% Pliss et al. 2005
    France 1.40% Gónzalez et al. 2003


    Switzerland n=1/228 0.44% Achilli et al 2007


    Crete, Greece n= 2/202 0.99% Achilli et al 2007


    Italy n = 8/411 1.94% Plaza et al. 2003, Romano et al. 2003

    NW Italy n = 100 2.00% Brisighelli et al. 2012

    Sardinian n = 2/69 2.90% Di Rienzo and Wilson 1991
    Sardinia n =2/370 0.54% Achilli et al 2007

    Sicily n= 1/106 0.94% Cali et al. 2001
    Sicily n = 2/105 1.90% Achilli et al 2007
    Sicily n = 3/465 0.65% Plaza et al. 2003, Romano et al. 2003
    South Italy n = 2/313 0.64% Boattini et al. 2013 + Stefania Sarno et al. 2014

    Tuscany n= 6/322 1.86% Achilli et al 2007
    Marche (Italy) n=8/813 0.98% Achilli et al 2007
    Latium(Italy) n=4/138 2.90% Achilli et al 2007
    Murlo (Italy) n = 1/86 1.16% Achilli et al 2007
    Volterra (Italy) n = 3/114 2.63% Achilli et al 2007
    Casentino (Italy) n = 2/122 1.64% Achilli et al 2007
    Campania n = 3/313 0.32% Achilli et al 2007

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    Quote Originally Posted by sweuro View Post
    In Iberia we know it's of NW Africa origin (mostly) but how would you explain the presence of mtDNA L in other parts of Europe (except for South Italy)?
    You would need to evaluate the full sequnce results for each sample to see if it might indicate a recent or more ancient migration from Africa.

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    Australia Italy Veneto Friuli Italy Trentino Alto Adige Austria Tirol Australia Eureka
    my first cousin mtdna R0 matches heavily with a female on Gedmatch who is L2a5 mtdna


    L2a5 person results below
    K13 Oracle ref data revised 21 Nov 2013

    Admix Results (sorted):

    # Population Percent
    1 North_Atlantic 30.11
    2 West_Med 22.27
    3 East_Med 17.49
    4 Baltic 8.27
    5 West_Asian 7.67
    6 Red_Sea 6.14
    7 Northeast_African 3.90
    8 Sub-Saharan 2.40
    9 South_Asian 1.34


    Finished reading population data. 204 populations found.
    13 components mode.

    --------------------------------

    Least-squares method.

    Using 1 population approximation:
    1 North_Italian @ 8.084217
    2 Tuscan @ 9.477249
    3 Spanish_Extremadura @ 11.645799
    4 Portuguese @ 12.069461
    5 Spanish_Galicia @ 13.270027
    6 Spanish_Murcia @ 13.291708
    7 Spanish_Andalucia @ 13.476062
    8 Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 14.383817
    9 Spanish_Valencia @ 14.963557
    10 West_Sicilian @ 15.108747
    11 Spanish_Cataluna @ 15.203463
    12 Spanish_Castilla_La_Mancha @ 15.273188
    13 Italian_Abruzzo @ 15.578332
    14 Greek_Thessaly @ 17.148172
    15 Spanish_Cantabria @ 17.661657
    16 French @ 18.397268
    17 Spanish_Aragon @ 18.650606
    18 Romanian @ 19.329809
    19 East_Sicilian @ 19.755785
    20 Bulgarian @ 20.044807

    Using 2 populations approximation:
    1 50% Italian_Abruzzo +50% Spanish_Galicia @ 5.199593


    Using 3 populations approximation:
    1 50% Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon +25% Spanish_Galicia +25% Syrian @ 2.986956

    Is L2a5 common in spain/iberia?


    my cousin R0 mtdna results below
    K13 Oracle ref data revised 21 Nov 2013

    Admix Results (sorted):

    # Population Percent
    1 North_Atlantic 32.54
    2 West_Med 23.09
    3 East_Med 22.28
    4 Baltic 13.62
    5 West_Asian 5.44
    6 Red_Sea 1.92


    Finished reading population data. 204 populations found.
    13 components mode.

    --------------------------------

    Least-squares method.

    Using 1 population approximation:
    1 North_Italian @ 4.618108
    2 Tuscan @ 8.044857
    3 Portuguese @ 11.483897
    4 Spanish_Extremadura @ 12.231057
    5 Spanish_Murcia @ 12.656609
    6 Spanish_Valencia @ 12.809158
    7 Spanish_Cataluna @ 13.374216
    8 Spanish_Galicia @ 13.377862
    9 Spanish_Andalucia @ 13.398174
    10 Spanish_Castilla_Y_Leon @ 13.869735
    11 Spanish_Castilla_La_Mancha @ 15.124769
    12 West_Sicilian @ 15.771432
    13 Greek_Thessaly @ 15.829866
    14 Italian_Abruzzo @ 16.340574
    15 Romanian @ 16.555750
    16 French @ 16.558861
    17 Spanish_Cantabria @ 17.015686
    18 Bulgarian @ 17.291128
    19 Spanish_Aragon @ 17.980345
    20 Serbian @ 18.172825

    Using 2 populations approximation:
    1 50% Greek_Thessaly +50% Spanish_Valencia @ 4.163081


    Using 3 populations approximation:
    1 50% Ashkenazi +25% French_Basque +25% West_German @ 3.803848
    Last edited by vettor; 04-20-2018 at 10:36 PM.


    My Path = ( K-M9+, TL-P326+, T-M184+, L490+, M70+, PF5664+, L131+, L446+, CTS933+, CTS3767+, CTS8862+, Z19945+, Y70078+ )

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    Quote Originally Posted by sweuro View Post
    In Iberia we know it's of NW Africa origin (mostly) but how would you explain the presence of mtDNA L in other parts of Europe (except for South Italy) ?


    Slovaks n = 2/207 0.97% Malyarchuk et al.2006

    Czechs n = 1/279 0.36% Malyarchuk et al., 2008

    German-Danish n = 1/161 0.62% Richards et al. 1996
    Germany n = 1/335 0.30% Achilli et al 2007
    Germany n = 4/333 1.20% Pliss et al. 2005

    Albania n = 1/42 2.38% Belledi et al. 2000
    Bosnia n=1/144 0.70% Achilli et al 2007
    Bulgaria n=1/141 0.71% Achilli et al 2007
    Balkans n= 1/556 0.18% Regueiro et al. 2012 + King et al. 2011


    Poland n = 1/542 0.20% Achilli et al 2007
    Poland n = 1/436 0.22% Malyarchuk et al., 2002
    Poles n = 1/849 0.12% Malyarchuk et al., 2008


    British n=1/100 1.00% Piercy et al. 1993
    England n = 2/335 0.60% Achilli et al 2007
    England n = 1/142 0.70% Helgason et al., 2001
    Great Britain n = 1/114 0.90 % García et al. 2011
    Scotland n = 1/891 0.10 % García et al. 2011


    Finnish n = 1/50 2.00% Sajantila et al. 1995
    Finland n = 1/121 0.83% Achilli et al 2007
    Finns n = 3/580 0.52% Pliss et al. 2005


    Norway n = 1/74 1.40% Passarino et al 2002
    Norwegians n = 2/397 0.50% Pliss et al. 2005


    Russia n = 2/683 0.29% Malyarchuk et al. 2008


    France n = 1/332 0.30% Achilli et al 2007
    France n = 5/692 0.72% Richards et al. 2007
    France n = 3/433 0.69% García et al. 2011
    France n = 2/320 0.63% Pliss et al. 2005
    France 1.40% Gónzalez et al. 2003


    Switzerland n=1/228 0.44% Achilli et al 2007


    Crete, Greece n= 2/202 0.99% Achilli et al 2007


    Italy n = 8/411 1.94% Plaza et al. 2003, Romano et al. 2003

    NW Italy n = 100 2.00% Brisighelli et al. 2012

    Sardinian n = 2/69 2.90% Di Rienzo and Wilson 1991
    Sardinia n =2/370 0.54% Achilli et al 2007

    Sicily n= 1/106 0.94% Cali et al. 2001
    Sicily n = 2/105 1.90% Achilli et al 2007
    Sicily n = 3/465 0.65% Plaza et al. 2003, Romano et al. 2003
    South Italy n = 2/313 0.64% Boattini et al. 2013 + Stefania Sarno et al. 2014

    Tuscany n= 6/322 1.86% Achilli et al 2007
    Marche (Italy) n=8/813 0.98% Achilli et al 2007
    Latium(Italy) n=4/138 2.90% Achilli et al 2007
    Murlo (Italy) n = 1/86 1.16% Achilli et al 2007
    Volterra (Italy) n = 3/114 2.63% Achilli et al 2007
    Casentino (Italy) n = 2/122 1.64% Achilli et al 2007
    Campania n = 3/313 0.32% Achilli et al 2007
    except of Italy, the overall percentages are bellow 1%, so you can assume it is of prehistoric origin

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