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    My current list of U106+ samples in aDNA samples

    Hello all,

    I figured I'd share what info I have gathered on all the U106+ samples I have found in the recent aDNA papers. I have tried to collect some additional info where I can on the same cemeteries from other papers. Let me know if I have missed any, and I have tried to include as much info about the SNPs as I can.


    Medieval Bavarian samples from this paper: Population genomic analysis of elongated skulls reveals extensive female-biased immigration in Early Medieval Bavaria:

    AED (Altenerding-Klettham cemetery) 106: U106+ (possibly based on BAM analysis kit run by several people and Yleaf for the Z305 result) - Z381+, Z156+, Z305+)?: Male aged 60+. Grave goods included: spatha, belt, bag, vessel, glass. Burial dated based on grave goods/burial rite to circa 480 - 510 AD. Clusters autosomally in a K36 PCA near Saxony and NE Germany. Phase 1 burial (mid 400s - early 500s AD). Number of grave goods: 10 per the paper “Diet and Mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: A case study of Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes.”

    AED (Altenerding-Klettham cemetery) 92: U106+ (per BAM analysis): Male aged 20-30. Grave goods included: spatha, seax, lance, shield, belt, bag. Burial dated based on grave goods/burial rite to circa 480-510 AD. Clusters autosomally in a K36 PCA very near Mecklenburg-Vorpommern in NE Germany (almost on top of it). Edit: Phase 1 burial (mid 400s - early 500s AD). Number of grave goods: 23 (the highest number of grave goods in this cemetery of the samples looked at in the paper Diet and Mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: A case study of Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes).

    ALH (Altheim cemetery) 1: U106+, (ALH 1 has now been found positive for the following SNPs by Alex Williamson: R-M269>U106/S21>Z2265> Z381/S263>S264/Z156>S265/Z304>DF96>FGC13326>S22047 ). Male aged 50-60+. Grave goods included: Grave was disturbed/robbed. Burial dated based on grave goods/burial rite: Undateable, but other graves ALH 2, 3, and 10 were carbon dated in the range of roughly 260-535 AD (using lowest and highest estimates). Clusters autosomally in a K36 PCA in between Norway, Denmark, and Northern Netherlands/Friesland.

    STR (Straubing-Bajuwarenstraße cemetery) 316: U106+(based on BAM file analysis). Male aged 40-60. Grave goods included: belt, bag, vessel. Burial dated based on grave goods/burial rite to circa 480-510 AD. Clusters autosomally in a K36 PCA between North Norway and Norwegians and somewhat near ALH 1. Phase 2 burial (1st half of 6th cent: 500-550 AD) and 7 grave goods per the paper “Diet and Mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: A case study of Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes.”

    STR (Straubing-Bajuwarenstraße cemetery) 393: U106+(based on BAM file analysis). Male aged 40-55. Grave goods included: spatha. Burial dated based on grave goods/burial rite to circa 460 – 530 AD. Clusters autosomally in a K36 PCA near Central East Prussia. No info from paper “Diet and Mobility in Early Medieval Bavaria: A case study of Carbon and Nitrogen stable isotopes.”

    Longobard samples from this paper and cemeteries Szolad and Collegno: Understanding 6th-Century Barbarian Social Organization and Migration through Paleogenomics:

    Dating of Szolad samples: middle third of the sixth century (550s - 570s AD? Occupied by a mobile group for 20-30 years) based on a combination of stylistic elements of the grave goods and radiocarbon analysis. Dating of Collegno samples: between 580 and 630 CE based on artefact typology.

    SZ 2: R-M269>U106/S21>Z2265>Z381/S263>Z301/S499>L48>Z9>Z30/S271>Z2>Z7>Z8>ZZ58 by A. Williamson (Wayne K also ran SZ 2 in HG38 assemblies for this sample and found it Z8+, but not ZZ58+): male aged 2-3 years of age. Stress markers and selection of relevant pathologies: Cribra orbitalia; periosteal lesions maxilla. Autosomal: 90%+ CEU+GBR 10% FIN

    SZ 4: R-M269>U106/S21>Z2265>Z18>Z372/S375 by A. Williamson: male aged 30-40 years of age. Skull shape Dolichocrany. Height: 166.0 ± 3.5 cm. Grave goods: Lance and rectangular enclosures surrounding graves 4 and 5 are also worth mentioning and suggest that there was some sort of a relationship between the deceased. While only a few parallels are known in the West [18], such features may point to Roman traditions [19]; given that the site was situated within the former Roman Empire, this would be an element specific to Szólád. Stress markers etc: Cribra orbitalia; enamel hypoplasia; sharp-force trauma right os parietale; periosteal lesions right maxilla; osteoarthritis; spondylosis; caries; periapical lesions. Autosomal: 90% GEU+GBR 10% FIN

    SZ 11: R-M269>U106/S21>Z2265>Z381/S263>Z301/S499>L48>Z9>Z347>Z328> FGC10367>Z319>S1734>~2222759 2-T-A>FGC13489>hg38:20038474-A-C by A. Williamson: male aged 35-45 years of age. Skull shape: Hyperdolichocrany. Height: 175.5 ± 3.5 cm. Grave goods: Lance. Stress markers and selection of relevant pathologies: Cribra orbitalia; healed right hip and right humerus fracture; osteoarthritis; spondylosis; periodontitis. Autosomal: 100% CEU+GBR

    (Note from A. Williamson: SZ4 may actually be negative for Z373/S495 but because it's within DYZ19 I wasn't 100% convinced. For SZ11, I had to create a new block downstream of FGC13489 as he shares a variant with BigY kit Cemin (N23903).)

    SZ 23: R-M269>U106/S21>Z2265>Z381/S263: male aged 6-12 months. Stress makers etc: Periosteal lesions left and right maxillae. No grave goods? Autosomal: 25-30% TSI (Tuscan), rest is 60% CEU+GBR and 10% FIN

    SZ 16: R-M269>U106/S21>Z2265>Z381/S263: male aged 45+ years of age. Stress makers etc: Caries. Grave goods: Spatha, Lance, Shield. Autosomal: about 90% CEU+GBR and 10% FIN

    CL (Collegno) 84: R-M269>U106/S21>Z2265>Z381/S263: Kin to 1st gen group of Northern European men who are R1b - L151+: Autosomal: Almost 100% CEU+GBR - small amount of FIN - kindred group autosomal: CL 83 is 100% CEU+GBR, CL 97 is 100% CEU+GBR, CL 87 is 95% CEU+GBR and about 5% TSI (Tuscan) from 50-70% Northern European mother? CL 92 and 93 about 90% CEU+GBR and 10% FIN, CL 145, 146 90+% CEU+GBR + small amount of FIN, CL 151 100% CEU+GBR. For comparison with Bavarian samples ALH 1 is about 90% CEU+GBR and 10% FIN. Grave goods: Rich grave goods/chamber grave no weapons? Some weapons in grave goods of kin group members.

    Genomic signals of migration and continuity in Britain before the Anglo-Saxons:

    “Headless York Gladiators from Driffield Terrace on the Mount”

    3drif-16 (skeleton # 16 from 3 Driffield Terrace): R-U106/S21 > Z2265 > Z381/S263 > S264/Z156 > Z305 > Z307 > S265/Z304 > DF96 > ~18274596-G-A > S11515 > L1/S26 by Alex Williamson. Aged 36-45 years (old middle adult). Height/stature: 171.8cm ± 2.99cm. Pathology/trauma: Schmorl’s nodes T5-L4, DJD (OP + PO) right apophyseal facets between L5 & L6 (sacralised); OA (OP, PO + E) left apophyseal facets between L5 & L6, DJD (OP + PO) lateral clavicles, medial left clavicle, left lunate, OA (OP, PO & E) distal left radius & scaphoid (associated with fracture), Additional vertebral segment present – L6 sacralised. Uppermost sacral segment fused to second segment at alae, but gap at anterior body & between laminae, R apophyseal facets possibly unfused; sacral promontory located at upper border of second segment. Apophyseal joints between T12 & L1 thoracic in shape – slight caudal border shift at thoraco-lumbar border. Osteochondritis dissecans of distal joint of left tibia – roughly circular lytic lesion, porous floor, sharp margins. Maxillary sinusitis, bilateral– spicules of lamellar bone & porosity. Developmental anomaly/ trauma to right MT5 & right 5th proximal foot phalanx. R MT5 has a ‘V’ shaped notch in the dorsal surface of the head, dividing the joint surface. The surface of the ‘V’ shaped area is rough & irregular. The distal end of the proximal 5th foot phalanx appears underdeveloped, as if the distal 3mm is absent, and the distal surface is flattened and faces disto-laterally (none of the surface curves around onto the plantar surface). Healed fracture to the spinous process of T4 – fracture located halfway along the spinous process, distal end displaced inferiorly. Healed comminuted fracture to the distal joint surface of the left radius, dividing the joint surface into three sections, with slight posterior & proximal displacement of the styloid process. Associated osteoarthritis. Decapitation C6 – linear cut through both laminae, angled slightly superior left to inferior right, and passing just superior to the superior margins of the inferior apophyseal facets & just inferior to the inferior margins of the pedicles. The only part surviving is the inferior fragment (spinous process & inferior laminae). Probably delivered from behind. Burial dating: The majority of skeletons from 3 Driffield Terrace were thought to date to the late second and early third century AD (late 100s - 200s AD).

    6drif-3 (skeleton # 3 from 6 Driffield Terrace): R-U106/S21 > Z2265 > Z381/S263 > S264/Z156 > Z305 > Z307 > S265/Z304 > ~22365047-G-A > S1911 > S1894 > FGC14818 > FGC14823 > FGC14814 by Alex Williamson. Aged 18-25 years (young adult). Height/stature: 182.7cm ± 3.37cm. Pathology/trauma: Schmorl’s nodes T4, T6-12. Cleft in the superior left apophyseal facet of S1, dividing the posterior inferior corner from the rest of the surface. Possibly traumatic/ developmental. Cribra orbitalia, bilateral. Slight cranial border shift at thoraco-lumbar border–right apophyseal joint between T11-12 tending towards a lumbar shape; left side thoracic in shape.Elongated deposit of lamellar bone along the superior half of the gluteal lines of both femora, occupying the area of the hypotrochanteric fossa; possibly related to muscle attachment. Excavated muscle attachments both tibia –soleus. Avulsion fracture of the styloid process of R MC3. Possible avulsion fracture/ developmental anomaly of right navicular –tuberosity flattened and surface rough & porous. Possible decapitation C4-5; possibly two separate cuts: C4 – linear cut that has removed a sliver of bone from the anterior half of the inferior body surface, angled slightly superior left to inferior right. C5 – 1) linear cut that has penetrated the lamina inferior to the superior right apophyseal facet; the superior fragment is detached and present, apparently fractured at the anterior margin rather than cut; left half of neural arch lost post-mortem. Cut angled from posterior-inferior to anterior - superior (broadly parallel with the inferior right apophyseal facet), & possibly delivered from behind. 2) possible second cut just superior & parallel to cut 1 that has removed the superior margin of the right lamina, terminating posterior to the superior apophyseal facet. Right ulna – possible peri-mortem butterfly fracture through the midpoint of the shaft. The proximal and distal halves each have a curved break through the shaft with the posterior side projecting further (i.e. both halves nearly meet at the posterior margin); the gap between the two break surfaces on the anterior margin is roughly 30mm. The V shaped segment of bone that would have occupied the gap has been lost post-mortem. The break surfaces are slightly roughened & the same colour as the rest of the bone cortex. Burial dating: most of the skeletons from 6 Driffield Terrace dated to the late third to late fourth centuries AD (late 200s - late 300s AD).

    Population genomics of Bronze Age Eurasia:

    RISE 98: Sweden, Lille Beddinge 56, Culture: Battle Axe (2800 - 2300 B.C.)/Nordic LN (2200 - 1800 B.C.), grave 49/South skeleton, flat graves. Positive for R1b-U106 > Z2265+ > BY30097-. Note that most of U106 men are Z2265+ > BY30097+.

    Lilla Bedinge, Lilla Beddinge parish, Raä 1:1
    Lilla Bedinge in southern Scania comprises the largest known cemetery associated with the Swedish Battle Axe Culture. The site, extending over an area of about 240×30 m, is located only about 1 km from the present day coastline. The majority of the at least 14 identified and excavated flat earth inhumations graves are located on a NE–SW oriented moraine embankment, whereas four of the graves are found on the flatter grounds to the SE. The site also includes a number of Late Bronze Age cremation graves, and two other find spots for BAC inhumation graves are known in the nearby region. Several different excavations of the inhumation graves (Graves I–XIV, correlating with Graves 41–54 in Malmer 1962) have been carried out between 1915 and 1951, by Folke Hansen, Otto Frödin and, later on, Mats P. Malmer (see further Malmer 1962). According to Malmer (1962:180) three of the inhumation graves, all lacking grave goods, probably date to the Late Neo-lithic, possibly together with the mass burial Grave 47. The remains of one to four destroyed graves with stone constructions in the southern part of the site (termed Grave 14) cannot be dated. The remainder of the features typo-logically fall within Period 3–5. In the present study, skeletal remains from Graves 47, 49, 52 and 53 were included in the analyses.

    Grave 49 was excavated by Hansen 1934. It constitutes a N–S oriented subsurface oval stone construction with pointed edges, measuring about 4.5×2 m, where flat stone slabs form a roof over a chamber with an original height estimated to about 0.6–0.7 m. Fragments of wood indicate the presence of planks in the chamber. On the stone paved floor of the chamber three adult individuals had been placed in a line in sitting crouched positions facing southwest. Between the northern and middle skeleton fragmented remains of three children (initially only two were identified), representing two infants and a juvenile, were recovered. Further, some very brittle diaphyses of a fourth adult have been identified. The only recovered find is a bone needle deposited next to the northern skeleton (Hansen 1934; Malmer 1962:162p; During unpublished notes). According to Malmer (2002:141) the grave can be dated to Period 4, and an unpublished radiocarbon date from the northern skeleton falls within the interval 2580–1980 cal. BC (2σ, 3850±105 BP, Ua-2758, During unpublished notes).

    The Beaker Phenomenon And The Genomic Transformation Of Northwest Europe

    I4070: Skeleton 230: R1b - U106 > Z381. I4070/skeleton 230 barrow I-M7:1881–1646 calBCE (3440±40 BP, GrA-17225).

    In the Early Bronze Age, between 1900 and 1700 BCE probably, at 20 m distance, a second burial mound (Tumulus I) was raised in which two skeletons have been interred, probably in the already existing barrow (skeletons 230 and 231). Both skeletons were buried in a manner typical for the Middle Bronze Age, stretched on their backs. Both are dated between 1880 and 1650 calBCE (3440±40 BP, GrA-17225 and 3450±BP, GrA-17226). The burial mound was surrounded by a circle of 80 cm wide pits with a diameter of approximately 20 m. Probably at the same time a 35 m long alignment of almost identical pits was dug in connection with the older mound (Tumulus II). The stratigraphy of the arable land, the graves and the pit circles and alignments demonstrate that the Oostwoud-Tuithoorn burial mounds constituted a small persistent place, a burial ground that was used intermittently but consistently, probably by several generations of a local group of inhabitants.

    I7196: R1b - L23 > L51 > L151 > U106 > Z381 > Z156 > Z304 > DF98 > S1911 > S1894. Early Unetice period/EBA about 2300-1800 B.C. Grave 59 at "Prague-Jinonice (“Zahradnictví”, Prague 5 – Jinonice, Czech Republic).” The rescue excavations at the site Jinonice – Holman’s gardening took place in 1984-1986 during the construction of the subway [101–103]. A total of 29 graves were found, dated to the older phases of the Únětice culture on the basis of grave equipment (ceramic and bronze inventory) and burial ritual [103,104]. The skeletal remains of 36 individuals were found in the graves [105], with predominance of adults between 20-40 years of age. However, the burial ground was not excavated completely. With the exception of two graves, grave goods (mainly pottery) were found in all graves." The site itself is in Jinonice in south-western Prague.

    The orientation of the graves and individuals responds to the older phase of the Unetice culture. In most cases, the individual was on the right side, facing the exit (Moucha - Špaček 2011, 208). Strict orientation of the tombs or individuals was captured in 90% of cases. Only 2, 5% of the tombs had a deviation of the SS and 5% of the SS-SS. This orientation and tolerances are typical of this period. In Central Bohemia the deviation in the direction of the SW-SV is more prevalent, but there are two variants of deviations
    (Matthew 1982, 37-41).

    Some general info on this Jinonice burial ground and grave 59 translated from a Czech paper on this burial ground:
    Group A: On the northern area, 13 graves were discovered (Figure 6). Eleven graves could be identified accurately, three graves No. 24, 54 and 56 are outlined schematically, but their belonging to this area is "undeniable." From the graves, there are a number of graves 29, 30 and 31 in the western part of the burial ground. There is adjacent to tomb 29
    from the north grave 32. The second row in the west consists of graves No. 54, 55, 59. These two councils simultaneously "bind" grave 56. The eastern part of the burial ground is again one row of graves 1, 2, 24 and 28.

    The shape of the gravesite pit was not captured, or some traces of disturbance could be observed in seventy cases in graves 1, 2, 24, 31, 55, 56 and 59 (Figure 60: 1, 2; 61:24; 63:31; 65 : 55, 56; 66:59, 60), but for three of these graves No. 24, 55, 56 it is possible to derive the shape of the tombstone according to the documentation. The reason for the broken graves is probably their shallow recession, when the graves of the junks fell victim to the mechanical debris, and the tomb 59 was broken by the younger tomb of the Latins.

    With 11 surviving sepulchres the depth ranged from 7 cm at graves No. 55 and 56 up to 20 cm at grave No. 59. The grave depth probably did not affect the position of tombs at the burial ground. An exception to this almost standardized 10 cm recess can be seen in the tomb No. 59, which does not form a central grave, but rather is located on the edge of the surveyed area, and due to its violation of the young Latin tomb, it is impossible to follow other indices.

    Any funeral equipment contains 11 graves, evenly spaced across the entire group. This percentage is 84.6%. Two graves without equipment No. 24 and 56, although without a precise geodetic orientation, but based on a sketch (Kovárik 1984-1986), it is possible to place them on the marginal places within the burial ground (Figure 6). The most numerous tomb inventory is a pottery consisting of 28 vessels, which were located in ten graves. The absence of a ceramic vessel in the tomb No. 59 is questionable as the grave was broken by the already mentioned Lathean tomb, and when the vessel was at its legs, it was destroyed.

    Bronze industry is represented by four artifacts. In the two graves No. 28 and 59, there were three bronze wings spun from a simple wire. There is a bronze dagger in tomb no. The earrings in all three cases were in the area of ​​sleep, dagger back to the individual in the pan. Pomero starts with 0, 25 bronze per dying. Bronze articles are found in every "row" of graves, creating at least visual the assumption of some almost regular deployment in the northern group of the burial ground. Even in the case of Grave No. 30 with a bronze dagger, one can not speak of a central position, on the contrary, the tomb completes its imaginative order with its location.

    The cracked industry was represented by quartz spikes and splinters. Overall, it appeared in five graves. Of this, in the graves No. 1 and 30 there were collections of scraps along the skulls and behind the spikes of the arrows, mostly in the vicinity of the pan, only in grave No. 28 the position of the cleaved industry could not be determined. In the remaining tomb No. 59 there were only queen shavings, there were only arrows in the tomb or grave and in the grave No. 55, but the position against the deceased was not determined. Concentration of the fragmented industry creates graves No. 1 and 28 in the eastern part of the burial ground and on the opposite side of graves No. 30, 55, 59.

    The finding of a fragment of the scarlet motif in the pelvis of a person in the tomb no. 59 is probably not particularly specific in the tomb position, as well as the stone "crush" in the tomb no. 55 at an undetermined position (Petriščáková 2009, 43). Sixteen of the individuals were anthropologically identified for sex only at six. There was one woman and five men at the burial ground. From that adult-adult woman, she was buried in the tomb No. 31, three adult-adult men in graves No. 2, 29, 30 and other men, one adult in Tomb 28 and one maturus in tomb No. 54 In general, fifteen individuals, three infans (two in the tomb 28, one in the tomb 32), two adult juveniles (graves 28, 56), seven adult adults (graves 2 , 23, 29, 30, 31, two in the tomb No. 55) and finally three maturus individuals (graves No. 1, 54, 59). The age could not be determined by one dead (Grave 24). A close grouping of adults of adult age can be observed at septents No. 29, 30, 31, but their concentration may be accidental, as age groups or age groups are not registered for other age groups. It can be inferred from this that, as adults, both adolescents and children were buried at the burial ground without visible rules that could be identified.
    Bronze objects also occurred in the graves several times even in one individual. A bronze dagger was found in the male tomb No. 30 in the adult, a bronze muzzle in the older person with a skull in the tomb No. 59.
    Last edited by Bollox79; 04-22-2018 at 09:02 PM.
    Y-DNA: 4th GGF Adam Weaver born 1785 in Pennsylvania (most likely Rhineland German) - Sergeant, US 17th Inf, War of 1812: R1b-U106-DF98-S1911-S1894/S1900-S4004/FGC14818/FGC14823-FGC14816/FGC14817 shared with 6drif-3 - one of the "Headless" Roman Gladiator/Soldiers!

    mtDNA: 3rd GGM Bridget O'Danagher b. 1843 Lorrha/Dorrha, Ireland - T2b2b - Pagan Migrant Icelander SSG-A3 (grave 4) - Sílastađir in Eyjafjarđarsýsla, North Iceland is T2b2b.

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