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    Posting this here, may answer some questions when it comes to "pashtuns" of North KP.

    The lost Tajiks of Pakistan

    Arif Hasan Akhundzada

    The medieval Mumlikat-e-Gibar of northeastern Afghanistan and the northern areas of Pakistan was established as a Muslim Tajik sultanate in about 1190 AD, being ruled in tandem by two brothers. Sultan Bahram and Sultan Pakhal (or Fahkal) Gibari were the scions of an earlier local Tajik princely dynasty of Zoroastrian converts, ruling the famous Pech Valley area in Kunar (Afghanistan). Hence their family name Gibari which was taken from “Gabr”, a term used derogatively by early Arabs for unconverted Zoroastrians. The brothers were sons of Sultan Kehjaman, son of Sultan Hindu of Pech. Their family tradition states descent from “Sikandar-e-Zulqarnain” or Cyrus the Great – the founder of Persia’s Achaemenid Empire some 2600 years ago. The Gibari Sultans are more famously known as the “Jehangiri Sultans” after Sultan Jehangir, a later member of this dynasty who became famous due to his achievements. Another name for these Sultans was “Swati” due to the fact that their capital was located at Manglaur in Swat.

    The Gibar State was a major vassal state of the Ghori Empire (and the succeeding Delhi Sultanate): originally extending from Kabul and the Hindu Kush on one side, to the Karakorams and River Jhelum and Baramula at the other end. In Pakistan, its territory consisted of Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Balor (Gilgit), Kohistan, Swat, Buner, Malakand and the Peshawar Valley districts to the north of River Kabul and west of the Indus (Peshawar, Charsadda, Mardan, Swabi ) – together with Hazara District across the Indus. The regions of the Gibar State located in Afghanistan, in and to the west of the Suleiman Mountains – Kabul, Kapisa, Laghman, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ningarhar and Logar (now all Afghan provinces) besides Khyber and Kurram – had later broken away mostly under other separate Gibari princes by the time that area was invaded by Emir Timur (Tamerlane).

    At first Sultan Bahram had established his capital in the village Papin located at the foot of the Safed Koh (Spin Ghar) mountain range in Ningarhar, Afghanistan, while his brother Sultan Pakhal conquered the lands to the east, as far as River Jhelum and made his base in Manglaur in Swat Valley. However Sultan Bahram died prematurely, and his sons fell out amongst themselves and started killing one another. Their uncle Sultan Pakhal had to go to Papin where he was forced to wage war on them to restore order. He thereafter emerged as sole ruler, and Manglaur became the permanent capital of the kingdom, which was also later named after him.

    In 1342, Hindu-ruled Kashmir also passed into the hands of another Gibari, Shah Mir (later Sultan Shamsuddin), who had earlier gone and settled there, later setting up a separate vast Muslim kingdom. The original Gibar Sultanate was then reformed into the Pakhli Sarkar (also known as the Kingdom of Swat), and became a dependency of the larger Sultanate of Kashmir; it was given this name in honour of Sultan Pakhal. Later in 1386, the Sultan of Kashmir further strengthened his dependency, adding to it vast swaths of Potohar in the south east. Although no specific records exist, the Walled City of Purushawar (Peshawar) itself was believed to have been always under the nominal control of the Jehangiri Sultans and their overlords in the Delhi Sultanate. The previous localities of the original Gibar State located to the west of the Suleiman Mountains in Afghanistan – Kabul, Kapisa, Laghman, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ningarhar and Logar (presently Afghan provinces) – had later broken away under the rule of separate Gibari princes. The original Gibar State had almost exactly the same boundaries as that of ancient Gandhara immediately preceding it. It is also a strange coincidence that the western border of the later Pakhli Sarkar very closely resembled the Durand Line which has now taken its place. The mention of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan’s passage through the early Gibar State has been reliably documented, about 28 years after it was set up.

    With the exception of Kashmir and Hazara, the dominant rural population of the whole area up to the River Indus and above the River Kabul (Gandhara), at that point in time, consisted of Shalmani and Tirahi Tajiks and their aristocratic Dehqan ruling class, all of whom are believed to have been among the area’s ancient inhabitants since the days of the great Persian empires before Islam. There were also Dards (Kohistanis) in the region. Prakrit speakers (i.e. early Hindko speakers) lived alongside in the urban settlements. It is very clear that Tajiks (ethnic Persians or Farsiwans in the east) then existed far beyond what are now regarded as their traditional ethnographic borders in Wakhan and the Hindu Kush. This is further borne out by the fact that Gandhara had remained a “satrapy” or province of Imperial Persia for some 1,000 continuous years before Islam. The forms of Persian that they spoke then are now extinct.

    There was also then an old Pashtun tribe in the region, the only Pashtun tribe present at that time – by the name of Dilazak, which was very widely distributed. It was said to have come here very late in the day, with the first Muslim conqueror of north India, Mahmud Ghaznavi, somewhere in the 11th century. Most of the Dilazak Afghans were much later expelled across the River Indus into Hazara and Chachh areas by the invading Yusafzais and their allies – where they are today. The greater part of those who remained behind most likely changed their identity by adopting the name of their kindred Khattak tribe, which lay further to the south, on the perimeter of Peshawar Valley.



    The territory of the Tajik-dominated Gibar State at its height, from 1200 to 1400 AD
    Islam first came to the Gandhara region with Mahmud Ghaznavi, but actually began taking hold here during the Tajik Swati-Gibari rule. However sizeable Hindu and other non-Muslim populations still remained. Mir Syed Ali Hamadani, the Persian saint who introduced Islam into Kashmir, was a trusted confidante of the Jehangiri Sultans of Swat. He died in the fort of the Gibari governor of Bajaur area, Malik Khizar Ali Gibari. Though the Gibaris had become staunch Muslims by all accounts, local Muslim society was still in the process of formation.

    In 1398 Amir Timur (Tamerlane) annexed the Pakhli Sarkar’s Hazara portion across the Indus. In the latter, he settled his Turkic soldiers who established the small independent Turkic kingdom of “Pakhli-Hazara”, which was to flourish for 323 years. Thus the old Pakhli Sarkar or Swat Kingdom was reduced in its extent to the areas of Bajaur, Dir, Chitral, Gilgit, Swat, Buner, Malakand, Kohistan and Peshawar Valley – governed in the shape of four wilayats consisting of Bajaur, Swat, Buner and Hashtnagar.

    The dominant rural population of the whole area up to the River Indus and above the River Kabul consisted of Shalmani and Tirahi Tajiks, believed to have been among the area’s ancient inhabitants since the great Persian empires

    The Tajik Swati Kingdom of Pakhli Sarkar finally came to an end as a result of two factors. Mass migrations swept the area, emanating from southern Afghanistan and involving various Pashtun tribes of the Eastern Sarabani section – headed by the Yusufzais – which had been provoked by Timurid political moves. At the same time, another Timurid prince from Ferghana, Zaheeruddin Babur, also invaded India. In 1519 he attacked and conquered the Kingdom of Swat, the Pakhli Sarkar, as the first part of his strategy to overthrow the Delhi Sultanate and establish the Mughal Empire seven years later. Then in 1586 Kashmir also passed into the hands of his grandson Akbar. The Sarabani Pashtun tribes, whose arrival en masse had flooded the area west of the Indus, at around the same time that Babur came – gradually settled in the lands of the Kingdom of Swat, and then established their domination over the area. In the latter, they were helped by Babur, who required their assistance in conquering India. Though the Kingdom of Swat was overthrown in 1519, the completion of the usurpation of its lands by the Yusafzais and their allies is believed to have taken place over a 70-year period. This process began with the massacre in 1481 by Mirza Ulugh Beg – the Timurid prince – of their tribal chiefs in Kabul, which initiated their mass exodus eastwards. Ulugh Beg was Babur’s maternal uncle and governor of Kabul. The greater part of the now extinct Shalmani and Tirahi Tajik populations, and their Dehqans who did not flee or get killed, were forcefully absorbed into these tribes under new Pashtun identities. Their refined culture was assimilated by the invading Pashtun tribes. Many from among the Tajiks were subjugated into bondage and serfdom. The Persian term Dehqan, which once meant aristocratic landed proprietor, became synonymous with tenant cultivator or serf in local parlance. The great majority of Tajiks fled to Hazara, where they settled and now speak Hindko – and are known as “Swatis”. The names of Shalman and Tirah also still exist as localities in Khyber Agency, now populated by Afridis – who were not there in those days.


    Babur, depicted here travelling in mountainous terrain, fought a campaign in
    Bajaur years before his advance to Delhi
    Babur first attacked the huge Gibar Qila fortress in Bajaur, killing Malik Haider Ali Gibari, the Swati governor of the Bajaur wilayat of Pakhli Sarkar. He also massacred 3,000 inhabitants of the town located inside the fortress walls. The Mughals were at an enormous tactical advantage, because on this occasion they employed firearms, this being the first ever instance of guns being used in the Subcontinent. Babur’s victory was assured because the Shalmani Tajik troops ran away, being frightened by the bangs and smoke of the unknown new weapons. Babur chronicles this conquest in all its vivid and bloody details in his memoirs, the Baburnama. The conquest of Swat Valley itself took place later that year by the Yusufzais, and was a bit different. Employing a mixture of intrigue, deception and aggression, they drove out the governor of the Hashtnagar (Charsadda-Mardan flatlands) region, Mir Hinda Dehqan. His rapid retreat towards his village of Thana in Malakand and the dismal performance of the assembled Swati armies, and their failed last stand there, ensured that the pursuing Yusufzais gained access to the biggest prize of all – the lush valley of Swat. The Yusufzais had been living as refugees and workers in the area for 35 to 40 years, and were familiar with the riches and beauty of Swat, a place they had frequently visited in order to sell straw mats. It was not long before they defeated the last ruler of Swat, Sultan Owais, who abandoned his capital and fled to Nihag Darra in Dir where he took refuge among the ‘kafir’ population. The Swatis were taken completely unprepared.

    Thus the old Turco-Tajik Ghorid-Khilji/Ghilji-Afghan order of Muslim rule in India passed on to the Timurid (Mughal) order with the fall of the joint kingdoms of Swat and Kashmir – and their patron the Delhi Sultanate. The Timurid order itself was replaced by the Afshar-Abdalid order to the west of the Indus (in Afghanistan) in 1747 – while in India it remained in an increasingly diminishing and emasculated form for a further 110 years till it gave way to the British Raj.


    Knowledge of the Tajik origins of the medieval Swati ruling dynasty remained an oral tradition for very long
    This article will come as a surprise to most, because there is no mention of any Gibar State or Pakhli Sarkar – or any Tajik population at all – in local public discourse. It is not at all insignificant as a subject, nor is it that far back in history, but its total absence from our country’s formal and national historiography seems very surprising – in particular with the continual emphasis on reminding everyone about how Islam came to India and furnished the basis for Pakistan. The Ghoris are frequently mentioned in this context. But no one even knows about their vassal Tajik kingdom that spanned the entire Northern Areas of Pakistan as well as a sizeable portion of northeast Afghanistan. The Gibar Kingdom and its sultans find mention in several standard and iconic early and medieval Muslim historical texts. These include the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Tuzuk-i-Timuri, Baburnama, Ain-i-Akbari, Jehangirnama, Shahjehanama, Alamgirnama and Siyar-ul-Mutakhireen among others. The Jahangiri Sultans and their times are mentioned in a wealth of detail by prominent British colonial writers such as Major H.G. Raverty. But as regards other modern scholarship, the situation is very dismal.

    At times there even seems to be a formal “cover-up conspiracy” spanning the centuries, with regard to this legacy, and its overthrow and takeover. A good example in this regard would be to refer to Sir Olaf Caroe’s treatment of the matter. The last British colonial Governor of the NWFP (now KP) and a senior colonial bureaucrat and strategic planner, his book The Pathans is still considered by most to be the best international work so far on the Pashtun ethnicity and their history. An otherwise keen and erudite scholar such as Caroe – who it is evident, was always anxious and at pains to show his propriety in matters of knowledge – can only casually mention the Gibari-Swati Sultans, and that also just three times, in his celebrated magnum opus. It is as if he was referring to a quantity so well known that it merited no further academic elucidation or introduction. But in fact this seems to smack of a wily deliberation not innocence: a sly way of distracting attention from and diminishing the importance of a key historical matter at the same time! But that comes as no surprise, as upon examining The Pathans it is all too evident where the personal sympathies of this colonial official lay – as well as those of the establishment he was tasked to work for. We see that glaringly in his dedication of the book on its title page to the Yusafzais, as well as his wish recorded therein to be considered as an “honourary Yusafzai” – a tribe which, like all the Sarabani Pashtuns, constituted the backbone of the British Raj in its Pashtun theatre throughout. On the other hand, eminent scholastic personages such as Pakistan’s foremost historical authority, the late Dr. A.H. Dani – though he belonged to the Northern Areas himself – has declined any mention of the Kingdom of Swat, save for a few sentences which he has quoted from an English author. He mentions in passing the (Gibari) Sultans of Kashmir, but not in the context of their background or the nature of their linkages with Swat. Awareness of this history has tended to exist as a memory in the informal oral discourse of the local countryside, and its illiterate folkloric milieu. Or it remained as confidential knowledge circulating among the local rural elites, discussed discreetly. These events are also extensively recorded in the traditional vernacular histories of the Yusafzais themselves, in books such as Tawareekh-i-Hafiz Rehmat Khani and books by the contemporary saint Akhund Darweza such as Tazkiratul Abrar Wal Ashraar. But significant as they are, these accounts are far from being mainstream, visible or accessible to modern educated audiences of our own country, let alone internationally.


    Depiction of a Yusufzai warrior
    At times, there even seems to be a formal “cover-up conspiracy” spanning the centuries, with regard to this legacy, and its overthrow and takeover

    Without this historical cover-up, the history and culture and other causes of this area would appear in a new light, and the mysteries and enigmas surrounding it and the historical development of the Pashtun ethnicity, culture and its accurate academic definition – a matter which is so lacking and deficient – would be dispelled. Systems of governance keep changing and social orders come and go all the time. That is what history is all about. But not many situations have such a legacy of hidden skeletons in closets – and not for such extended periods of time. With certain strong parallels to the Norman invasion and takeover of Britain in 1066, the historical process of the fall of the Kingdom of Swat has, however, been obscured by its local perpetrators and their Mughal and later British helpers. And we may surmise that those defeated also remained silent, out of not only fear but shame too. Moreover Britain’s Norman analogy cannot pertain to our present context, as by 1566 – 500 years after its Norman takeover – Britain was on the way to dominating the globe, while the same cannot be said of the inhabitants of the region we are looking at. Unlike the Norman invasion of Britain, the Sarabani-Timurid overthrow of the Kingdom of Swat or the Pakhli Sarkar was more sinister and insidious in character – and some of its consequences are fully manifesting themselves even today, centuries later.


    Discussion of a Tajik presence beyond the Wakhan region, in modern-day
    northern Pakistan, is rare
    Another factor worthy of mention – and one which has greatly aided in uncovering this mystery – is that within the last 15 years, incredible quantum leaps in the scope of the revolutionary young science of genetic genealogy have at last shed light against which no cover-ups can stand a chance. The forcefully absorbed and “Pashtunised” original Tajik populations and lineages of the Peshawar and Swat Valley regions have been revealed in surroundings least expected. Also, startling facts have been revealed behind the true ethnic origins of the presently dominant section of Sarabani Pashtun tribes which suppressed these aboriginal inhabitants 500 years ago, and subsequently also came to dominate their own Afghan ethnicity. Not only that, but genetic studies have corroborated the underlying traditional Ghori Tajik origin the greatest Afghan tribal confederacy, the Bettani (Ghalji) – which is in fact now the largest group of Pashtuns and historically the most accomplished. But that is another subject…

    The writer is an author, activist and researcher into historical matters. He belongs to Shabqadar in Charsadda district, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa

    https://www.thefridaytimes.com/the-l...s-of-pakistan/

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  3. #7382
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    Quote Originally Posted by bol_nat View Post
    Posting this here, may answer some questions when it comes to "pashtuns" of North KP.

    The lost Tajiks of Pakistan

    Arif Hasan Akhundzada

    The medieval Mumlikat-e-Gibar of northeastern Afghanistan and the northern areas of Pakistan was established as a Muslim Tajik sultanate in about 1190 AD, being ruled in tandem by two brothers. Sultan Bahram and Sultan Pakhal (or Fahkal) Gibari were the scions of an earlier local Tajik princely dynasty of Zoroastrian converts, ruling the famous Pech Valley area in Kunar (Afghanistan). Hence their family name Gibari which was taken from “Gabr”, a term used derogatively by early Arabs for unconverted Zoroastrians. The brothers were sons of Sultan Kehjaman, son of Sultan Hindu of Pech. Their family tradition states descent from “Sikandar-e-Zulqarnain” or Cyrus the Great – the founder of Persia’s Achaemenid Empire some 2600 years ago. The Gibari Sultans are more famously known as the “Jehangiri Sultans” after Sultan Jehangir, a later member of this dynasty who became famous due to his achievements. Another name for these Sultans was “Swati” due to the fact that their capital was located at Manglaur in Swat.

    The Gibar State was a major vassal state of the Ghori Empire (and the succeeding Delhi Sultanate): originally extending from Kabul and the Hindu Kush on one side, to the Karakorams and River Jhelum and Baramula at the other end. In Pakistan, its territory consisted of Bajaur, Mohmand, Khyber, Kurram, Dir, Chitral, Balor (Gilgit), Kohistan, Swat, Buner, Malakand and the Peshawar Valley districts to the north of River Kabul and west of the Indus (Peshawar, Charsadda, Mardan, Swabi ) – together with Hazara District across the Indus. The regions of the Gibar State located in Afghanistan, in and to the west of the Suleiman Mountains – Kabul, Kapisa, Laghman, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ningarhar and Logar (now all Afghan provinces) besides Khyber and Kurram – had later broken away mostly under other separate Gibari princes by the time that area was invaded by Emir Timur (Tamerlane).

    At first Sultan Bahram had established his capital in the village Papin located at the foot of the Safed Koh (Spin Ghar) mountain range in Ningarhar, Afghanistan, while his brother Sultan Pakhal conquered the lands to the east, as far as River Jhelum and made his base in Manglaur in Swat Valley. However Sultan Bahram died prematurely, and his sons fell out amongst themselves and started killing one another. Their uncle Sultan Pakhal had to go to Papin where he was forced to wage war on them to restore order. He thereafter emerged as sole ruler, and Manglaur became the permanent capital of the kingdom, which was also later named after him.

    In 1342, Hindu-ruled Kashmir also passed into the hands of another Gibari, Shah Mir (later Sultan Shamsuddin), who had earlier gone and settled there, later setting up a separate vast Muslim kingdom. The original Gibar Sultanate was then reformed into the Pakhli Sarkar (also known as the Kingdom of Swat), and became a dependency of the larger Sultanate of Kashmir; it was given this name in honour of Sultan Pakhal. Later in 1386, the Sultan of Kashmir further strengthened his dependency, adding to it vast swaths of Potohar in the south east. Although no specific records exist, the Walled City of Purushawar (Peshawar) itself was believed to have been always under the nominal control of the Jehangiri Sultans and their overlords in the Delhi Sultanate. The previous localities of the original Gibar State located to the west of the Suleiman Mountains in Afghanistan – Kabul, Kapisa, Laghman, Kunar, Badakhshan, Ningarhar and Logar (presently Afghan provinces) – had later broken away under the rule of separate Gibari princes. The original Gibar State had almost exactly the same boundaries as that of ancient Gandhara immediately preceding it. It is also a strange coincidence that the western border of the later Pakhli Sarkar very closely resembled the Durand Line which has now taken its place. The mention of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan’s passage through the early Gibar State has been reliably documented, about 28 years after it was set up.

    With the exception of Kashmir and Hazara, the dominant rural population of the whole area up to the River Indus and above the River Kabul (Gandhara), at that point in time, consisted of Shalmani and Tirahi Tajiks and their aristocratic Dehqan ruling class, all of whom are believed to have been among the area’s ancient inhabitants since the days of the great Persian empires before Islam. There were also Dards (Kohistanis) in the region. Prakrit speakers (i.e. early Hindko speakers) lived alongside in the urban settlements. It is very clear that Tajiks (ethnic Persians or Farsiwans in the east) then existed far beyond what are now regarded as their traditional ethnographic borders in Wakhan and the Hindu Kush. This is further borne out by the fact that Gandhara had remained a “satrapy” or province of Imperial Persia for some 1,000 continuous years before Islam. The forms of Persian that they spoke then are now extinct.

    There was also then an old Pashtun tribe in the region, the only Pashtun tribe present at that time – by the name of Dilazak, which was very widely distributed. It was said to have come here very late in the day, with the first Muslim conqueror of north India, Mahmud Ghaznavi, somewhere in the 11th century. Most of the Dilazak Afghans were much later expelled across the River Indus into Hazara and Chachh areas by the invading Yusafzais and their allies – where they are today. The greater part of those who remained behind most likely changed their identity by adopting the name of their kindred Khattak tribe, which lay further to the south, on the perimeter of Peshawar Valley.



    The territory of the Tajik-dominated Gibar State at its height, from 1200 to 1400 AD
    Islam first came to the Gandhara region with Mahmud Ghaznavi, but actually began taking hold here during the Tajik Swati-Gibari rule. However sizeable Hindu and other non-Muslim populations still remained. Mir Syed Ali Hamadani, the Persian saint who introduced Islam into Kashmir, was a trusted confidante of the Jehangiri Sultans of Swat. He died in the fort of the Gibari governor of Bajaur area, Malik Khizar Ali Gibari. Though the Gibaris had become staunch Muslims by all accounts, local Muslim society was still in the process of formation.

    In 1398 Amir Timur (Tamerlane) annexed the Pakhli Sarkar’s Hazara portion across the Indus. In the latter, he settled his Turkic soldiers who established the small independent Turkic kingdom of “Pakhli-Hazara”, which was to flourish for 323 years. Thus the old Pakhli Sarkar or Swat Kingdom was reduced in its extent to the areas of Bajaur, Dir, Chitral, Gilgit, Swat, Buner, Malakand, Kohistan and Peshawar Valley – governed in the shape of four wilayats consisting of Bajaur, Swat, Buner and Hashtnagar.

    The dominant rural population of the whole area up to the River Indus and above the River Kabul consisted of Shalmani and Tirahi Tajiks, believed to have been among the area’s ancient inhabitants since the great Persian empires

    The Tajik Swati Kingdom of Pakhli Sarkar finally came to an end as a result of two factors. Mass migrations swept the area, emanating from southern Afghanistan and involving various Pashtun tribes of the Eastern Sarabani section – headed by the Yusufzais – which had been provoked by Timurid political moves. At the same time, another Timurid prince from Ferghana, Zaheeruddin Babur, also invaded India. In 1519 he attacked and conquered the Kingdom of Swat, the Pakhli Sarkar, as the first part of his strategy to overthrow the Delhi Sultanate and establish the Mughal Empire seven years later. Then in 1586 Kashmir also passed into the hands of his grandson Akbar. The Sarabani Pashtun tribes, whose arrival en masse had flooded the area west of the Indus, at around the same time that Babur came – gradually settled in the lands of the Kingdom of Swat, and then established their domination over the area. In the latter, they were helped by Babur, who required their assistance in conquering India. Though the Kingdom of Swat was overthrown in 1519, the completion of the usurpation of its lands by the Yusafzais and their allies is believed to have taken place over a 70-year period. This process began with the massacre in 1481 by Mirza Ulugh Beg – the Timurid prince – of their tribal chiefs in Kabul, which initiated their mass exodus eastwards. Ulugh Beg was Babur’s maternal uncle and governor of Kabul. The greater part of the now extinct Shalmani and Tirahi Tajik populations, and their Dehqans who did not flee or get killed, were forcefully absorbed into these tribes under new Pashtun identities. Their refined culture was assimilated by the invading Pashtun tribes. Many from among the Tajiks were subjugated into bondage and serfdom. The Persian term Dehqan, which once meant aristocratic landed proprietor, became synonymous with tenant cultivator or serf in local parlance. The great majority of Tajiks fled to Hazara, where they settled and now speak Hindko – and are known as “Swatis”. The names of Shalman and Tirah also still exist as localities in Khyber Agency, now populated by Afridis – who were not there in those days.


    Babur, depicted here travelling in mountainous terrain, fought a campaign in
    Bajaur years before his advance to Delhi
    Babur first attacked the huge Gibar Qila fortress in Bajaur, killing Malik Haider Ali Gibari, the Swati governor of the Bajaur wilayat of Pakhli Sarkar. He also massacred 3,000 inhabitants of the town located inside the fortress walls. The Mughals were at an enormous tactical advantage, because on this occasion they employed firearms, this being the first ever instance of guns being used in the Subcontinent. Babur’s victory was assured because the Shalmani Tajik troops ran away, being frightened by the bangs and smoke of the unknown new weapons. Babur chronicles this conquest in all its vivid and bloody details in his memoirs, the Baburnama. The conquest of Swat Valley itself took place later that year by the Yusufzais, and was a bit different. Employing a mixture of intrigue, deception and aggression, they drove out the governor of the Hashtnagar (Charsadda-Mardan flatlands) region, Mir Hinda Dehqan. His rapid retreat towards his village of Thana in Malakand and the dismal performance of the assembled Swati armies, and their failed last stand there, ensured that the pursuing Yusufzais gained access to the biggest prize of all – the lush valley of Swat. The Yusufzais had been living as refugees and workers in the area for 35 to 40 years, and were familiar with the riches and beauty of Swat, a place they had frequently visited in order to sell straw mats. It was not long before they defeated the last ruler of Swat, Sultan Owais, who abandoned his capital and fled to Nihag Darra in Dir where he took refuge among the ‘kafir’ population. The Swatis were taken completely unprepared.

    Thus the old Turco-Tajik Ghorid-Khilji/Ghilji-Afghan order of Muslim rule in India passed on to the Timurid (Mughal) order with the fall of the joint kingdoms of Swat and Kashmir – and their patron the Delhi Sultanate. The Timurid order itself was replaced by the Afshar-Abdalid order to the west of the Indus (in Afghanistan) in 1747 – while in India it remained in an increasingly diminishing and emasculated form for a further 110 years till it gave way to the British Raj.


    Knowledge of the Tajik origins of the medieval Swati ruling dynasty remained an oral tradition for very long
    This article will come as a surprise to most, because there is no mention of any Gibar State or Pakhli Sarkar – or any Tajik population at all – in local public discourse. It is not at all insignificant as a subject, nor is it that far back in history, but its total absence from our country’s formal and national historiography seems very surprising – in particular with the continual emphasis on reminding everyone about how Islam came to India and furnished the basis for Pakistan. The Ghoris are frequently mentioned in this context. But no one even knows about their vassal Tajik kingdom that spanned the entire Northern Areas of Pakistan as well as a sizeable portion of northeast Afghanistan. The Gibar Kingdom and its sultans find mention in several standard and iconic early and medieval Muslim historical texts. These include the Tabaqat-i-Nasiri, Tuzuk-i-Timuri, Baburnama, Ain-i-Akbari, Jehangirnama, Shahjehanama, Alamgirnama and Siyar-ul-Mutakhireen among others. The Jahangiri Sultans and their times are mentioned in a wealth of detail by prominent British colonial writers such as Major H.G. Raverty. But as regards other modern scholarship, the situation is very dismal.

    At times there even seems to be a formal “cover-up conspiracy” spanning the centuries, with regard to this legacy, and its overthrow and takeover. A good example in this regard would be to refer to Sir Olaf Caroe’s treatment of the matter. The last British colonial Governor of the NWFP (now KP) and a senior colonial bureaucrat and strategic planner, his book The Pathans is still considered by most to be the best international work so far on the Pashtun ethnicity and their history. An otherwise keen and erudite scholar such as Caroe – who it is evident, was always anxious and at pains to show his propriety in matters of knowledge – can only casually mention the Gibari-Swati Sultans, and that also just three times, in his celebrated magnum opus. It is as if he was referring to a quantity so well known that it merited no further academic elucidation or introduction. But in fact this seems to smack of a wily deliberation not innocence: a sly way of distracting attention from and diminishing the importance of a key historical matter at the same time! But that comes as no surprise, as upon examining The Pathans it is all too evident where the personal sympathies of this colonial official lay – as well as those of the establishment he was tasked to work for. We see that glaringly in his dedication of the book on its title page to the Yusafzais, as well as his wish recorded therein to be considered as an “honourary Yusafzai” – a tribe which, like all the Sarabani Pashtuns, constituted the backbone of the British Raj in its Pashtun theatre throughout. On the other hand, eminent scholastic personages such as Pakistan’s foremost historical authority, the late Dr. A.H. Dani – though he belonged to the Northern Areas himself – has declined any mention of the Kingdom of Swat, save for a few sentences which he has quoted from an English author. He mentions in passing the (Gibari) Sultans of Kashmir, but not in the context of their background or the nature of their linkages with Swat. Awareness of this history has tended to exist as a memory in the informal oral discourse of the local countryside, and its illiterate folkloric milieu. Or it remained as confidential knowledge circulating among the local rural elites, discussed discreetly. These events are also extensively recorded in the traditional vernacular histories of the Yusafzais themselves, in books such as Tawareekh-i-Hafiz Rehmat Khani and books by the contemporary saint Akhund Darweza such as Tazkiratul Abrar Wal Ashraar. But significant as they are, these accounts are far from being mainstream, visible or accessible to modern educated audiences of our own country, let alone internationally.


    Depiction of a Yusufzai warrior
    At times, there even seems to be a formal “cover-up conspiracy” spanning the centuries, with regard to this legacy, and its overthrow and takeover

    Without this historical cover-up, the history and culture and other causes of this area would appear in a new light, and the mysteries and enigmas surrounding it and the historical development of the Pashtun ethnicity, culture and its accurate academic definition – a matter which is so lacking and deficient – would be dispelled. Systems of governance keep changing and social orders come and go all the time. That is what history is all about. But not many situations have such a legacy of hidden skeletons in closets – and not for such extended periods of time. With certain strong parallels to the Norman invasion and takeover of Britain in 1066, the historical process of the fall of the Kingdom of Swat has, however, been obscured by its local perpetrators and their Mughal and later British helpers. And we may surmise that those defeated also remained silent, out of not only fear but shame too. Moreover Britain’s Norman analogy cannot pertain to our present context, as by 1566 – 500 years after its Norman takeover – Britain was on the way to dominating the globe, while the same cannot be said of the inhabitants of the region we are looking at. Unlike the Norman invasion of Britain, the Sarabani-Timurid overthrow of the Kingdom of Swat or the Pakhli Sarkar was more sinister and insidious in character – and some of its consequences are fully manifesting themselves even today, centuries later.


    Discussion of a Tajik presence beyond the Wakhan region, in modern-day
    northern Pakistan, is rare
    Another factor worthy of mention – and one which has greatly aided in uncovering this mystery – is that within the last 15 years, incredible quantum leaps in the scope of the revolutionary young science of genetic genealogy have at last shed light against which no cover-ups can stand a chance. The forcefully absorbed and “Pashtunised” original Tajik populations and lineages of the Peshawar and Swat Valley regions have been revealed in surroundings least expected. Also, startling facts have been revealed behind the true ethnic origins of the presently dominant section of Sarabani Pashtun tribes which suppressed these aboriginal inhabitants 500 years ago, and subsequently also came to dominate their own Afghan ethnicity. Not only that, but genetic studies have corroborated the underlying traditional Ghori Tajik origin the greatest Afghan tribal confederacy, the Bettani (Ghalji) – which is in fact now the largest group of Pashtuns and historically the most accomplished. But that is another subject…

    The writer is an author, activist and researcher into historical matters. He belongs to Shabqadar in Charsadda district, Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa

    https://www.thefridaytimes.com/the-l...s-of-pakistan/
    This is a much relevant piece to this discussion, especially in order to understand the layers of migrations and the socio-political order which began emerging in the early part of the Millennium, about 900 years ago.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bol_nat View Post
    There was also then an old Pashtun tribe in the region, the only Pashtun tribe present at that time – by the name of Dilazak, which was very widely distributed ....... Most of the Dilazak Afghans were much later expelled across the River Indus into Hazara and Chachh areas by the invading Yusafzais and their allies – where they are today. The greater part of those who remained behind most likely changed their identity by adopting the name of their kindred Khattak tribe, which lay further to the south, on the perimeter of Peshawar Valley.
    this correlate well with my travels , i have traveld all over kpk and most indid looking pashtun which i saw are modern khattaks during my visit to a friend in karak and look more like hindko.


    so


    more ancient = most indid (with noticeable exceptions)


    more recent = less indid (with noticeable exceptions)

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  6. #7384
    Goes to show how imporant pop.proxies are with these stat models and the importance of a stat equal weighting when of mixed background. The new Levantine/Anatolian papers coincided with new Gulf Arabian UAE+Kuwait, Moroccan and Iranian matches for me. Need more Omanis to test but that will likely never happen knowing the culture. Family history finally being vindicated. Didn't realise I've been needing Wezmeh too for a hot minute. Lowest distance without over-fitting/reasonable chronology so far..didn't include the Czech Bronze Age sample but for some reason it is preferred. Japanese/Jomon as usual, read a paper on proto-malays and the swahili coast, makes perfect sense. The Alalakh outlier which is preferred for a lot of you on my runs wasn't for me.

    Attachment 37810


    With Megiddo outlier who has Anatolian+Central Asian ancestry far as I know:

    Attachment 37811
    Last edited by ThaYamamoto; 05-30-2020 at 12:49 AM.

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    More from same author.

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE PAKISTANI TAJIK COMMUNITY

    Arif Hasan Akhundzada

    Large populations of ethnic Tajiks and Tajik categories exist in the population of Pakistan, though these may be unrecognizable because they speak Pashto and their identity has remained largely subdued and unrecognised till now. Given below is a breakup of the four significant Tajik communities of Pakistan.

    THE SWATIS — SHALMANIS

    Recent Investigations have highlighted the existence of a previously obscure Tajik kingdom in what now comprises north Pakistan and northeast Afghanistan before the Mughal Empire, and coterminous with the Delhi Sultanate, of which it was a subordinate state engendered by the Ghurid Empire. Sufficient evidence is there to confirm the existence of a sizeable community of Dehqans in the Peshawar Valley, Bajaur, Dir and Swat from Sasanian times and earlier. These were part of the Bactrian Dehqans of Badakhshan, and the adjacent Kunar and Laghman. In this regard, the Shalmani Dehqans are well known. These were Zoroastrians who duly converted to Islam at the hands of the Ghaznavids. A clan from among the Shalmanis was known as “Gabri” — from the pejorative Muslim term for Zoroastrian, Gabr — even long after they accepted Islam. The Gabris (or Gibaris) were the Sultans of the Pech River Valley region in the present day Kunar Province of Afghanistan during the time of the Ghori Sultanate. They formed a faction with two other affiliated clans, the Mitravi (from Mithra) and Mumiali. Acting as Ghori vassals, the Swatis rose and conquered the area from Kabul to Kashmir as Ghori vassals, and became collectively known as Suwadis (later corrupted to Swati). Suwadi was said to be an early Arab revenue term, of Sassanian origin, which referred to the inhabitants of fertile lands irrigated by rivers. The kingdom they ruled became known as the Gabr State or Suwad (Swat) Sultanate. They spoke Gabri, an old and extinct dialect of Dari. Dehqans in this region, though now Pashto speaking — are known to have spoken quaint variations of Persian such as Gabri, Dehqani and Laghmani, the presence here of which is documented by the first Mughal Emperor Babur himself. Though now extinct, these are thought to have been similar to the present day Tajik dialects of Shughni and Rushani.

    In 1339 a Swati adventurer went and settled in Kashmir, where he set up the Shah Miri Dynasty of the first Muslim Sultanate. By this time however, most of the western parts of the Gabr or Swat Sultanate beyond the Sulaiman Mountains and also to the north in the Pamirs, Karakorams and Wakhan had broken away, and in about 1350 what remained was renamed as “Pakhli Sarkar” and was made into a satellite of the powerful and big new Kashmir Sultanate under a mutual agreement. Pakhli Sarkar consisted of five wilayats or provinces: Bajaur, Swat, Buner, Hashtnagar-Bagram and another, Cis-Indus Pakhli. But each of these was far more extensive than the present day units of the same names. Kashmir later protected Pakhli Sarkar from the depredations of Tamerlane when he invaded the area in 1398. However he was permitted to take Pakhli wilayat which was renamed Hazara, where he settled a thousand of his Turkish soldiers who founded a small but long lived Turkish kingdom there.

    The Swat Sultanate/Gabr/Pakhli Sarkar, in its final form as a vassal kingdom of Kashmir — from 1400 to 1519 — was bounded on the north by the Chitral River, to the west by the Sulaiman Mountain range, to the south by River Kabul and on the east by River Indus.
    The Swati Sultanate was brought to an end in 1519 by Babur when he was establishing the Mughal Empire. Earlier, mass Pashtun tribal migrations from Sistan and Kabul towards the Gandhara region had been precipitated by Timurid actions during the 1470s and Babur made use of Yusufzai Pashtun refugees to revolt against the last Sultan of Swat, the decadent Sultan Awais Gabri-Swati who fled north to a remote area of Dir where he and his progeny established their petty fief for about a century, before disappearing from history. Earlier in the same year, Babur had initially attacked and conquered the Bajaur wilayat of the Swat Sultanate, killing its governor Malik Haider Ali Gabri-Swati and reducing his Gabr Fortress called Gabrkot where 3000 inhabitants of the town inside were massacred. Babur immortalizes the gory details of this action in his world renowned autobiography Baburnama, devoting a full chapter to them. (Shah Miri Kashmir was in turn conquered in 1586 by Babur’s grandson Akbar the Great).

    A lot of the Swati ruling class and population who escaped death and subservience were dispersed and fled across the Indus into the Hazara region. Elsewhere, most were forcibly Pashtunised and rapidly assimilated into the tribes of the ever increasing flood of Sarabani Pashtun invaders, thus undergoing a change in ethnic identity. Heavy absorption is indicated in tribes and clans such as the Nekpikhel, Malezai and Ranizai sections of the Yusufzais; Salarzai, Mamund, Mohmand, Daudzai, Kheshgi and so on. Now, only genetic testing can reveal such absorbed Swati-Shalmani bloodlines. Many other Swatis took on the more conducive identity of astanadars (“clerical elite” classes) who although they speak Pashto, are not traditionally regarded as ethnic Pashtuns. With their takeover of the social system of Peshawar Valley, and their own specific form of intimidation and self-glorification, the new “Pashtun” identity of the society became established.

    Only in the inaccessible and backward Mansehra District of the remote Hazara Division, do Swatis still retain their old feudal clout, although their old ethnic awareness as Tajiks has almost totally disappeared. They are thought to number about 1.8 million. Although their ethnic status has remained decidedly ambiguous in the past 500 years, in the 20th Century in particular Swatis have tried to get recognition as being of Pashtun pedigree, and may have succeeded in the era of Pashtun “internet nationalism” as it doesn’t require much to get ingratiated in this manner.

    Remnants of the Shalmanis exist all over the Peshawar Valley area in sizeable communities. They are mostly absorbed into the Mohmand Pashtun tribe, and are as such known by that identity too. They maintain their traditions of origin from Assyrian areas now in Iranian and Iraqi Kurdistan, and this seems to be supported by genetic evidence, especially as far as the Y-Haplogroup Q-Y1150 is concerned. They also have vague yet strong traditions of calling themselves “Arabs” who are descended from “Sikandar Zulqarnain” (thought to be Cyrus the Great) — a trait which they share with other Dehqans from the same ancient Bactria-Gandhara region. Shalmanis also call themselves Soleimani. Both Shalmani and Soleimani are also prominent names in Iran. It is evident that the Shalmani-Swati Dehqans are the chief indigenous Tajik community of this region, having a longstanding presence here that likely exceeds 2000 years.

    Other Pashtunised clans of known Tajik Dehqan origin in the Peshawar Valley and surrounding environs are the Papinkhels, Akhundkhels, Farmulis, Sargani, Behsud and Roghani. Suspected also are the Pashtun Utmankhels, Yusufzai Degankhels and Waziri Degankhels.

    THE “SHAAREY” TAJIKS OF DIR

    Besides indigenous Swatis, and Dehqans who live in Talash Valley, Dir is also home to a large Tajik community of labourers who were recently (within the last century) “imported” here after 1897 by its former ruler the Nawab of Dir — from Parwan and Panjsher across the Durand Line. They comprise of ahingars (blacksmiths) and kamangars (makers of bows and arrows or armourers). They formerly manufactured armaments for the Nawab’s armies. Being poor and landless artisans for the most part, they are still looked down upon as an underclass by the other, indigenous Tajiks such as the Swatis and Dehqans who are better off than them. These Tajiks however, are fully conscious of their Tajik identity and proudly flaunt it — even though they are totally Pashtunised. Being poor they are deeply conservative and religious. They are pejoratively referred to by their Swati and other detractors as “Shaarey”, a word meaning “barren” or destitute — which is taken from the Village Shaara where one of their prominent ancestors is buried. Many others, such as Kohistani Dards, Gujjars and destitute Pashtuns of the Malezai tribe are also believed to have joined the ranks of these Tajiks, and adopted this name for themselves.
    It is widely held that the Pakistani Taliban revolt of 2009 in the Dir-Swat region was actually a broad based class revolt against Pashtun overlordship, and largely consisted of such poor Tajiks, Gujjars and Swatis. Religion merely furnished it with a suitable ideology where none other existed or was acceptable. The notorious Dir cleric Maulana Sufi Muhammad’s Tajik roots are known, while his late son-in-law Maulana Fazlullah who was head of the Pakistani Taliban, belonged to the elitist Nekpikhel clan of Yusufzai Pashtuns — a clan known to comprise of 50% “absorbed” and hidden or “occluded” Swati Tajiks.

    THE TAJIKS OF KILLI KABIR — QUETTA

    There exists a very large community of recent Tajik immigrant arrivals in Killi Kabir, a large village within the environs of Quetta Cantonment in Balochistan Province, Pakistan. They began emigrating to Quetta from the Kandahar area in the early 20th Century and the process continues to date. Most of these Tajiks are established and wealthy, having arrived here before the creation of Pakistan in 1947. They operate in the lucrative fruit and gemstone trades of Quetta City, and own a media publishing house — and are politically and socially influential and respected. Most of them now speak Pashto, but a sizeable number are also fluent in Persian.
    However, many people suspect that some prominent leaders of this community facilitate the obtaining of Pakistani identity papers by Afghan refugees to pass themselves off as “Pakistani” Tajiks related to those of Kili Kabir, thus making it easy for them to obtain Pakistani citizenship on questionable grounds. The fact that there exist rival political pressure groups within this community seems to confirm this.

    THE DEHWAR TAJIKS OF BALOCHISTAN

    This is a large Tajik community that has been living in Balochistan for about three centuries. Originally, they were brought here by Nader Shah Afshar, to man the bureaucracy of his ally, the Khan of Kalat. Now an influential feudal community of Balochistan, the Dehwars speak their own dialect of Persian called Dehwari — but they are otherwise also heavily influenced by the local Balochi and Brahui cultures and languages.

    THE BETTANI PASHTUN TRIBAL CONFEDERACY

    These constitute the biggest Pashtun tribal confederacy — and were those “Pashtuns” who achieved historical greatness by conquest and rule in both India and Iran. Their traditional genealogical legend attests to interesting Tajik origins and linkages — as well as the presence in it, and among them, of names such as Suri, which may prove to be ancient linkages with the famed Parthian House of Suren. Not only does their geographic location conform to what this legend relates, but the genealogical legend of the origins of the Bettani confederacy corresponds to what is academically known regarding them — and it seems to echo complex and historically documented processes of ethnic fusion (between the Ghori Tajiks and the Khiljis/Khalaj Turks which then resulted in the formation of the “Ghiljis”) — which was further subject to a process of Afghanisation or “Pashtunisation” because their present identity is Afghan but it differs a lot from that of other Afghans, such as the Sarabanis in terms of behavior and characteristics one may term as “Tajik”. However the nature of this subject is such that it merits separate discussion elsewhere.

    NOTE: The tiny Tajik minority communities of northern Pakistan — such as the Wakhis and Gojalis found in Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan need a separate discussion, due to the fact that they are known as such, are located very near to Tajikistan and are on Pakistan’s peripheries; therefore I have not mentioned these for obvious reasons in this article — which deals primarily with “lost” Tajiks.

    THE STATE OF TAJIK HISTORIOGRAPHY IN PAKISTAN

    Mainstream historiography in general is an extremely neglected and shoddily treated subject in Pakistan. Therefore it should come as no surprise that the historiography of Tajiks in the region of the world now known as Pakistan is practically nil. Till very recently, it comprised of a large number of stray references, buried in the voluminous literature produced by 19th Century officials of the British Raj, as well as a few classic Muslim history books.

    In 2002, the late Prof. Muhammad Akhtar, a Swati who was a bureaucrat, lawyer, and researcher — published a groundbreaking work on the history of the Tajik Swatis in the background of internationally accepted history. This book was published as a private effort, consisting of a run of 10,000 copies, but remained largely unnoticed for the next 15 years even in the locality of its publication (the city of Abbottabad). In 2017 this author, who is a scholar of Shalmani origin and based in the city of Peshawar, published a research paper based on the above book and other available material — which introduced the subject of Swati Tajiks and other Tajiks in Pakistan to the world at large and the academic community. A condensed version of this academic paper was published as a newspaper article by the notable Pakistani weekly The Friday Times which became very popular and was subsequently widely distributed by Tajiks in Afghanistan and Tajikistan. This was followed by translations of the article and interviews of the author published by websites and newspapers in Tajikistan and Afghanistan. These publications and efforts received much acclaim and notice. Earlier in 2016 some scholars of Hazara University had also published a brief research paper on the Gibar Sultanate, but it still remains unnoticed.

    Despite many Pakistani citizens of Tajik origin being aware of their heritage, and using the term “Tajik” in their names — the Government of Pakistan does not officially recognize the existence of Tajiks among its officially listed ethnic categories. The result is that Tajiks are lumped together with the ethnicity associated with their area of domicile and the language they speak (e.g. mostly Pashtun, Baloch and others). The historiography of Tajiks in this region — if properly investigated, may well prove to be the basis of its actual history, including matters now bluntly taken to be “Pashtun”.

    https://medium.com/@akhundzadaarifha...y-e2558cd2ce3f

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    Anyone have unscaled AASI sims? Would be appreciated

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    Here is another piece by Akhundzada Sb:
    https://medium.com/@akhundzadaarifha...s-fbc2c5136589

    ON THE SHALMANIS AND THEIR ORIGINS
    Akhundzada Arif Hasan Khan
    Akhundzada Arif Hasan Khan
    May 3 · 4 min read

    Shalmanis are considered as the indigenous Dehqans [ethnic Tajiks] of what is now Pakistan — if not the main local denomination of this ancient Persian social category. All evidence points to their being the most ancient of the Persian peoples present in Gandhara — and this is important, as it is well known that Gandhara was a Persian imperial satrapy (province) in one or another form continuously from 550 BC to 651 AD. The Shalmanis therefore formed the backbone of ancient Persian polity and administration here — although it is evident all along that they were a minority. Though now reduced to remnants and traces absorbed by other tribes of the currently dominant Afghan ethnicity, there is fragmented evidence to prove that the Shalmanis were once very influential in times long forgotten. The fall of Persia to Islam ushered in 350 years of Indo-Hunnic rule over Khorasan and the Gandhara region, which seemingly eclipsed the status of the Shalmanis, relegating them socially and diluting their Zoroastrian creed. However in the early Islamic times especially the Ghori period, the Shalmanis continued to perform the same social role — and are believed to have been the parent stock, if not allied Dehqans of the Swati Tajiks who ruled Gandhara from AD 1190 to 1520 till the Afghan tribal invasions changed everything.

    The Arabs have since long called the Afghans of this region “Sulemanis” — although they might well have been referring to the people they originally met here when they conquered the place 1000 years ago.

    In continuation of the above related facts and inferences, it can be further surmised that the now obscure Shalmani legacy and influence may well have given rise to many core legends regarding the origins and identity of the later Pashtuns-Afghans, which are now twisted and cloaked in confusion. Cogent arguments to this effect exist, and the Shalmanis and their history can provide the basic part of the key to the puzzle of the formation of the Pashtun-Afghan ethnicity, if not the whole — and how it evolved from the larger Iranian matrix of Khorasan.

    Below are some slides made from screenshots….one is a badly spelled and written entry from the website <khyber.org> detailing the so-called “Pashtun” and former Tajik tribe of Shilmani (or Shalmani). Another is from the discussion forum of the Russian molecular genetics website <molgen.ru> containing an observation by Russian expert and researcher Dr. Vladimir Gurianov regarding my [Shalmani] family’s Y-chromosome and how it compares very closely with Iraqi Christian (Assyrian or “Crypto-Iranian”) samples. Another double-photo shows two mountains in Swat and Iranian Kurdistan having the same name of “Ilum”. Another one is a map, which shows the location of a town called “Shalman” in Iran’s Gilan Province…

    What I want to demonstrate here is that most of the factual information contained in Shalmani/Swati traditional legends of Assyrian/Kurdistani/ “Arab” origin — albeit sparse and fragmentary — are corroborated not only by circumstantial evidence of correspondences, but also by my own family’s patrilineal genetic matches.

    Finally, it seems to me that the origin of the name “Shalman” is connected to the name of the Assyrian underworld deity, Shulman — from whom the Assyrian kings of the same name derived it.


    REFERENCES AND LINKS

    http://www.khyber.org/pashtotribes/s/shilmani.shtml

    http://forum.molgen.org/index.php/to...HSYM#msg210374

    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shalman

    https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shulmanu?wprov=sfla1

    [Michael Jordan, Encyclopedia of Gods, Kyle Cathie Limited, 2002]

    The images, screenshots from this note are on the Medium Story(in the Medium link).
    Last edited by Rahuls77; 05-30-2020 at 09:23 PM.

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    Quote Originally Posted by beyondAtheism View Post
    It's interesting that there is a Pashtun tribe with the name Afridi in NW Pakistan. Afridi seems related to Fereydun (Traitana/Trita), who it is said came from around Bannu in Pakistan. It was Fereydun who defeated AzDahak and hence united the Iranian Aryan lands under the banner of Kaviani Kingship (Derafsh-Kaviani).

    The conquest of the Western farming Kingdoms by the still nomadic Iranian Aryans gives the Iranians control of Central Asia, Iran and Hindustan, thus, in 3,500BC we see a transition to farming and settled life in Central and South Asia, resulting in the first Aryan settled cultures, the BMAC and the IVC.

    The Pashtuns play the most significant role in geopolitics around 4,000-3,000BC. They connect Iran with Central and South Asia. It was the Pashtuns who won the Aryan territory from the Anatolian/Mespotamian Azi Dahaka and layed the foundation for the classical Iranian culture of the BMAC. It is around the same time we see an expansion of Central Asian nomads like the Yamnaya and Afanasievo.

    Such is the history of these peoples, as is told by traditional accounts, held in high-esteem amongst those of unsurpassed knowledge and wisdom.
    Afridi Pakhtoon
    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    ... forum member Mehrdad is an Afridi Pakhtoon on his paternal side.
    He happens to be R-L657 (Y7).
    ...

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    Quote Originally Posted by ThaYamamoto View Post
    Anyone have unscaled AASI sims? Would be appreciated
    I don't believe anyone simulated those. You can use Mala instead and calculate the proportions yourself.

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    Quote Originally Posted by bol_nat View Post
    More from same author.

    AN OVERVIEW OF THE PAKISTANI TAJIK COMMUNITY

    Arif Hasan Akhundzada

    Large populations of ethnic Tajiks and Tajik categories exist in the population of Pakistan, though these may be unrecognizable because they speak Pashto and their identity has remained largely subdued and unrecognised till now. Given below is a breakup of the four significant Tajik communities of Pakistan.

    THE SWATIS — SHALMANIS

    Recent Investigations have highlighted the existence of a previously obscure Tajik kingdom in what now comprises north Pakistan and northeast Afghanistan before the Mughal Empire, and coterminous with the Delhi Sultanate, of which it was a subordinate state engendered by the Ghurid Empire. Sufficient evidence is there to confirm the existence of a sizeable community of Dehqans in the Peshawar Valley, Bajaur, Dir and Swat from Sasanian times and earlier. These were part of the Bactrian Dehqans of Badakhshan, and the adjacent Kunar and Laghman. In this regard, the Shalmani Dehqans are well known. These were Zoroastrians who duly converted to Islam at the hands of the Ghaznavids. A clan from among the Shalmanis was known as “Gabri” — from the pejorative Muslim term for Zoroastrian, Gabr — even long after they accepted Islam. The Gabris (or Gibaris) were the Sultans of the Pech River Valley region in the present day Kunar Province of Afghanistan during the time of the Ghori Sultanate. They formed a faction with two other affiliated clans, the Mitravi (from Mithra) and Mumiali. Acting as Ghori vassals, the Swatis rose and conquered the area from Kabul to Kashmir as Ghori vassals, and became collectively known as Suwadis (later corrupted to Swati). Suwadi was said to be an early Arab revenue term, of Sassanian origin, which referred to the inhabitants of fertile lands irrigated by rivers. The kingdom they ruled became known as the Gabr State or Suwad (Swat) Sultanate. They spoke Gabri, an old and extinct dialect of Dari. Dehqans in this region, though now Pashto speaking — are known to have spoken quaint variations of Persian such as Gabri, Dehqani and Laghmani, the presence here of which is documented by the first Mughal Emperor Babur himself. Though now extinct, these are thought to have been similar to the present day Tajik dialects of Shughni and Rushani.

    In 1339 a Swati adventurer went and settled in Kashmir, where he set up the Shah Miri Dynasty of the first Muslim Sultanate. By this time however, most of the western parts of the Gabr or Swat Sultanate beyond the Sulaiman Mountains and also to the north in the Pamirs, Karakorams and Wakhan had broken away, and in about 1350 what remained was renamed as “Pakhli Sarkar” and was made into a satellite of the powerful and big new Kashmir Sultanate under a mutual agreement. Pakhli Sarkar consisted of five wilayats or provinces: Bajaur, Swat, Buner, Hashtnagar-Bagram and another, Cis-Indus Pakhli. But each of these was far more extensive than the present day units of the same names. Kashmir later protected Pakhli Sarkar from the depredations of Tamerlane when he invaded the area in 1398. However he was permitted to take Pakhli wilayat which was renamed Hazara, where he settled a thousand of his Turkish soldiers who founded a small but long lived Turkish kingdom there.

    The Swat Sultanate/Gabr/Pakhli Sarkar, in its final form as a vassal kingdom of Kashmir — from 1400 to 1519 — was bounded on the north by the Chitral River, to the west by the Sulaiman Mountain range, to the south by River Kabul and on the east by River Indus.
    The Swati Sultanate was brought to an end in 1519 by Babur when he was establishing the Mughal Empire. Earlier, mass Pashtun tribal migrations from Sistan and Kabul towards the Gandhara region had been precipitated by Timurid actions during the 1470s and Babur made use of Yusufzai Pashtun refugees to revolt against the last Sultan of Swat, the decadent Sultan Awais Gabri-Swati who fled north to a remote area of Dir where he and his progeny established their petty fief for about a century, before disappearing from history. Earlier in the same year, Babur had initially attacked and conquered the Bajaur wilayat of the Swat Sultanate, killing its governor Malik Haider Ali Gabri-Swati and reducing his Gabr Fortress called Gabrkot where 3000 inhabitants of the town inside were massacred. Babur immortalizes the gory details of this action in his world renowned autobiography Baburnama, devoting a full chapter to them. (Shah Miri Kashmir was in turn conquered in 1586 by Babur’s grandson Akbar the Great).

    A lot of the Swati ruling class and population who escaped death and subservience were dispersed and fled across the Indus into the Hazara region. Elsewhere, most were forcibly Pashtunised and rapidly assimilated into the tribes of the ever increasing flood of Sarabani Pashtun invaders, thus undergoing a change in ethnic identity. Heavy absorption is indicated in tribes and clans such as the Nekpikhel, Malezai and Ranizai sections of the Yusufzais; Salarzai, Mamund, Mohmand, Daudzai, Kheshgi and so on. Now, only genetic testing can reveal such absorbed Swati-Shalmani bloodlines. Many other Swatis took on the more conducive identity of astanadars (“clerical elite” classes) who although they speak Pashto, are not traditionally regarded as ethnic Pashtuns. With their takeover of the social system of Peshawar Valley, and their own specific form of intimidation and self-glorification, the new “Pashtun” identity of the society became established.

    Only in the inaccessible and backward Mansehra District of the remote Hazara Division, do Swatis still retain their old feudal clout, although their old ethnic awareness as Tajiks has almost totally disappeared. They are thought to number about 1.8 million. Although their ethnic status has remained decidedly ambiguous in the past 500 years, in the 20th Century in particular Swatis have tried to get recognition as being of Pashtun pedigree, and may have succeeded in the era of Pashtun “internet nationalism” as it doesn’t require much to get ingratiated in this manner.

    Remnants of the Shalmanis exist all over the Peshawar Valley area in sizeable communities. They are mostly absorbed into the Mohmand Pashtun tribe, and are as such known by that identity too. They maintain their traditions of origin from Assyrian areas now in Iranian and Iraqi Kurdistan, and this seems to be supported by genetic evidence, especially as far as the Y-Haplogroup Q-Y1150 is concerned. They also have vague yet strong traditions of calling themselves “Arabs” who are descended from “Sikandar Zulqarnain” (thought to be Cyrus the Great) — a trait which they share with other Dehqans from the same ancient Bactria-Gandhara region. Shalmanis also call themselves Soleimani. Both Shalmani and Soleimani are also prominent names in Iran. It is evident that the Shalmani-Swati Dehqans are the chief indigenous Tajik community of this region, having a longstanding presence here that likely exceeds 2000 years.

    Other Pashtunised clans of known Tajik Dehqan origin in the Peshawar Valley and surrounding environs are the Papinkhels, Akhundkhels, Farmulis, Sargani, Behsud and Roghani. Suspected also are the Pashtun Utmankhels, Yusufzai Degankhels and Waziri Degankhels.

    THE “SHAAREY” TAJIKS OF DIR

    Besides indigenous Swatis, and Dehqans who live in Talash Valley, Dir is also home to a large Tajik community of labourers who were recently (within the last century) “imported” here after 1897 by its former ruler the Nawab of Dir — from Parwan and Panjsher across the Durand Line. They comprise of ahingars (blacksmiths) and kamangars (makers of bows and arrows or armourers). They formerly manufactured armaments for the Nawab’s armies. Being poor and landless artisans for the most part, they are still looked down upon as an underclass by the other, indigenous Tajiks such as the Swatis and Dehqans who are better off than them. These Tajiks however, are fully conscious of their Tajik identity and proudly flaunt it — even though they are totally Pashtunised. Being poor they are deeply conservative and religious. They are pejoratively referred to by their Swati and other detractors as “Shaarey”, a word meaning “barren” or destitute — which is taken from the Village Shaara where one of their prominent ancestors is buried. Many others, such as Kohistani Dards, Gujjars and destitute Pashtuns of the Malezai tribe are also believed to have joined the ranks of these Tajiks, and adopted this name for themselves.
    It is widely held that the Pakistani Taliban revolt of 2009 in the Dir-Swat region was actually a broad based class revolt against Pashtun overlordship, and largely consisted of such poor Tajiks, Gujjars and Swatis. Religion merely furnished it with a suitable ideology where none other existed or was acceptable. The notorious Dir cleric Maulana Sufi Muhammad’s Tajik roots are known, while his late son-in-law Maulana Fazlullah who was head of the Pakistani Taliban, belonged to the elitist Nekpikhel clan of Yusufzai Pashtuns — a clan known to comprise of 50% “absorbed” and hidden or “occluded” Swati Tajiks.

    THE TAJIKS OF KILLI KABIR — QUETTA

    There exists a very large community of recent Tajik immigrant arrivals in Killi Kabir, a large village within the environs of Quetta Cantonment in Balochistan Province, Pakistan. They began emigrating to Quetta from the Kandahar area in the early 20th Century and the process continues to date. Most of these Tajiks are established and wealthy, having arrived here before the creation of Pakistan in 1947. They operate in the lucrative fruit and gemstone trades of Quetta City, and own a media publishing house — and are politically and socially influential and respected. Most of them now speak Pashto, but a sizeable number are also fluent in Persian.
    However, many people suspect that some prominent leaders of this community facilitate the obtaining of Pakistani identity papers by Afghan refugees to pass themselves off as “Pakistani” Tajiks related to those of Kili Kabir, thus making it easy for them to obtain Pakistani citizenship on questionable grounds. The fact that there exist rival political pressure groups within this community seems to confirm this.

    THE DEHWAR TAJIKS OF BALOCHISTAN

    This is a large Tajik community that has been living in Balochistan for about three centuries. Originally, they were brought here by Nader Shah Afshar, to man the bureaucracy of his ally, the Khan of Kalat. Now an influential feudal community of Balochistan, the Dehwars speak their own dialect of Persian called Dehwari — but they are otherwise also heavily influenced by the local Balochi and Brahui cultures and languages.

    THE BETTANI PASHTUN TRIBAL CONFEDERACY

    These constitute the biggest Pashtun tribal confederacy — and were those “Pashtuns” who achieved historical greatness by conquest and rule in both India and Iran. Their traditional genealogical legend attests to interesting Tajik origins and linkages — as well as the presence in it, and among them, of names such as Suri, which may prove to be ancient linkages with the famed Parthian House of Suren. Not only does their geographic location conform to what this legend relates, but the genealogical legend of the origins of the Bettani confederacy corresponds to what is academically known regarding them — and it seems to echo complex and historically documented processes of ethnic fusion (between the Ghori Tajiks and the Khiljis/Khalaj Turks which then resulted in the formation of the “Ghiljis”) — which was further subject to a process of Afghanisation or “Pashtunisation” because their present identity is Afghan but it differs a lot from that of other Afghans, such as the Sarabanis in terms of behavior and characteristics one may term as “Tajik”. However the nature of this subject is such that it merits separate discussion elsewhere.

    NOTE: The tiny Tajik minority communities of northern Pakistan — such as the Wakhis and Gojalis found in Chitral and Gilgit-Baltistan need a separate discussion, due to the fact that they are known as such, are located very near to Tajikistan and are on Pakistan’s peripheries; therefore I have not mentioned these for obvious reasons in this article — which deals primarily with “lost” Tajiks.

    THE STATE OF TAJIK HISTORIOGRAPHY IN PAKISTAN

    Mainstream historiography in general is an extremely neglected and shoddily treated subject in Pakistan. Therefore it should come as no surprise that the historiography of Tajiks in the region of the world now known as Pakistan is practically nil. Till very recently, it comprised of a large number of stray references, buried in the voluminous literature produced by 19th Century officials of the British Raj, as well as a few classic Muslim history books.

    In 2002, the late Prof. Muhammad Akhtar, a Swati who was a bureaucrat, lawyer, and researcher — published a groundbreaking work on the history of the Tajik Swatis in the background of internationally accepted history. This book was published as a private effort, consisting of a run of 10,000 copies, but remained largely unnoticed for the next 15 years even in the locality of its publication (the city of Abbottabad). In 2017 this author, who is a scholar of Shalmani origin and based in the city of Peshawar, published a research paper based on the above book and other available material — which introduced the subject of Swati Tajiks and other Tajiks in Pakistan to the world at large and the academic community. A condensed version of this academic paper was published as a newspaper article by the notable Pakistani weekly The Friday Times which became very popular and was subsequently widely distributed by Tajiks in Afghanistan and Tajikistan. This was followed by translations of the article and interviews of the author published by websites and newspapers in Tajikistan and Afghanistan. These publications and efforts received much acclaim and notice. Earlier in 2016 some scholars of Hazara University had also published a brief research paper on the Gibar Sultanate, but it still remains unnoticed.

    Despite many Pakistani citizens of Tajik origin being aware of their heritage, and using the term “Tajik” in their names — the Government of Pakistan does not officially recognize the existence of Tajiks among its officially listed ethnic categories. The result is that Tajiks are lumped together with the ethnicity associated with their area of domicile and the language they speak (e.g. mostly Pashtun, Baloch and others). The historiography of Tajiks in this region — if properly investigated, may well prove to be the basis of its actual history, including matters now bluntly taken to be “Pashtun”.

    https://medium.com/@akhundzadaarifha...y-e2558cd2ce3f
    I don't think this guy can and should be taken seriously. At first the native/pre-Pashtun population of Swat was neither Zoroastrian or Tajik. It was Indo-Aryan and similar to Gandhara_IA. Not even most Iranics in Afghanistan were Zoroastrian in the strict sense (many pre-Zoroastrian, Indo-Aryan and local elements in the pre-Islamic religion of Iranics there). Also even the Tajiks regions in eastern Afghanistan were often just very recently persianized.

    Second Pashtuns tribes are not of "Tajik" origin. The ethnonym Tajik is quite recent in Afghanistan and rather an umbrella term for all Persian-speaking people in the region with no tribal identity anymore. It is rather the other way around that many Pashtuns were persianized and adopted a Persian/Tajik identity quite recently. But this not just happened with Pashtuns. Kashmiri mixed people in Kabul also identify as Tajiks today for example.

    This is again just a try to dissociate the ancient history of the region with the Indic world.
    Last edited by Coldmountains; 05-31-2020 at 05:08 AM.

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