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Thread: Chronology of European mtDNA

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    Chronology of European mtDNA

    42,000 year old statue of half man half lion from southern Germany.

    This all just MY OPINON I know I saw it authoritatively if I have any errors please correct me and I am not claiming to be an expert.


    To see how popular these haplogroups are in Europe click here.

    This is all just my opinion on what the Chronology of European mtDNA. Europeans, north Africans, and Near easterns have been shown in globe13, skull shape, etc. to be apart of the same family called Caucasians. After the first humans arrived in Europe from the Near east 50,000-60,000ybp there were more migrations than that and back migrations from Europe and also migrations from the Near east into North Africa and from Europe too. This can help understand why Europeans, Near easterns, and north Africans share so many of the same mtDNA haplogroups and deep subclades.

    U 40,000-60,000ybp: U migrated to Europe arriving first around 50,000-60,000ybp and developed into U5 while in Europe about 50,000ybp. Also ancient DNA shows subclades U2(developed into U2e while in Europe) and U8 most likely arrived in Europe from the Near east over 40,000ybp.

    HV and H
    25,000-35,000ybp: HV would have migrated to Europe around 25,000-35,000ybp(possibly with Gravettian culture) and forming into V while in Iberia about 15,000ybp. H would have migrated to Europe also about 25,000-35,000ybp while in Iberia formed into H1 and H3 about 15,000ybp.

    J,T,X, and U4: Most likely migrated to Europe right after LGM about 19,000-15,000ybp. Evidence J, T, and X are not Neolithic even though there are no Mesolithic hunter gather samples. Is that they are just as popular in central and northern Scandinavia as the rest of Europe. While Y DNA spread in the Neolithic G2a, E1b1b(mainly V13 and other M78 subclades), and some J1,J2, and T are almost completely absent in Scandinavia and only get over 1% in southern Scandinavia. Austomally Finnish and Soumi are least similar to Neolithic and copper age European farmer samples and most similar to Mesolithic and Neolithic European hunter gather samples.

    K, some subclades of H ,U, J and T:
    I don't know any hard evidence but there was at least some subclades from these haplogroups that came to Europe with the diffusion of agriculture from the Near east mainly 6,000-9,000ybp.
    Last edited by Fire Haired; 10-09-2013 at 02:17 AM.

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    26,000 year old Mammoth Ivory carving of Male head in Dolni Vestonice, Czech republic same place two 31,155ybp mtDNA U5 samples were found and one U8.

    U
    Distribution map of mtDNA U
    mtDNA U is estimated to be about 60,000 years old and originating in the Near east. Here is a Research article on U5(The peopling of Europe from a U5 perspective). The article says U5 is almost only European it is very rare in the Near east and north Africa were it is under deep European subclades. They estimated U5 as 25,000-30,000 years old click here FTDNA estimates it is 25,000-47,000 years old and click here Eupedia says U5 is 50,000 years old. 2013 study by fu et al. found two U5's in Czech republic human remains dated as 31,155 years old with one U8. The oldest mtDNA sample from Europe from Kostenki Russia is dated 37,985 years old and had U2. U5 takes up the majority of all mtDNA samples from European hunter gathers in Paleoithic and Mesolithic age(ancient Eurasian DNA). U I think migrated to Europe from the Near east with maybe the earliest human settlement in Europe 50,000-60,000ybp and became U5 while in Europe about 50,000ybp. The article about U5 and the peopling of Europe also says
    There are two U5 subhaplogroups, U5a and U5b, dating back to ~27 ky each, thus implying that they both originated before the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM)


    And a quote from FTDNA
    The earliest branching of U5 is its two subclades U5a and U5b that have been dated to about 27,000 years ago by Soares et al., while Behar et al. have a younger estimate of about 22,000 years. U5a is defined by two additional mutations A14793G and C16256T, while U5b is defined by three additional mutations C150T, A7768G and T14182C.

    Beginning about 25,000 years ago, the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) forced U5a and U5b into ice age refugia in southern Europe and perhaps Ukraine and the Near East. U5a has only two known subclades, U5a1 and U5a2, both estimated to be about 20,000 years old. U5b has only three known subclades, U5b1, U5b2 and U5b3, also estimated to be about 20,000 years old. However, age estimates for these subclades from Behar and from Soares vary over a range of 16,000 to 24,000 years. While there is uncertainty in the age estimates of these subclades, it seems likely that a population decline during the LGM is the cause of the lack of ancient diversity or branching in haplogroup U5. It also seems likely that U5a1, U5a2, U5b1, U5b2 and U5b3 were each present in ice age refugia in southern Europe.

    Another quote from the article of U5 and the peopling of Europe

    Analysis of mtDNA hypervariable segment I (HVS I) sequences in modern European populations revealed the presence of a bulk of hg U5 subclusters that demonstrated coalescence ages around 11–13 ky and less [8]. Expansions of such U5-subclusters are thought to be linked to favorable climatic changes of the Holocene

    So U5's subclades U5a and U5b according to this study's age estimates would have started before the last glacial maximum did 26,600ybp but then took southern refuge's during the last glacial maximum 26,600-19,000ybp when it ended 19,000ybp expanded and helped repopulate central and northern Europe. To read more on what they have to say on specific U5 subclades click on the articles link.

    Ancient DNA shows U2 and U8 were also in Europe over 30,000ybp. According to Wikpedia mtDNA U page click here U2 is spread acroos Europe and the Near east but is very rare and is most popular in India with a large amount of subclade U2i and in Europe U2e is common. Which I would guess developed from U2 that arrived in Europe maybe 40,000- 50,000 years ago. According to Wikpedia U8 page it's subclade U8a is found in Basque(southwestern France and northern Spain) and U8b exists in Italy and Jordan so that's is not nearly enough info to say if it originated in Europe or the Near east either way it has been in Europe for over 30,000 years.

    Combined U4 and U5 take up 90% of Mesolithic hunter gather European mtDNA samples. So far with little Paleoithic European mtDNA samples U4 has not been found. U4 according to Wikipedia, Eupedia, and Gen.com is estimated as 25,000 years old. And that it is most common in northern and eastern Europe, South asia, and central asia. I don't have an opinon on where it originated but the reason why it exists in central asia and south asia could be because of the migration of Indo Europeans from Yamna culture in Russia starting 5,000ybp. They spread Indo Iranian and maybe Tocherian languages and Y DNA R1a1a1b2 Z93, possibly with minority R1b1a1 M73 and J2b. U4 is in early Indo Iranian Andronovo culture in central Siberia dating 3,400-3,800ybp(Ancient Eurasian DNA). The oldest U4 sample in Europe is from a about 8,850 year old sample of Mesloithic hunter gather in Bad Dürrenberg Germany. Since it was so popular in Mesolithic European hunter gathers all U4's coming from northern and eastern Europe I think U4 arrived around 10,000-20,000ybp and spread after the last glacial maximum or originated in Europe.

    According to Wikipedia U1 is mostly in the Near east with very low frequency's acroos Europe but extremely rare in the Atlantic fringes of Europe including Scandinavia and the British isles. U1a is found from Europe to India and that U1b has a similar spread but is more rare. I would assume that means U1 that does exist in Europe and India probably came from the near east in the last 10,000 years. U3 according to Wikpedia and FTDNA to be highest around the black sea and FTDNA say estimated to be 35,000-45,000 years old. I don't really know what to say but since it is not very spread out in Europe I doubt like H1,H3, and U5 that it is arrived or was major in Paleoithic-Mesloithic Europe could have spread from just inter marriage over time or in Neolithic. U7, U9, and U6 are almost completely absent in Europe so deifntley not originating in Europe and the U7 in Europe is probably just inter marriage over time or spread in Neolithic.
    U6 for north Africa is like U5 for Europe it Is estimated to have originated in north Africa with the earliest Caucasian settlement about 50,000 years ago.
    distribution map of U7
    u7.png

    mtDNA K is a subclade of U8 according to Eupedia and FTDNA is about 16,000 years old and originated in the Near east. Being most popular in central and northwest Europe, Anatolia, and southern Arabian peninsula. It is found in 6,700-9,400 year old mtDNA in pre potter Neolithic Syria and at the same rate in Neolithic European samples as in modern Europeans. From the few K samples in Neolithic-copper age Europe that show their subclade all are under K1 three under K1a and two K1b. K1 takes up the majority of European K but I am not sure about Near eastern. All I have been able to learn is it most likely spread to Europe form the Near east in the Neolithic age.
    Last edited by Fire Haired; 10-09-2013 at 02:05 AM.

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    25,000 year old Female Venus Head from in Brassempouy, France Gravettian culture which may have introduced HV and H into Europe

    HV
    HV including its two subclades V and H. V is estimated as 13,000 years old according to FTDNA, 16,000 years old according to Geni, and 9,800 years old according to Wikpedia. All put Wikpedia say it most likely originated in Iberian refuge with H1,H3, and U5b1b then repopulated much of central and northern Europe after they began to warm up about 15,000ybp. Wikpedia says it most likely spread from the Near east in the Neolithic so spreading in Europe mainly 9,000-6,000ybp. But this would not explain why about 50% of Soumi in far northern Scandinavia have V. When farming did not spread to central and northern Scandinavia until the bronze age and Y DNA most likely spread to Europe from the Near east in the Neolithic G2a, E1b1b(V13m other M78, and possibly M223), some J1,J2, and T is extremely rare in Scandinavia and almost only exists in far southern Sweden and Norway. Soumi austomaly are the most different from Neolithic European farmer samples and most similar to European hunter gathers from Mesolithic and Neolithic hunter gathers. So out of all Europeans Soumi and central and northern Scandinavians period were the least effected genetically by the spread of farming out of the Near east into Europe. According to ancient north African DNA there are two 12,000 year old V? samples with(11= H,HV, or U? 4=H? 3=RO?) in Taforalt, Moorco meaning there is now way V originated in the Near east only 9,800ybp. The high amount of H and possibly H is evidence for the Iberian migration into northwest Africa around that time with H1,H3, and V. This article (Mitochondrial Haplogroup H1 in North Africa: An Early Holocene Arrival from Iberia) shows strong evidence that H1 in north Africa came there from Iberia about 9,000ybp.


    U5b1b which takes up about the other 50% of Soumi mtDNA also exists in Berbers of north Africa(Saami and Berbers—An Unexpected Mitochondrial DNA Link ). this haplogroup is estimated to be about 9,000 years old and would have migrated to Scandinavia and North Africa originally from Iberia which would also explain the 50% mtDNA V in Soumi is estimated to have split about 7,600ybp.

    H1,H3,V, and U5b1b all most likely spread acroos Europe and north Africa about 15,000-10,000ybp as central and northern Europe warmed up. mtDNA V would have arrived in Europe from the Near east as HV at somepoint I would guess over 30,000ybp. 28,000 year old mtDNA sample in Paglicci Cave, Foggia Italy according to Ancient Eurasian DNA had HV or U but according to Wikpedia scientific team led by David Caramelli found it to be H. 24,000 year old mtDNA sample in the same spot according to ancient Eurasian DNA is HV or RO.

    mtDNA H is estimated according to Eupedia and originated in the Near east over 35,000 years ago I have also heard estimates from 25,000-30,000ybp all saying it originated in the Near east.
    Distribution map of mtDNA haplogroup


    Here is a Article about H(Origin and Expansion of Haplogroup H, the Dominant Human Mitochondrial DNA Lineage in West Eurasia: The Near Eastern and Caucasian Perspective). Like I said before H1 and H3(take up overall +25% of H in Europe) almost deifntley originated in Iberia about 15,000ybp and spread acroos Europe as it warmed up. Like is said before 28,000ybp mtDNA sample in Southern Italy maybe have been H. Also two 25,000ybp mtDNA samples in Sunghir Russia may have been H17 or H27(click here). The article above argues that H subclades Europe and the Near east share most likely arrived in Europe from the Near east after the last Glacier Maximum(LGM) 19,000ybp. And it seems H1 and H3 and maybe some other H subclades arrived in Europe before so about 30,000ybp and expanded after the Last Glacial maximum. There also may have been some H lineages from the Near east brought to Europe with the spread of farming mainly 9,000-6,000ybp. Hervella 2012 found two 15,000 year old H samples one being H6 from Magdalenian Catalonia Spain along with a U5. For phylogenetic tree of H click here. For age estimates of H and subclades click here.

    According to (Learning about mtDNA haplogroup H). H2 is most frequent in eastern Europe and Caucus. And its subclade H2a about 6.5% in eastern Europe mimics the distribution of R1a in Asia(specifically R1a1a1b2 Z93). Probably from eastern European Yamna culture starting about 5,000ybp which spread Indo European languages Tocharian and Indo Iranian throughout Asia. Its coalescence age fall in post glacial recolonization period in Europe. For H4 they say may have spread in LGM from the Near east to Europe or Neolithic. H5 they say is found at low frequencies in Europe and the Near east. Its subclade H5a though is most popular in central and eastern Europe dates to about 7,000-8,000ybp and absent from the Near east and Caucus so probably originated in Europe and H5 may have been brought over from the Near east in the Neolithic or earlier. H6 they say is estimated to be about 40,000 years old and likely originated in central Asia and did not arrive in Europe until 5,000ybp. But there is a 15,000 ybp H6 sample in Magdalenian Catalonia Spain. That H6 is the most popular H subclade in central asia and common in eastern Europe and the Caucus and that the basal type is exclusively European.





    For H7 that is is a very rare subclade of H found in Europe and Near east would have migrated to Europe from the Near east either in the Neolithic or earlier. H8 is very rare In Europe and found mainly in the Near east and central Asia. I was disappointed I could not find any info on my dad's H which is H64 a subclade of H33 which is extremely rare it was not even studied in the article I showed above or mentioned in the all about mtDNA H link or on Wikpedia. In the phylogenetic tree's of H I could find if they showed H33 they didn't show any of its subclades.


    Last edited by Fire Haired; 10-09-2013 at 02:01 AM.

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    15,000 year old Magdalenian human carvings from la Marche cave in western France. Around the Time J and T may have arrived into Europe from the Near east.
    JT
    Here is a research Article on mtDNA JT(Mitochondrial DNA Signals of Late Glacial Recolonization of Europe from Near Eastern Refugia). It is arguing that J and T from the Near east helped recolonize Europe after the last glacial maximum starting 19,000ybp. THe article says JT is estimates as about 58,000 years old and originating in the Near east.


    Distribution maps of J and T from the article.

    You can see their age estimates for J and T on their distribution maps. This article makes It clear that their study will tell more about J and T than previous ones because
    Previous studies comparing haplogroup J and T mtDNAs across the Near East and Europe relied primarily upon variation in the first hypervariable segment of the control region (HVS-I).31,32,38,39 Although they suggest a combination of Neolithic and earlier dispersals, these studies suffer from limited phylogenetic and chronological, and hence also phylogeographic, resolution, which we can now address by assaying the variation in complete mtDNA genomes.


    So pretty much what their saying is previous studies did not understand the family tree of T and J as much, its age, and how it became spread out the way it is today.

    The articles phylogenetic tree's of J and T

    The articles calculated ages of the entire JT phylogeny
    http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...94/table/tbl1/

    If you look at the subclades they say are European and Near eastern then look at age estimates. You can see it matches up pretty well to multiple J and T migrations into Europe from 10,000-20,000 years ago so starting right after the last glacial maximum. For distribution maps of almost all of the T and J subclades click here. This theory does not match up though with no T or J Mesolithic and Paleoithic hunter gather samples in Europe. There is though a T2b from hunter gathers in Gotland Sweden dating 4,800-4,400ybp and a T from hunter gather in Bolshoy Oleni Ostrov, Russia dating 3,500ybp but this is during the Neolithic age and most Europeans were farmers so probably inter marriage with farmers. J and T are about as popular in Neolithic-Iron age European samples as in Europe today and having the same subclade percentages as modern Europeans. I still think saying J and T arrived in Europe with the spread of farming mainly 9,000-6,000ybp from the Near east is still a possibility.
    Last edited by Fire Haired; 10-09-2013 at 02:13 AM.

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    X
    Distribution map of mtDNA X

    mtDNA X is a subclade of N and is estimated to have originated in the Near east about 30,000 years ago. Its subclade X1 is almost completely restricted to Near east, North Africa, and east Africa. But surprisingly there is a X1 sample from Can Sadurnı Spain dating to 7,475-7,305ybp from early Neolithic Cardiel culture but all other X subclades from Neloithic-iron age European samples are X2. X1 is broken down into two subclades X1a and X1b.

    X2 is spread out in Europe, Near east, and North America. Wikpedia says that X2 seems to have undergone population expansion and dispersal about 21,000ybp during the last glacial maximum and that it is strongest in Meditreaen Europe, Near east, and Caucus and that is probably migrated to Europe during the last glacial maximum then spread in central and northern Europe when the glaciers retreated. X2 exists in Neolithic-Iron age European mtDNA samples at the same rate it does today so it at least came to Europe in the Neolithic age. Native American X2 is under subclades X2a and X2g. X2g has not been found in Europe or asia and X2a also exists in Israeli Druze. The X2 around the area of Asia all other Native American mtDNa and Y DNA lineages originated most likely came there through random inter marriage just 5,000 years ago and they could not find any evidence of Native American X2 there. It is estimated to have arrived in North America 15,000-20,000ybp while all other Native American mtDNA which all of their subclades are unique to them are estimated to be 18,000-22,000 years old so X2 may have come from another minor migration into North America. It would have gone through the Near east to Siberia to North America or Near to Europe to North America.

    It has been used as evidence for the Solitarian Hypothesis which is that Paleoithic western European Solutrean culture made it eastern area of North America around 20,000 years ago. In North America X2 is mainly found in northeast and around the Great Lakes north America and then decreases the farther away so that can also be used as evidence. I think it went through Siberia with the main Native American mtDNA haplogroups but since it is restricted to one area maybe from another migration out of Siberia. The reason is the main mtDNA haplogroups of western Europeans at that time ancient DNA and studies have shown would have been U5, H1, and H3 who knows if X had even made it to Europe by that time and I would assume it would be harder to travel from Europe to north America than through asia. And who would keep migrating north father away from plants and animals for food it has been shown it was possible but I doubt Solutrean people would even want to. It makes more sense to me Mongliods in asia randomly into married with Caucasians from the Near east and for somereason only a few who had X2 then that maternal line made to North America 15,000-20,000ybp.


    I and W
    I could not find that much info on these mtDNA haplogroups. They exist in Europe, Near east, and south asia just like most Caucasian mtDNA haplogroups. Wikpedia says W is estimated to be about 23,900 years old and originating in the Near east it is a subclade of N2 and that there is a related unnamed N* subclade in Australian aboriginals. Which is surprising since Austrlien Aboriginals are apart of the Oceania Mongoliod family(globe13) not Caucasian. They most likely left the middle east around 80,000 years ago while Caucasians ancestors stayed. mtDNA I is estimated according to Wikpedia to be about 20,857 years old and originating in the Near east or somewhere else in Europe and Asia. I couldn't find any info on when it should have arrived in Europe. They pop up in Neolithic European mtDNA samples at the same rare rate they are at today so they arrived into Europe at least with the spread of farming out of the Near east mainly 9,000-6,000ybp.

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    Quote Originally Posted by Fire Haired View Post
    mtDNA H is estimated according to Eupedia and originated in the Near east over 35,000 years ago I have also heard estimates from 25,000-30,000ybp all saying it originated in the Near east.

    Behar's estimate for H is about 14,000 ybp and about 10,000 ybp for its subclades H1, H3, etc. H also experienced explosive growth in diversity around that time, which is clearly an indicator of a population that was expanding rapidly, consistent with an origin of many H subclades in farming or herding populations in the Near East or southwest Asia, which then expanded into Europe during the Neolithic. This is consistent with the ancient mtDNA which shows H expanding rapidly in Europe during the Neolithic. It is possible that H may have arrived in southern Europe during the Mesolithic, but I'd like to see full genome sequencing of the ancient sample to be certain and to determine a specific H subclade.

    The old theory that H was among the Paleolithic Europeans was based on a very naive analysis of current population distributions. Unfortunately there are many people who still accept this as true.

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    Quote Originally Posted by GailT View Post
    ...

    The old theory that H was among the Paleolithic Europeans was based on a very naive analysis of current population distributions. Unfortunately there are many people who still accept this as true.
    The old theory is most likely correct.
    As you can see from JeanM's compendium - "reported as H" http://www.ancestraljourneys.org/ancientdna.shtml and "unreliable" Red Lady.
    We have no doubt about precursors - 24kbp Paglicci-25 is +7,025 AluI

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    Quote Originally Posted by parasar View Post
    The old theory is most likely correct.
    As you can see from JeanM's compendium - "reported as H" http://www.ancestraljourneys.org/ancientdna.shtml and "unreliable" Red Lady.
    We have no doubt about precursors - 24kbp Paglicci-25 is +7,025 AluI
    These "reported as H" samples are highly suspect. For example, the "Red Lady" was sequenced by Sykes in 2000. We now have a large number of Mesolithic and Paleolithic full sequence mtDNA samples in haplogroup U, and none in H. I think you really have to do the full sequence to be certain you don't have a mosaic or large numbers of missed mutations. In the paper on ancient Etrucan mtDNA last year, they missed 16270 in a large number of their U5 samples, and those remains were much more recent.

    The lack of solid data for haplogroup H, the young age estimate, and the explosive growth during the Neolithic revolution all make a compelling case for a Neolithic origin of H. I'd be happy to be wrong about this, but we really need to see Mesolithic and Paleolithic full sequence H samples in Europe to support the old theory.

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    Quote Originally Posted by GailT View Post
    Behar's estimate for H is about 14,000 ybp and about 10,000 ybp for its subclades H1, H3, etc. H also experienced explosive growth in diversity around that time, which is clearly an indicator of a population that was expanding rapidly, consistent with an origin of many H subclades in farming or herding populations in the Near East or southwest Asia, which then expanded into Europe during the Neolithic.
    Well I would say that the Fu.et.al.2013 paper would seem more accurate in terms of dating, since they used ancient mitochondrial sequences.I don't know if you recall this Table:

    mtdna_ages.png

    The presence of mt-DNA H in Mesolithic Karelia, Guipuzcoa, would point otherwise. It seems to me that mt-DNA U4/U5/U8 clades are nearly fixed in the Central European plane, given that in Southern Europe we see the presence of HV(Plaggicci), R, and H in Magdalenian Cantabria along with U5 in Magdalenian Guipuzcoa, and U5 in Mesolithic Navarra and La Braņa.

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    Quote Originally Posted by jeanL View Post
    Well I would say that the Fu.et.al.2013 paper would seem more accurate in terms of dating, since they used ancient mitochondrial sequences.I don't know if you recall this Table
    The Fu et al. 2013 study only found ancient U sequences in Europe. They did not have any ancient H sequences to test age estimates for H. And it is not clear what data set they used for their H age estimate, so in the absence of that data, I think the Behar et al 2012 estimate is more reliable.

    Quote Originally Posted by jeanL View Post
    The presence of mt-DNA H in Mesolithic Karelia, Guipuzcoa, would point otherwise. It seems to me that mt-DNA U4/U5/U8 clades are nearly fixed in the Central European plane, given that in Southern Europe we see the presence of HV(Plaggicci), R, and H in Magdalenian Cantabria along with U5 in Magdalenian Guipuzcoa, and U5 in Mesolithic Navarra and La Braņa.
    None of these samples have been fully sequenced, so I remain skeptical until we see the full sequence. Haplogroup assignments based on 1 or 2 SNPs are highly uncertain for ancient mtDNA. I would be pleased to see all of these firmly identified as H, and it would be extremely helpful to identify a specific H subclade. So yes, I think you may be correct, but I'm waiting for the full sequence before I accept these as reliable.

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